Christopher D Wickens

Christopher D Wickens
Alion Science and Technology

About

609
Publications
279,529
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40,867
Citations

Publications

Publications (609)
Article
Full-text available
Previous research suggests people struggle to detect a series of movements that might imply hostile intentions of a vessel, yet this ability is crucial in many real world Naval scenarios. To investigate possible mechanisms for improving performance, participants engaged in a simple, simulated ship movement task. One of two hostile behaviors were pr...
Article
Objective: The aim was to evaluate the relevance of the critique offered by Jamieson and Skraaning (2019) regarding the applicability of the lumberjack effect of human–automation interaction to complex real-world settings. Background: The lumberjack effect, based upon a meta-analysis, identifies the consequences of a higher degree of automation—to...
Article
We sought to establish to what extent incorporating a dichotomized procedural variable (in this case, maritime 'rules of the road') and incentives into a decision aiding algorithm would change a previously found non-compliance bias when the algorithm contradicted the known procedure. We also sought to examine the relationship between trust in and d...
Article
Detecting hostile intentions from movements alone is important in many real world scenarios. The current paradigm investigated how visual history trails might aid in the detection of two hostile movement behaviors on a simple display. Participants controlled movement of an icon representing their own ship, while six other ships moved around them. A...
Article
The emergence of Human Factors as a discipline is often traced to pioneering efforts tackling military issues in World War II. Rapid technological advances raised fundamental questions around human performance. Approaches, solutions, and advances in the science soon spread outside of their original military contexts. Current and emerging technologi...
Article
Objective Three experiments sought to understand performance limitations in controlling a ship attempting to meet another moving ship that approached from various trajectories. The influence of uncertainty, resulting from occasional unpredictable delays in one’s own movement, was examined. Background Cognitive elements of rendezvous have been litt...
Article
Objective: This study aimed to reveal the causal reasons for maneuver preferences on the basis of the objective measures. Background: Although the effects of conflict geometry have been well documented in previous literature, empirical evidence on the influence of conflict geometry on the operator’s workload, maneuver choice, and success is still l...
Article
Objective: The ability of people to infer intentions from movement of other vessels was investigated. Across three levels of variability in movements in the path of computer-controlled ships, participants attempted to determine which entity was hostile. Background: Detection of hostile intentions through spatial movements of vessels is important...
Article
Understanding the variability of trends and other continuously distributed quantities is a vital ability underlying many safety critical decisions, such as how widely to search for a downed aircraft, or whether to prepare for evacuation in the face of an uncertain hurricane or hurricane track. We first review the sparse research on this topic which...
Article
Objective The aim was to evaluate the relevance of the critique offered by Jamieson and Skraaning (2019) regarding the applicability of the lumberjack effect of human–automation interaction to complex real-world settings. Background The lumberjack effect, based upon a meta-analysis, identifies the consequences of a higher degree of automation—to i...
Article
For one entity to initiate a meeting, interception, or rendezvous with another, such situations necessitate both accurate perception of the target’s trajectory and also planning of one’s own trajectory. To examine these cognitive processes and resulting performance trends, the current study presented participants with simplified simulated ship rend...
Article
The information purchase bias describes a tendency to opt for information that reduces uncertainty, even when the cost of information is associated with a substantial net reduction in expected value. The current experiment quantified the amount of information that could be purchased in terms of increased certainty of finding a target (a downed airc...
Article
Understanding uncertainty in spatial domains (such as hurricane forecasting) is both important and challenging, often leading to overconfidence and underestimation of variability. The underlying source of the difficulty is not well understood, as this complex domain requires perceptual, attentional, and memory related cognitive abilities. The prese...
Article
Efficiency of search often comes with experience. We explored search processes during a highly dynamic and complex task: rock climbing. In general, we found similarities between expert and non-expert climbers regarding their visual search and differences in their tactile search. Analyses determined that experts and non-experts did not differ in the...
Article
Understanding uncertainty in spatial domains (such as hurricane forecasting) is both important and challenging, often leading to overconfidence and underestimation of variability. The underlying source of the difficulty is not well understood, as this complex domain requires perceptual, attentional, and memory related cognitive abilities. The prese...
Article
