Christopher J Whelan

Christopher J Whelan
Moffitt Cancer Center · Cancer Biology and Evolution Program

B.S., University of Wisconsin-Madison, Ph.D., Dartmouth College

About

147
Publications
59,638
Reads
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5,220
Citations
Additional affiliations
June 2008 - August 2016
University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
Position
  • Avian Ecologist
January 1991 - June 2022
University of Illinois at Chicago
Position
  • Visiting Research Associate Professor
January 1989 - July 1997
Morton Arboretum
Position
  • Emily Rodgers Davis Chair in Ecology
Education
August 1982 - July 1987
Dartmouth College
Field of study
  • Avian Ecology
August 1976 - May 1982
University of Wisconsin–Madison
Field of study
  • Wildlife Ecology

Publications

Publications (147)
Article
Full-text available
Tumors experience temporal and spatial fluctuations in oxygenation. Hypoxia inducible transcription factors (HIF-α) respond to low levels of oxygen and induce re-supply oxygen. HIF-α stabilization is typically facultative, induced by hypoxia and reduced by normoxia. In some cancers, HIF-α stabilization becomes constitutive under normoxia. We develo...
Article
Full-text available
Dormancy is an inactive period of an organism's life cycle that permits it to survive through phases of unfavorable conditions in highly variable environments. Dormancy is not binary. There is a continuum of dormancy phenotypes that represent some degree of reduced metabolic activity (hypometabolism), reduced feeding, and reduced reproduction or pr...
Article
Full-text available
Despite a century of intense investigation, cancer biology and treatment remain plagued by unanswered questions. Even basic questions regarding the fundamental forces driving the formation of cancer remain controversial. Recent approaches view cancer in the context of a complex web of interactions among cancer cells of the tumor, together with thei...
Article
Birds provide ecosystem services (pest control) in many agroecosystems and have neutral or negative ecological effects (disservices) in others. Large-scale, conventional row crop agriculture is extremely widespread globally, yet few studies of bird effects take place in these agroecosystems. We studied indirect effects of insectivorous birds on cor...
Article
Changes in resource allocation from parent to offspring can have effects on the dispersal, recruitment, and survival of progeny, with impacts sometimes extending across generations. In plants, environmental stressors not only impact the growth of mature individuals but can also alter the provisioning of resources to developing seeds, further extend...
Article
Full-text available
Electric powerline corridors are informal green spaces that encompass large areas of land and have the potential to support biodiversity in urban and suburban landscapes. However, the extent to which these corridors provide novel habitats compared to the surrounding landscape is unclear. Biodiversity in corridors is often compared to that of “natur...
Article
Full-text available
The evolutionary dynamics of tumor initiation remain undetermined, and the interplay between neoplastic cells and the immune system is hypothesized to be critical in transformation. Colorectal cancer (CRC) presents a unique opportunity to study the transition to malignancy as pre-cancers (adenomas) and early-stage cancers are frequently resected. H...
Article
1. Global climate change impacts species and ecosystems in potentially harmful ways. For migratory bird species, earlier spring warm-up could lead to a mis-match between nesting activities and food availability. CO 2 provides a useful proxy for temperature and an environmental indicator of climate change when temperature data are not available for...
Article
Natural habitats near agricultural systems can be sources of both ecosystem services and disservices on farms. Ecosystem disservices, those aspects of an ecosystem which have negative impacts on humans, may disproportionately affect conservation decisions made by farmers. Birds in particular can have complex effects on crops, ranging from positive...
Preprint
Full-text available
Degradation of coral reef habitats changes the abundance and community composition of fishes due in part to changes in the ecology of fear. The ecology of fear sees the predator-prey system as a dynamic game of behavioral responses to perceived risk with population and community level consequences. We measure spatial variation in predation risk as...
Article
Full-text available
Recurrent high grade glioma patients face a poor prognosis for which no curative treatment option currently exists. In contrast to prescribing high dose hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (HFSRT, ≥6 Gy × 5 in daily fractions) with debulking intent, we suggest a personalized treatment strategy to improve tumor control by delivering high dose...
Preprint
Full-text available
The evolutionary dynamics of tumor initiation remain undetermined, and the interplay between neoplastic cells and the immune system is hypothesized to be critical in transformation. Colorectal cancer (CRC) presents a unique opportunity to study the transition to malignancy as pre-cancers (adenomas) and early stage cancers are frequently detected an...
