Christopher Timmermann

Christopher Timmermann
Imperial College London | Imperial · Division of Brain Sciences

PhD

About

36
Publications
30,518
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721
Citations
Citations since 2016
33 Research Items
720 Citations
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Introduction
Christopher Timmermann currently works at the Psychedelic Research Group in Imperial College London. He is currently leading a study involving the effects of DMT in the human brain and experience.

Publications

Publications (36)
Article
Full-text available
Background Psilocybin is a serotonin type 2A (5-HT 2A ) receptor agonist and naturally occurring psychedelic. 5-HT 2A receptor density is known to be associated with body mass index (BMI), however, the impact of this on psilocybin therapy has not been explored. While body weight-adjusted dosing is widely used, this imposes a practical and financial...
Article
N,N‐dimethyltryptamine (DMT) is a psychedelic compound that is believed to have potential as a therapeutic option in several psychiatric disorders. The number of clinical investigations with DMT is increasing. However, very little is known about the pharmacokinetic properties of DMT as well as any relationship between its exposure and effects. This...
Article
Full-text available
Rationale A general feeling of disconnection has been associated with mental and emotional suffering. Improvements to a sense of connectedness to self, others and the wider world have been reported by participants in clinical trials of psychedelic therapy. Such accounts have led us to a definition of the psychological construct of ‘connectedness’ a...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the phenomenology and content of the inhaled N, N, dimethyltryptamine (N, N-DMT) experience is critical to facilitate and support ongoing research and therapeutic models targeting mental health conditions and central nervous system pathology. A qualitative analysis was conducted of all N, N-DMT experiences posted to the r/DMT Reddit c...
Preprint
Aim: N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) is a psychedelic compound under development for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). This study evaluated the in vitro metabolism and clinical pharmacokinetics (PK) of DMT fumarate (SPL026) in healthy subjects. Methods: Results are from the Phase I component of an ongoing Phase I/IIa randomised, double...
Article
Full-text available
Psychedelic drugs show promise as safe and effective treatments for neuropsychiatric disorders, yet their mechanisms of action are not fully understood. A fundamental hypothesis is that psychedelics work by dose-dependently changing the functional hierarchy of brain dynamics, but it is unclear whether different psychedelics act similarly. Here, we...
Article
Full-text available
Psilocybin therapy shows antidepressant potential, but its therapeutic actions are not well understood. We assessed the subacute impact of psilocybin on brain function in two clinical trials of depression. The first was an open-label trial of orally administered psilocybin (10 mg and 25 mg, 7 d apart) in patients with treatment-resistant depression...
Article
A highly sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and its metabolites indole-3-acetic acid and DMT N-oxide in human plasma has been developed and validated. Chromatography was performed using a diphenyl column with gradient elution (0.1% formic acid in methanol/water). The mass spectrometer was operated in mu...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction As their name suggests, ‘psychedelic’ (mind-revealing) compounds are thought to catalyse processes of psychological insight; however, few satisfactory scales exist to sample this. This study sought to develop a new scale to measure psychological insight after a psychedelic experience: the Psychological Insight Scale (PIS). Methods The...
Article
Full-text available
Can the use of psychedelic drugs induce lasting changes in metaphysical beliefs? While it is popularly believed that they can, this question has never been formally tested. Here we exploited a large sample derived from prospective online surveying to determine whether and how beliefs concerning the nature of reality, consciousness, and free-will, c...
Article
Full-text available
Many people who have had a near-death experience (NDE) describe, as part of it, a disturbed sense of having a “distinct self”. However, no empirical studies have been conducted to explore the frequency or intensity of these effects. We surveyed 100 NDE experiencers (Near-Death-Experience Content [NDE-C] scale total score ≥27/80). Eighty participant...
Preprint
Are psychedelics able to induce lasting changes in metaphysical beliefs? While it is popularly believed that they can, this has never been systematically tested. Here we exploited a large sample derived from prospective online surveying to determine whether and how beliefs concerning the nature of reality, consciousness, and free-will, change after...
Article
Full-text available
Healthful behaviours such as maintaining a balanced diet, being physically active and refraining from smoking have major impacts on the risk of developing cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and other serious conditions. The burden of the so-called ‘lifestyle diseases’—in personal suffering, premature mortality and public health costs—is cons...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Mescaline is a naturally occurring psychoactive phenethylamine found in several cacti and historically used ceremonially by Indigenous and Latin American populations. Broader recognition of its possible therapeutic value in Western science began in the 1950s; however, knowledge of the safety profile of mescaline and the extent of its u...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Recent years have seen a resurgence of research on the potential of psychedelic substances to treat addictive and mood disorders. Historically and contemporarily, psychedelic studies have emphasized the importance of contextual elements ('set and setting') in modulating acute drug effects, and ultimately, influencing long-term outcomes....
Preprint
Healthful behaviors such as maintaining a balanced diet, being physically active, and refraining from smoking have major impacts on the risk of developing cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and other serious conditions. The burden of the so-called “lifestyle diseases” - in personal suffering, premature mortality, and public health costs - i...
Article
Full-text available
Background: N,N-dimethyltryptamine is a short-acting psychedelic tryptamine found naturally in many plants and animals. Few studies to date have addressed the neural and psychological effects of N,N-dimethyltryptamine alone, either administered intravenously or inhaled in freebase form, and none have been conducted in natural settings. Aims: Our...
Article
Full-text available
Psychedelic microdosing describes the ingestion of near-threshold perceptible doses of classic psychedelic substances. Anecdotal reports and observational studies suggest that microdosing may promote positive mood and well-being, but recent placebo-controlled studies failed to find compelling evidence for this. The present study collected web-based...
