Christopher J. Sullivan

Christopher J. Sullivan
University of Cincinnati | UC · School of Criminal Justice

Doctor of Philosophy

About

108
Publications
19,732
Reads
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2,662
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2009 - present
University of Cincinnati
Position
  • Associate Professor and Graduate Program Director
September 2005 - May 2009
University of South Florida
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)

Publications

Publications (108)
Article
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Objectives Given the challenges of conducting experimental studies in criminology and criminal justice, propensity score matching (PSM) represents one of the most commonly used techniques for evaluating the efficacy of treatment conditions on future behavior. Nevertheless, current iterations of PSM fail to adjust for the effects of longitudinal clu...
Article
This paper describes the process and methods of integrating human trafficking data across agency record sources. This study focuses on the process of collecting and integrating comprehensive human trafficking data for research purposes. Using a case study framework for the state of Ohio, we first explore the variation in human trafficking definitio...
Article
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Correction To: Journal of Quantitative Criminology (2019) 35:631–662 10.1007/s10940-018-9385-x.
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The association between psychopathic personality traits (PPTs) and offending behavior has been studied extensively. Self-control also enjoys strong empirical support in its association with antisocial behavior. Further, research has shown that those with higher PPTs and those with lower self-control are more likely to be antisocial and are more lik...
Article
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Objective Criminologists have long questioned how fragile our statistical inferences are to unobserved bias when testing criminological theories. This study demonstrates that sensitivity analyses offer a statistical approach to help assess such concerns with two empirical examples—delinquent peer influence and school commitment. Methods Data from t...
Article
Researchers have recently begun to examine motivational factors as moderators of the relationship between self-control and offending behavior. The current study extends prior work by investigating whether three aspects of future orientation (aspirations, expectations, and the use of future-oriented cognitive and behavioral strategies) play such a r...
Article
Objectives. To develop statewide estimates of known victims and individuals at risk of human trafficking in Ohio.Methods. We collected information from 12 state and local sources including child welfare, legal services, and law enforcement data. We collected the data from agency records dating 2013 to 2018. However, the majority of data were from c...
Technical Report
The research team interviewed juvenile justice personnel at various agencies across three states in various stages of the implementation process. In-person interviews (N = 217) were conducted with personnel from 22 juvenile justice agencies, in order to determine how the full suite of OYAS tools was being implemented. Those interviewed represented...
Article
While a significant amount of literature has emphasized the identification and explanation of disproportionate minority contact (DMC) in the juvenile justice system, less research has examined racial disparities in postdisposition outcomes. This study seeks to address this gap through its examination of the experiences of youths in custody. Specifi...
Chapter
This chapter details some important literature related to peers, delinquency, and development, offering a sense of how those parallel findings should be viewed in relation to one another when considering offending behavior. It next considers the theoretical perspectives that have incorporated peer influences in their core tenets. The chapter assess...
Article
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PurposeTo investigate how missing data (Missing Completely at Random [MCAR] vs. Missing Not at Random [MNAR]) on risk factors can impact trajectory solutions (i.e., latent class probabilities) and coefficient estimates capturing the relationship between covariates and trajectory group solutions using a semiparametric group-based trajectory modeling...
Article
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Recent deterrence literature has found that the degree to which sanction threats are perceived to influence subsequent offending differs within individuals and between individuals over time. This study examines whether three psychosocial aspects (temperance, perspective, responsibility) relevant to the maturity of judgment predict within-individual...
Article
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Objectives To analyze short-term changes in peer affiliations, offending behavior and routine activities in order to evaluate three different processes: peer selection, peer socialization and situational peer influences. Methods The short-term longitudinal TEENS study was conducted among a cohort of students from one mid-sized high school in Kentuc...
Chapter
The past few decades have seen considerable advances in building an evidence base for the effectiveness and cost-benefit of early intervention aimed at crime prevention. While work in building an evidence base for early crime prevention continues, there is a parallel movement toward understanding how to best translate this evidence to the field. Th...
Article
Research Summary Although the amount of research evidence on the effectiveness of developmental crime prevention has grown considerably in recent decades, the translation of this scientific knowledge into policy and practice has lagged behind. In this article, we consider the challenges as well as the opportunities associated with scaling up eviden...
Article
After decades of treatment as a fairly distinct topic, recent research on victimization has begun to draw on theoretical approaches previously directed at understanding criminal behavior. The current study expands this research by studying victimization and its relationship to key developmental influences with data from 3,976 adolescents. We first...
Article
Since its introduction in the 1970s, the concept of the “criminal career” has had a substantial impact on the field of criminology. This special issue took a comprehensive look at the idea of criminal careers and the research that has emerged from it. In particular, it started with the origins and intellectual history of the 1986 “Criminal Careers...
Article
It is essential to learn as much as possible from justice interventions—even those that do not appear to be successful. Data came from a sample of youths participating in drug courts in nine sites across the United States and a comparison group of probationers (N = 1,372). Measures were drawn from case records. Path models with direct and indirect...