The information purchase bias describes a tendency to opt for information that reduces uncertainty, even when the cost of information is associated with a substantial net reduction in expected value. The current experiment quantified the amount of information that could be purchased in terms of increased certainty of finding a target (a downed airc...
Article
Objective Experimentally investigate maneuver decision preferences in navigating ships to avoid a collision. How is safety (collision avoidance) balanced against efficiency (deviation from path and delay) and rules of the road under conditions of both trajectory certainty and uncertainty. Background Human decision error is a prominent factor in na...
Chapter
This chapter makes the distinction between the experience of aviation professionals, often quantified in terms of hours of flight time, or flight qualifications, and expertise, as revealed by high proficiency at aviation tasks. Very high proficiency defines the expert. Challenge results because of the difficulty in measuring such proficiency, parti...
Article
Objective: Explore the impact of prior information on spatial prediction and understanding of variability. Background: In uncertain spatial prediction tasks, such as hurricane forecasting or planning search and rescue operations, decision makers must consider the most likely case and the distribution of possible outcomes. Base performance on these...
Article
To assess whether there may be a common ability related to the understanding and calibration of instance variability and mean behavior, participants performed spatial prediction and numeric estimation tasks. In the first task, participants experienced variability in a set of spatial trajectories whose endpoints they predicted along with a central m...
Article
Understanding variability of uncertain systems is often vital for decision makers, yet is habitually disregarded in favor of developing superior capability to predict most likely outcomes. One potential path to improving appreciation of variability is simply to attend more carefully to it. The present study explores a trade-off in the ability to pr...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The aim of this article is to present a comprehensive review of eye-tracking measures and discuss different application areas of the method of eye tracking in the field of aviation. Background: Psychophysiological measures such as eye tracking in pilots are useful for detecting fatigue or high-workload conditions, for investigating motio...
Article
Thirty-two rock climbers, all self-identifying as capable of lead climbing (place protective gear in the rock, to mitigate the risks of falling), climbed an outdoor route while placing what they believed was the necessary amount of protection. Cameras recorded the percentage of time they spent climbing upward (productivity) relative to placing prot...
Article
Value is a component of the SEEV model of attention combined with measures of salience, effort, and expectancy to characterize areas of interest in a visual workspace. In the current project, an assessment of dynamic value was created by prompting rock climbers to assess their post-hoc priority for placing safety gear at various points during a cli...
Article
Objective: The goal of this study was to explore the ways in which visualizations influence the prediction of uncertain spatial trajectories (e.g., the unknown path of a downed aircraft or future path of a hurricane) and participant overconfidence in such prediction. Background: Previous research indicated that spatial predictions of uncertain t...
Article
In this article I describe the origins of the stages and levels of the automation concept and present the taxonomy, model, and theories underlying this concept. I then show how both simplifications and elaborations of the resulting tradeoff model of degree of automation can address some of Kaber’s concerns about its utility in design.
Conference Paper
Spatial predictions of uncertain trajectories are challenging, but are often associated with overconfidence. This study explored how a visualization influenced prediction of uncertain spatial trajectories (e.g., unknown path of a downed aircraft or future path of a hurricane). Mean and variance estimates were compared for participants provided with...
Article
This study investigated the effect of autonomous prioritization on attention in a high-workload environment. It explored the “priority mystery,” or neglect of priority in switching behavior, found in previous Strategic Task Overload Model (STOM) experiments (Wickens Gutzwiller & Santamaria, 2015; Raby & Wickens 1994). We hypothesized that participa...
Article
This study explored the process of adjusting from previously held anchors with visual displays offering uncertain information. In a spatial trajectory prediction task, participants were anchored on accurate or inaccurate information, or were not anchored, regarding the future behavior of an object (both its average behavior and the variance in beha...
Article
Full-text available
A model for task switching which focuses on the decision making of operators in overloaded multitask conditions is reviewed and new research presented. The STOM model is an ongoing effort and as such, work is now accumulating, which serves to validate the model as a useful predictive method, but also is uncovering uncertainties that require further...
Article
Automation is being developed and implemented in a variety of industries with the goals of improving overall system performance and reducing the probability and impact of human or operator error. However, as automation is introduced, it changes the role of the operator and creates new opportunities for different and unanticipated types of errors. I...
Book
Full-text available