Article
Full-text available
Restoration can recover degraded ecosystems and ecosystem services. However, effects of restoration on soil nutrient accrual are difficult to predict, partly because prior land use affects rates of soil nutrient recovery. In tallgrass prairie restorations, land-use legacy effects have not yet been quantified. We investigated topsoil carbon and nitr...
Article
Across a wide range of disciplines, mounting evidence points to solutions for addressing the global biodiversity and climate crisis through sustainable land use development. Managing ecosystem services offers promising potential of combining environmental, economic, and social interests in this process. Achieving sustainability, however, requires c...
Article
Full-text available
In nature, many multicellular and unicellular organisms use constitutive defenses such as armor, spines, and noxious chemicals to keep predators at bay. These defenses render the prey difficult and/or dangerous to subdue and handle, which confers a strong deterrent for predators. The distinct benefit of this mode of defense is that prey can defend...
Article
Generalist insectivorous birds can provide ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes by consuming arthropod pests, or they can provide disservices when they consume beneficial arthropods. To examine bird impacts on arthropod communities, including pest control services, we need to know which arthropods birds commonly consume. Faecal metabarcodi...
Article
The majority of tallgrass prairie has been converted to agriculture over the past two centuries. Restoration projects have sought to increase the quality and size of prairie fragments, with the potential to increase grassland breeding bird habitat. American bison (Bison bison) are being reintroduced to prairie restoration sites and the immediate im...
Article
Approximately 50% of cancer patients eventually develop a syndrome of prolonged weight loss (cachexia), which may contribute to primary resistance to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI). This study utilised radiomics analysis of ¹⁸F-FDG-PET/CT images to predict risk of cachexia that can be subsequently associated with clinical outcomes among advance...
Preprint
Recurrent high grade glioma patients face a poor prognosis for which no curative treatment option currently exists. In contrast to prescribing high dose hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (HFSRT, ≥ 6 Gy x5 in daily fractions) with debulking intent, we suggest a personalized treatment strategy to improve tumor control by delivering intermitt...
Preprint
Full-text available
Tumors experience temporal and spatial fluctuations in oxygenation. Hypoxia inducible transcription factors (HIF-α) in tumor cells are stabilized in response to low levels of oxygen and induce angiogenesis to re-supply oxygen. HIF-α stabilization is typically facultative, induced by hypoxia and reduced by normoxia. In some cancers, however, HIF-α s...
Article
Full-text available
The surgical stress and inflammatory response and volatile anesthetic agents have been shown to promote tumor metastasis in animal and in-vitro studies. Regional neuraxial anesthesia protects against these effects by decreasing the surgical stress and inflammatory response and associated changes in immune function in animals. However, evidence of a...
Article
Full-text available
Uniquely in nature, living systems must acquire, store, and act upon information. The survival and replicative fate of each normal cell in a multicellular organism is determined solely by information obtained from its surrounding tissue. In contrast, cancer cells as single-cell eukaryotes live in a disrupted, heterogeneous environment with opportun...
Article
Full-text available
The "war on cancer" began over 40 years ago with the signing of the National Cancer Act of 1971. Currently, complete eradication has proven possible in early stage premetastatic disease with increasingly successful early detection and surgery protocols; however, late stage metastatic disease remains invariably fatal. One of the main causes of treat...
Article
The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment described 4 classes of services or functions that ecosystems and their component parts deliver to the benefit of humans: provisioning, regulating, supporting, and cultural services. Birds, including Neotropical birds, provide a diverse array of services in all 4 classes. We review the literature describing ecosys...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated the roles of vegetation structure, micro-topographic relief, and predator activity patterns (time of day) on the perception of predatory risk of arctic ground squirrels (Urocitellus parryii), an abundant pan-Arctic omnivore, in Arctic Circle tundra on the North Slope of Alaska, where tundra vegetation structure has been predicted to...
Article
Full-text available
A tension between perspectives that emphasize deterministic versus stochastic processes has sparked controversy in ecology since pre-Darwinian times. The most recent manifestation of the contrasting perspectives arose with Hubbell’s proposed “neutral theory”, which hypothesizes a paramount role for stochasticity in ecological community composition....
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we present an estimate of the predation impact of the global population of insectivorous birds based on 103 (for the most part) published studies of prey consumption (kg ha⁻¹ season⁻¹) of insectivorous birds in seven biome types. By extrapolation—taking into account the global land cover of the various biomes—an estimate of the annua...