Article
Research on the targeted enforcement of weapons and drug offenses suggests that policies and street-level decisions around those offenses may play a role in disproportionate minority involvement with the justice system. Little research has directly examined the relative influence of these types of offenses on juvenile justice decisions. The analyse...
Article
Few studies have explored the longitudinal relationship between commercial sexual exploitation (CSE) and the use of specific types of substances by male youth. To gain a more comprehensive understanding of the links between CSE and substance use in male youth, the current study explored this connection using longitudinal data collected from a sampl...
Article
Purpose Age of onset is one of the strongest predictors of long-term, continuous offending, with the prognosis worsening with an earlier start. In and of itself, onset age is just a marker and not a mechanism affecting behavioral trajectories. In this study, we examine the direct and mediated relationship between age of onset and other individual a...
Article
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This study analyzes the extent to which there are similar patterns of violent offending and victimization in a panel of adolescents. Three explanatory perspectives are assessed: population heterogeneity, state dependence, and a mixed model. Data are drawn from a four-wave panel study of 3,976 adolescents. The main study measures comprise self-repor...
Article
Using latent class analysis (LCA), this study identified a dyadic taxonomy of delinquent youth categorized by varying types of maternal-youth reporting discrepancies (i.e., youth < maternal, youth > maternal) within a sample of 764 14-year-old high-risk youth. Four distinctive subgroups of youth were identified, two of which reported more than a mi...
Article
The increased use of biosocial perspectives in criminological research has expanded the scope of factors considered in understanding the etiology of adolescent antisocial behavior. At the same time, its practical utility for preventive and remedial intervention has not been examined to the same degree. Using a large, nationally representative sampl...
Article
Using latent class analysis (LCA), this study identified a dyadic taxonomy of delinquent youth categorized by varying types of maternal-youth reporting discrepancies (i.e., youth < maternal, youth > maternal) within a sample of 764 14-year-old high-risk youth. Four distinctive subgroups of youth were identified, two of which reported more than a mi...
Article
The effectiveness of juvenile drug courts is mixed, and several factors could account for these findings. The present study examines whether and why youth with co-occurring mental health problems may have worse outcomes in juvenile drug court than youth who only have issues with substance use. In a sample of youth in juvenile drug court, 328 youth...
Article
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This study reports findings from a study of nine juvenile drug courts (JDCs) from across the US. A quasi-experimental design, with one-to-one matching on possible confounders and sociodemographics, was used for the outcome assessment (n = 1372). Baseline and outcome data were drawn from justice system records. Although there is variation across sit...
Article
Objective: This work further examines the functional form of the self-control–delinquency relationship as an extension of recent work by Mears et al. (J Quant Criminol, 2013). Given the importance of the authors’ conclusions regarding the nonlinear relationship between these two variables and the recognition that there are some potential limitation...
Article
When Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency was first published, criminology was in the midst of an important research stream on the measurement of offending. This never solidified into a strong subdiscipline akin to psychometrics, however. After briefly discussing the goals of measurement and how they correspond to the explanation of crimina...
Article
This study examines the alternative ways that key personality traits-Agreeableness and Conscientiousness-work in conjunction with measures of situational opportunity in affecting offending and victimization simultaneously. More specifically, we explore (a) the extent to which the effects of Agreeableness and Conscientiousness on offending and victi...
Article
This article focuses on the degree to which friends' influence on substance use is conditioned by the consistency between their behavior and that of schoolmates (individuals enrolled in the same school, but not identified as friends), contributing to the literature on the complexity of interactive social influences during adolescence. Specifically,...
Article
Prior research has identified a vast number of correlates for delinquent behavior during adolescence, yet a considerable number of errors in prediction remain. These errors suggest that behavioral development among a portion of youths is not well understood, with some exhibiting resilience and others a heightened vulnerability to risks. Examining c...
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Gang and non-gang youth are often considered distinct for the purposes of prevention and intervention; yet, research shows there are areas of overlap in their risk profiles. This study examines areas of overlap and differences using a statewide representative sample of high school youth from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Gang membership is treate...
Article
This study attempts to develop further insight into the initiation and continuance of antisocial behavior during adolescence using a "launch" perspective in conjunction with several risk/protective factor measures from prior research on substance use and delinquency. Data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) were a...
Article
Data collected as part of the Projects on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) were used to examine (1) the underlying structure of adolescent problem behavior, (2) continuity and change in patterns of problem behaviors across mid to late adolescence and (3) the risk and protective factors related to observed patterns of behavior. The...
Chapter
Recently, a number of scholars have questioned the status of criminological theory, and among other critiques, have lamented shortcomings in its connection to empirical data (Weisburd and Piquero 2008). In hopes of overcoming these challenges, some have presented alternate routes for theoretical development. For example, Wikström (2008) describes t...
Article
It was not so long ago that scholarly writings pointed to the vast chasm that existed between criminal justice and public health approaches to understanding and controlling interpersonal violence. Other scholarship of the day examined how criminal justice and criminology could benefit from adopting elements of the public health approach. For sure,...