Whether it is the car you drive or the app on your smartphone, technology has an increasingly powerful influence on you. When designed with people in mind, this influence can improve lives and productivity. This book provides a broad introduction on how to attend to the needs, capabilities, and preferences of people in the design process. We combin...
Conference Paper
I describe below the manner in which workload measurement can be used to validate models that predict workload. These models in turn can be employed to predict the decisions that are made, which select a course of action that is of lower effort or workload, but may also be of lower expected value (or higher expected cost). We then elaborate on four...
Article
Objective: This study examined the effectiveness of visual, auditory, tactile, and redundant auditory-visual information presentation in the context of a medium-fidelity ‘Next Generation Air Transportation System’ (NextGen) flight simulation. Background: Data overload, especially in the visual channel, and associated breakdowns in monitoring repres...
Article
To minimize the risk of operator distraction or overload, system designers must tailor the arrangement of display channels in a visual workspace to the operator’s attentional abilities. Toward this end, computational models that embody the theoretical principles of attention control can inform the designer’s choices and narrow the space of potentia...
Article
Objective: The objectives were to (a) implement theoretical perspectives regarding human-automation interaction (HAI) into model-based tools to assist designers in developing systems that support effective performance and (b) conduct validations to assess the ability of the models to predict operator performance. Background: Two key concepts in...
Article
Full-text available
Cyber security is a high-ranking national priority that is only likely to grow as we become more dependent on cyber systems. From a research perspective, currently available work often focuses solely on technological aspects of cyber, acknowledging the human in passing, if at all. In recent years, the Human Factors community has begun to address hu...
Article
Anchoring and adjustment is a prevalent heuristic, common in a range of settings and decisions. While it is well studied using values, there has been limited research on its function in visual-spatial domains. The present study explored the role of anchoring and adjustment with visual displays containing uncertainty information related to spatial p...
Article
Strategic task switching is demanded in many real-world situations where effective simultaneous performance of concurrent tasks is not possible. Building from a model of strategic task overload management, the current study explored the influence of task load on the relationship between an individual’s task switching capability and task engagement....
Article
Previous studies show people underestimate the amount of uncertainty in predictive states. This experiment tested an implication of such findings: that people will be less likely (than optimal) to acknowledge their uncertainty, and hence less likely to purchase information that reduces future uncertainty. In a trajectory prediction task, participan...
Article
Twenty-eight empirical studies provided data for four meta-analyses on visual detection and discrimination inflight-decktypical tasks, at varying degrees of eccentricity relative to a central point of interest. The data revealed a general trend for poorer performance at increasing eccentricity, and greater degradation when eye movements were preven...
Article
Full-text available
For nearly 75 years, the United States military has partnered with human factors researchers and practitioners to improve its effectiveness by designing better systems and contributing to a better understanding of human-system performance. Aviation, for example, has been one of several domains to reap numerous benefits from this partnership. Still,...
Article
Cognitive engineering and decision support are applied fields that build on cognitive theory and empirical data but ultimately seek to design and build interactive artifacts that improve human decision-making, performance, and use-experiences. However, the path from theory to operational transition has often been very difficult, often ending in fai...
Conference Paper
The present study examined how users adjusted their trust towards an automated decision aid. Results revealed that a valid recommendation of the decision aid increases whereas an invalid one reduces trust in automation. The magnitude of trust decrement is greater than that of trust increment. More importantly, this study showed that trust adjustmen...
Article
Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the human-automation interaction issues and the interacting factors in the context of conflict detection and resolution advisory (CRA) systems. Background: The issues of imperfect automation in air traffic control (ATC) have been well documented in previous studies, particularly in conflict-alertin...
Article
Full-text available
Extreme resistance to switching tasks can lead to cognitive tunneling. A four-attribute decision model of task management under load was recently built with an assumption of the resistance to switching tasks. Recent theory also suggests switch resistance declines with time on task, and this was tested in the current experiment. Participants managed...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The aim of this study was to understand factors that influence the prediction of uncertain spatial trajectories (e.g., the future path of a hurricane or ship) and the role of human overconfidence in such prediction. Background: Research has indicated that human prediction of uncertain trajectories is difficult and may well be subject...