Article
Full-text available
A striking feature of psychedelics is their ability to increase attribution of truth and meaningfulness to specific contents and ideas experienced, which may persist long after psychedelic effects have subsided. We propose that processes underlying conferral of meaning and truth in psychedelic experiences may act as a double-edged sword: while thes...
Article
Full-text available
The regulatory role of the serotonergic system on conscious perception can be investigated perturbatorily with psychedelic drugs such as N,N-Dimethyltryptamine. There is increasing evidence that the serotonergic system gates prior (endogenous) and sensory (exogenous) information in the construction of a conscious experience. Using two generative de...
Article
Full-text available
Therapeutic psychedelic administration and contact with nature have been associated with the same psychological mechanisms: decreased rumination and negative affect, enhanced psychological connectedness and mindfulness-related capacities, and heightened states of awe and transcendent experiences, all processes linked to improvements in mental healt...
Preprint
Full-text available
Recent findings have shown that psychedelics reliably enhance brain entropy (understood as neural signal diversity), and this effect has been associated with both acute and long-term psychological outcomes such as personality changes. These findings are particularly intriguing given that a decrease of brain entropy is a robust indicator of loss of...
Article
Full-text available
Psychedelic drugs are potent modulators of conscious states and therefore powerful tools for investigating their neurobiology. N,N, Dimethyltryptamine (DMT) can rapidly induce an extremely immersive state of consciousness characterized by vivid and elaborate visual imagery. Here, we investigated the electrophysiological correlates of the DMT induce...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background N,N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT) is a short acting psychedelic tryptamine found naturally in many plants and animals. Few studies to date addressed the neural and psychological effects of DMT alone, either administered intravenously or inhaled in freebase form, and none conducted in natural settings. Aims Our primary aim was to study the ac...
Preprint
Full-text available
Psychedelic drugs are potent modulators of conscious states and therefore powerful tools for investigating their neurobiology. N,N, Dimethyltryptamine (DMT) is a particularly interesting serotonergic psychedelic that can rapidly induce an extremely immersive state of consciousness characterized by vivid and elaborate visual imagery. In the present...
Article
Full-text available
Studying transitions in and out of the altered state of consciousness caused by intravenous (IV) N,N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT - a fast-acting tryptamine psychedelic) offers a safe and powerful means of advancing knowledge on the neurobiology of conscious states. Here we sought to investigate the effects of IV DMT on the power spectrum and signal div...
Preprint
Full-text available
Studying transitions in and out of the altered state of consciousness caused by intravenous (IV) N,N- Dimethyltryptamine (DMT - a fast-acting tryptamine psychedelic) offers a safe and powerful means of advancing knowledge on the neurobiology of conscious states. Here we sought to investigate the effects of IV DMT on the power spectrum and signal di...
Article
Full-text available
Responses to psychedelics are notoriously difficult to predict, yet significant work is currently underway to assess their therapeutic potential and the level of interest in psychedelics among the general public appears to be increasing. We aimed to collect prospective data in order to improve our ability to predict acute- and longer-term responses...
Article
Full-text available
Near-death experiences (NDEs) are complex subjective experiences, which have been previously associated with the psychedelic experience and more specifically with the experience induced by the potent serotonergic, N,N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT). Potential similarities between both subjective states have been noted previously, including the subjective...
Article
Under the predictive coding framework, perceptual learning and inference are dependent on the interaction between top-down predictions and bottom-up sensory signals both between and within regions in a network. However, how such feedback and feedforward connections are modulated in the state induced by lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is poorly und...
Article
Full-text available
The medial pFC (mPFC) and ACC have been consistently implicated in learning predictions of future outcomes and signaling prediction errors (i.e., unexpected deviations from such predictions). A computational model of ACC/mPFC posits that these prediction errors should be modulated by outcomes occurring at unexpected times, even if the outcomes them...
Poster
Full-text available
In the literature, the importance of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and its interactions with the dopaminergic system in learning and predicting events is clearly established. Mediofrontal event-related potential (ERP) components originating from mPFC, such as feedback-related negativity (fERN), have been found to code for Feedback Prediction Erro...
Article
Full-text available
The main scope of this review is to expose the main advances regarding recent research of psychedelic substances in the neurociences and their potential psychotherapeutic applications. Psilocybin, a 5-HT2A receptor agonist has been associated with reduced activity in the Default-Mode Network (commonly activated during introspection and self-reflect...
Article
Full-text available
The main scope of this review is to expose the main advances regarding recent research of psychedelic substances in the neurociences and their potential psychotherapeutic applications. Psilocybin, a 5-HT2A receptor agonist has been associated with reduced activity in the Default- Mode Network (commonly activated during introspection and self-reflec...

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Projects (2)
Project
We argue that the Bayesian predictive processing account of brain function is a useful framework for developing an integrated, multi-level neuroscience of psychedelic drugs, spanning receptor pharmacology, neuroanatomy, computation, cognition, and phenomenology. The paper extends Bayesian interpretations of drug models of clinical psychosis (delusions and hallucinations) to psychedelic neuroscience. Paradigm perceptual and cognitive effects of serotonergic psychedelics (LSD, psilocybin, DMT), dissociative anesthetics (ketamine, PCP, nitrous oxide), and other drugs (salvinorin A, THC) are interpreted within the predictive processing framework. Future research and methodological issues inspired by the framework are considered. We discuss epistemic, recreational, phenomenological, entheogenic, clinical, and psychotherapeutic implications of the Bayesian framework. (Please see outline and references bellow!)