Preprint
Full-text available
Macrocompetition -- higher taxa suppressing species richness and adaptive radiation of others -- exists as a potentially intriguing possibility. We investigate possible evidence for this phenomenon occurring between two convergent nectarivorous families, the hawk-moths (Sphingidae) and hummingbirds (Trochilidae) by searching for geographical partit...
Preprint
Full-text available
Adaptations can be thought of as evolutionary technologies that allow organisms to exploit their environment. Like human technologies, adaptations can be 'progressive', increasing in their ability to accomplish a task. Progressive adaptations which also fundamentally alter the rules of trade-offs are known as key adaptations. Key adaptations allow...
Article
Full-text available
Foraging ecology and food patch studies are commonly used to elucidate the environmental perceptions of wild, free-ranging animals. Their application to captive animals, however, especially those in zoos, is still in its infancy. To illustrate some specific applications of zoo foraging ecology, we provide a study that evaluated: (i) whether patch u...
Article
Full-text available
Applying principles of foraging ecology to zoo-housed animals can positively influence animal behavior, and assist with evaluating exhibit space and design. In this study, we implemented zoo foraging ecology by measuring giving-up densities (GUDs) in food patches to address several welfare-related questions with captive okapi (Okapia johnstoni). Ou...
Article
Full-text available
Free-roaming dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) are of public health and conservation concern because of their potential to transmit diseases, such as rabies, to both people and wildlife. Understanding domestic dog population dynamics and how they could potentially be impacted by interventions, such as rabies vaccination, is vital for such disease contr...
Data
Household questionnaire. Household questionnaire used to collect dog demography and ownership practices data. (PDF)
Article
The interaction of animals with their food can yield insights into habitat characteristics, such as perceived predation risk and relative quality. We deployed experimental foraging patches in wetlands used by migrating dabbling ducks (Anas spp.) in the central Illinois River Valley to estimate variation in seed removal and giving-up density (GUD; i...
Book
Birds are conspicuous, ubiquitous, and arguably the best studied group of vertebrates on the planet. Birds are also observed by millions of passionate birdwatchers worldwide. Birds engage in numerous and important ecosystem functions. Birds plant forests, devour pests, pollinate flowers, and scavenge carrion. Investigation of these ecosystem functi...
Chapter
Full-text available
Birds function within their ecosystems in ways that include many direct and indirect chains of trophic interaction. In some interaction chains, birds exert top-down effects in “trophic cascades.” These occur when a predatory species directly reduces its prey abundance and consequently indirectly releases suppression of species at lower trophic leve...
Article
Full-text available
A variety of nonprairie landscapes, including pastures, crop fields, and unmanaged seral ground, are being restored to native prairie on a yearly basis. Seldom is the seed bank associated with these nonprairie lands taken into account in the restoration process. We examine the seed bank potential of nonprairie lands and the relationship between abo...
Article
Full-text available
Plant secondary metabolites (PSMs), found virtually universally throughout the plant kingdom, function in myriad ways, including defense against enemies, attraction of pollinators, communication between plants, and protection against various abiotic stressors. Extensive research has examined how PSMs mediate interactions between plants and herbivor...
Article
Full-text available
Plant secondary metabolites (PSMs), found virtually universally throughout the plant kingdom, function in myriad ways, including defense against enemies, attraction of pollinators, communication between plants, and protection against various abiotic stressors. Extensive research has examined how PSMs mediate interactions between plants and herbivor...
Chapter
Full-text available
Ecosystem services are those aspects of the earth that benefit humans. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment of the United Nations identified four classes of ecosystem services: provisioning services such as food, water, timber, and fiber; regulating services that affect climate, floods, disease, wastes, and water quality; cultural services that prov...
Chapter
Full-text available
Birds are important components of the world’s many ecosystems, and they contribute cultural, provisioning, supporting, and regulating ecosystem services. The lives of birds and humans have been intertwined for many thousands of years. Birds inspire, entertain, feed, and clothe humans. Throughout the evolution of modern humans and the cultural devel...
Article
Full-text available
Birds are conspicuous in many habitats, occur worldwide, are ecologically diverse, and are better known than other vertebrate groups. Birds devour pests, pollinate flowers, disperse seeds, scavenge carrion, cycle nutrients, and modify the environment in ways that benefit other species. Investigation of these ecosystem functions directly as ecosyste...
Article
Full-text available
Capsule -- We investigated diet selection of residential, free-ranging House Sparrows when offered seeds of proso millet Panicum miliaceum (a representative agricultural grain) and 10 species of forbs and grasses native to Midwestern, U.S. prairies. House Sparrows preferred millet over seeds of each of the prairie forbs and grasses, and largely rej...
