Christopher Simon Wareham

Christopher Simon Wareham
Utrecht University | UU · Ethics Institute

PhD

About

28
Publications
3,659
Reads
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135
Citations
Additional affiliations
July 2013 - December 2014
University of Johannesburg
Position
  • PostDoc Position
March 2009 - June 2013
University of Milan
Position
  • PhD Student

Publications

Publications (28)
Article
Full-text available
Under what circumstances if ever ought we to grant that Artificial Intelligences (AI) are persons? The question of whether AI could have the high degree of moral status that is attributed to human persons has received little attention. What little work there is employs western conceptions of personhood, while non-western approaches are neglected. I...
Article
Drawing on Ezekiel Emanuel’s controversial piece ‘Why I hope to die at 75,’ I distinguish two types of concern in ethical debates about extending the human lifespan. The first focusses on the value of living longer from prudential and social perspectives. The second type of concern, which has received less attention, focusses on the value of aiming...
Article
Although many bioethicists have given attention to the special health issues of Africa and to the ethics of research on the continent, only a handful have considered these issues through the lens of African moral thought. The question has been for the most part neglected as to what a distinctively African moral perspective would be for the analysis...
Article
Purpose of review: The purpose of this review is to present and analyse recent literature on the patterns, trends, and developments of ethical considerations concerning xenotransplantation by appraising normative aspects within a coherent framework. Recent findings: Developments within xenotransplantation may soon allow for pig-to-human xenotran...
Article
Full-text available
While there is a shortage of healthcare workers in virtually all countries, there currently exists a pronounced inequality in the distribution of healthcare workers, with a high concentration of healthcare workers in high income countries (HIC) and low concentrations in low‐ and middle‐ income countries (LMIC). This inequality in the distribution o...
Article
Full-text available
Virtue ethics, an ethical theory that focuses on concepts of how to live a good life and the characteristic traits or virtues of individuals, has enjoyed increasing popularity and considerable re-emergence in ethical assessment in various healthcare disciplines. This popularity is, in part, attributable to its contrasting approach to the more forma...
Article
The development of gene-editing technologies, such as the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and associated Cas9 endonuclease (CRISPR/Cas9) system, coincides with a rapidly expanding knowledge of the role of genes in the human ageing process. This raises the prospect that, in addition to the treatment of genetic diseases and...
Article
Full-text available
Interest in animal-to-human transplantation has significantly increased owing to the limits placed on successful human-to-human organ transplantation by chronic scarcities of donated human organs, and transplant rejection. Extracting and transplanting organs from pigs is a promising solution to the current, increasing, global crisis of human organ...
Article
This article evaluates the moral status of hominins, and obligations we may have towards them. In exploring these ethical considerations, I consider one of the most recent hominin finds: the ‘graveyard’ of Homo naledi in the Dinaledi caves at the Cradle of Humankind in South Africa. I argue that findings about H. naledi establish a pro tanto duty n...
Article
Applied ethics is home to numerous productive subfields such as procreative ethics, intergenerational ethics and environmental ethics. By contrast, there is far less ethical work on ageing, and there is no boundary work that attempts to set the scope for ‘ageing ethics’ or the ‘ethics of ageing’. Yet ageing is a fundamental aspect of life; arguably...
Article
Full-text available
It has become increasingly common to point out that African morality is under-represented in ethical theorizing. However, it is less common to find arguments that this under-representation is unjustified. This latter claim tends to be simply assumed. In this paper I draw together arguments for this claim. In doing so, I make the case that the relat...
Article
Full-text available
Patients who pose a risk of serious accidents present a difficult ethical problem for medical practitioners. The duty to maintain confidentiality is an ancient and weighty obligation and has many beneficial consequences for patients and society generally. Similarly, the duty of care towards a patient militates against disclosing details that could...
Article
Full-text available
African ethical theories tend to hold that moral agents ought to be partial, in the sense that they should favour members of their family or close community. This is considered an advantage over the impartiality of many Western moral theories, which are regarded as having counterintuitive implications, such as the idea that it is unethical to save...
Article
One of the strongest objections to the development and use of substantially life-extending interventions is that they would exacerbate existing unjust disparities of healthy lifespans between rich and poor members of society. In both popular opinion and ethical theory, this consequence is sometimes thought to justify a ban on life-prolonging techno...
Chapter
Transhumanists advocate humankind’s transcendence of biological barriers to well-being. To achieve this they propose extensive development and use of enhancement technologies to improve the flawed human condition. A central goal of transhumanism, which I will refer to as the ‘transhumanist prospect’, is radical enhancement of human lifespans and co...
Article
Full-text available
Synthetic biology is a cutting-edge area of research that holds the promise of unprecedented health benefits. However, in tandem with these large prospective benefits, synthetic biology projects entail a risk of catastrophic consequences whose severity may exceed that of most ordinary human undertakings. This is due to the peculiar nature of synthe...
Article
Biological studies have demonstrated that it is possible to slow the ageing process and extend lifespan in a wide variety of organisms, perhaps including humans. Making use of the findings of these studies, this article examines two problems concerning the effect of life extension on population size and welfare. The first-the problem of overpopulat...
Article
Full-text available
In South Africa and abroad the elderly are systematically discriminated against at all levels of healthcare allocation decision-making. Such discrimination is perhaps surprising in light of the National Health Act and the Older Persons Act, which explicitly recognise the elderly as a vulnerable group whose equal rights require special protection. H...
Thesis
Full-text available
A significant reduction in calorie intake, known as calorie restriction (CR), has been shown to increase lifespan in a wide variety of animal subjects. If these results translated to humans, CR could substantially increase human lifespans by decelerating ageing. This possibility has led to an effort to develop calorie restriction mimetic drugs (CRM...
Chapter
Artificial agents such as robots are performing increasingly significant ethical roles in society. As a result, there is a growing literature regarding their moral status with many suggesting it is justified to regard manufactured entities as having intrinsic moral worth. However, the question of whether artificial agents could have the high degree...
Article
Objections to life extension often focus on its effects for individual well-being. Prominent amongst these concerns is the possibility that life extending technologies will extend lifespan without preventing the ageing of the mind. Writers on the subject express the fear that life extending drugs will keep us physically youthful whilst our minds de...
Article
Caloric restriction mimetics (CRMs) are emerging biotechnologies that promise to substantially enhance human lifespan. CRMs like resveratrol, metformin and rapamycin have been extensively tested in animals and have undergone clinical trials in humans, with positive indications for extended lifespan. This raises important questions for individuals a...
Article
Artificial agents such as robots are performing increasingly significant ethical roles in society. As a result, there is a growing literature regarding their moral status with many suggesting it is justified to regard manufactured entities as having intrinsic moral worth. However, the question of whether artificial agents could have the high degree...
Article
Epicurus argued that death can be neither good nor bad because it involves neither pleasure nor pain. This paper focuses on the deprivation account as a response to this Hedonist Argument. Proponents of the deprivation account hold that Epicurus's argument fails even if death involves no painful or plea-surable experiences and even if the hedonist...
Thesis
Full-text available
I define and defend a non-democratic authority with the power to annul the decisions of democratic branches of government when such decisions infringe upon citizens’ basic rights and liberties. I refer to this non-democratic authority as Liberal Aristocracy. The argument for Liberal Aristocracy has two parts: the first part demonstrates that Libera...

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