Article
Understanding distribution patterns and multitrophic interactions is critical for managing bat- and bird-mediated ecosystem services such as the suppression of pest and non-pest arthropods. Despite the ecological and economic importance of bats and birds in tropical forests, agroforestry systems, and agricultural systems mixed with natural forest,...
Article
Full-text available
Birds are conspicuous in many habitats, occur worldwide, are ecologically diverse, and are better known than other vertebrate groups. Birds devour pests, pollinate flowers, disperse seeds, scavenge carrion, cycle nutrients, and modify the environment in ways that benefit other species. Investigation of these ecosystem functions directly as ecosyste...
Article
Full-text available
As our world becomes increasingly urbanized, cities are often where we come into contact with the natural world—not just in parks and urban nature preserves, but in more familiar places like residential yards. We conducted bird surveys and social surveys in Chicago-area residential landscapes near forest preserves (primarily in middle- and high inc...
Article
As our world becomes increasingly urbanized, cities are often where we come into contact with the natural world—not just in parks and urban nature preserves, but in more familiar places like residential yards. We conducted bird surveys and social surveys in Chicago-area residential landscapes near forest preserves (primarily in middle- and high inc...
Article
Full-text available
Transportation corridors have both obvious and subtle environmental impacts. In the United States, surface transportation corridors consist primarily of road networks and railways. Many studies have examined ecological effects of roads on bird populations, but little is known about effects of rail corridors on birds. We conducted perhaps the first...
Article
Full-text available
Transportation corridors have both obvious and subtle environmental impacts. In the United States, surface transportation corridors consist primarily of road networks and railways. Many studies have examined ecological effects of roads on bird populations, but little is known about effects of rail corridors on birds. We conducted perhaps the first...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Arctic ground squirrels, the largest and most northern ground squirrel, are abundant and widespread throughout the tundra of the North Slope, Alaska. Their broad diet of seeds, flowers, herbage, bird’s eggs and meat speaks to the need to breed, feed, and fatten in a span of some 12-16 weeks that separate their 8-9 month bouts of hibernation. Their...
Article
Residential yards comprise a substantial portion of urban landscapes, and the collective effects of the management of many individual yards may ''scale up'' to affect urban biodiversity. We conducted bird surveys and social surveys in Chicago-area (Illinois, USA) residential neighborhoods to identify the relative importance of yard design and manag...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Inadvertently introduced into North America in the 1990s, the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis) has been spreading across the Great Lakes Region resulting in widespread ash tree (Fraxinus spp.) mortality. Native woodpeckers and other bark-foraging insectivores represent one of the few potential natural predators of EAB in the U....
Article
Inadvertently introduced into North America in the 1990s, the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis) has been spreading across the Great Lakes Region resulting in widespread ash tree (Fraxinus spp.) mortality. Native woodpeckers and other bark-foraging insectivores represent one of the few potential natural predators of EAB in the U....
Technical Report
Full-text available
We used complementary methods to assess potential impacts of the EJ&E railroad corridor on composition and reproductive ecology of the breeding bird communities in nine natural areas from 2009–2012. We used a paired habitat comparison design in which we assessed the breeding bird communities in belts of habitat within 50 m of the EJ&E right-of-way...
Data
Full-text available
We used complementary methods to assess potential impacts of the EJ&E railroad corridor on composition and reproductive ecology of the breeding bird communities in nine natural areas from 2009–2012. We used a paired habitat comparison design in which we assessed the breeding bird communities in belts of habitat within 50 m of the EJ&E right-of-way...
Technical Report
Full-text available
We used complementary methods to assess potential impacts of the EJ&E railroad corridor on composition and reproductive ecology of the breeding bird communities in nine natural areas from 2009–2012. We used a paired habitat comparison design in which we assessed the breeding bird communities in belts of habitat within 50 m of the EJ&E right-of-way...
Conference Paper
As part of a larger effort to examine potential ecological and environmental impacts of rail traffic along the Elgin, Joliet, and Eastern Railway (EJ&E), 198 miles of class II tracks that operate in the suburbs of Chicago, we conducted experimental investigations of mammalian and avian species that may be important predators on songbirds attempting...
Conference Paper
Birds function within their ecosystems in myriad ways that include many direct and indirect chains of interaction. In some interaction chains, birds exert top-down trophic effects in what have become known as trophic cascades. These occur when a predatory species directly reduces its prey abundance and consequently indirectly releases suppression o...