Article
This article considers the origins of the juvenile court and the degree to which developmental life-course (DLC) criminology might inform aspects of juvenile justice policy and practice. We discuss the foundations of the juvenile court in developmental science and also consider insights on delinquency from similar contemporary traditions. From ther...
Article
Victim-offenders are generally considered a distinct group with one or more shared characteristics; however, some have suggested possible victim-offender subgroups with varied victimization-offending patterns. The potential for victim- offender subgroups was assessed within a nationally representative sample of 1,000 youth using latent class analys...
Article
The Bail Reform Act of 1984 changed the law dictating release and detention decisions in federal court. Since its passage, few studies have examined judicial decision-making in this context. Legal research enables us to account for the structure and interpretation of federal detention laws and to analyze previously neglected measures of legal facto...
Article
There are a lot of criminological theories that state that criminal behavior is more or less likely dependent upon peers and the value placed on shared relationships. This article studies the nature and impact of programs designed to resist forming attachments to undesirable peers and programs designed to create attachments to desirable prosocial m...
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The overall goal of this study was to acquire a greater understanding of the development of adolescent antisocial behavior using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). Longitudinal cohort data from PHDCN were analyzed to assess patterns of substance use and delinquency across three waves for three age cohorts a...
Code
The overall goal of this study was to acquire a greater understanding of the development of adolescent antisocial behavior using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). Longitudinal cohort data from PHDCN were analyzed to assess patterns of substance use and delinquency across three waves for three age cohorts a...
Article
The Social Development Model (SDM) is a life course theory that integrates several extant criminological theories to specify the interactive social processes that lead to prosocial and antisocial behavior. Relatively little research has attempted to cross-validate this and other developmental theories of delinquency. The current study assesses the...
Article
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This study examined sociodemographic variation in the interrelationships between risky sexual practices, substance use, and arrest history. The sample consisted of 948 newly arrested juvenile offenders processed at a centralized intake facility in 2006. A series of confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling techniques were used t...
Article
This is the eleventh in a series of articles on archival collections of interest to mass communication historians. Readers of Journalism History are invited to suggest collections that they would like to see appear in future articles, and the editors would welcome volunteers to write such articles.
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Research consistently demonstrates that offending versatility declines over the life course, yet the underlying meaning of this empirical observation remains unclear. Empirical work has connected shifting routines and social networks with intra-individual changes in offending versatility, which are also primary mechanisms whereby turning points fac...
Article
This article asserts that the deviant case method offers a potential avenue for enhancing theory directed at explaining crime by using more available information to better connect the process of analyzing cases with that of explanatory refinement and elaboration. This approach has facilitated theoretical development in other social sciences and has...
Article
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Recent research suggests that imprisonment may increase subsequent levels of offending, but it is not clear why this is the case. Drawing on general strain theory (GST), this study examines whether exposure to the strains associated with imprisonment affects recidivism. These strains include direct victimization, the perception of a threatening pri...
Article
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In recent decades, states and communities have begun to utilize diversion programs as a means of preventing the unnecessary penetration of youth into the juvenile justice system and redirecting limited resources. Many of these diversion programs revolve around formal community-based programming. The authors utilize a large sample of youth (n = 4,32...
Article
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Social learning theory is one of the most prominent general theories of crime. Yet recent research has called into question its applicability to all offenders. Specifically, the influence of antisocial peers has been found to exert a stronger effect among those individuals evincing higher levels of criminal propensity (deemed social amplification),...
Article
This study examines the impact of changes in the influence of several individual-level constructs (e.g., risk-seeking, family, peers, attitudes) on involvement in substance use and delinquent behavior during mid to late adolescence. Data were drawn from the longitudinal evaluation of the Gang Resistance, Education, and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) program...
Article
A rapidly growing body of criminological research focuses on longitudinal trajectories of offending, with the aim of exploring stability and change in antisocial behavior. A particularly intriguing debate within this area involves the issue of whether there are multiple classes of offenders defined by distinct longitudinal patterns of offending. Pa...
Article
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The application of career perspectives in substance use and crime research has emphasized both stability and change. Curran and Bollen (2001) recently developed an analytic approach, the autoregressive latent trajectory model (ALT), which permits the analysis of both persistent individual differences in behavioral trends and stage-specific direct r...
Article
In empirically assessing offending trajectory groups, some researchers have identified unexpected classes of offenders. Two such groups are (a) short-term, high-rate offenders and (b) long-term, low-rate offenders. On some aggregate benchmarks, such as lifetime volume of crime, these two groups of offenders may be comparable. Yet a more detailed ex...
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In recent years, zero-tolerance policies have been implemented in an attempt to reduce violent and/or drug-related activities in schools. These policies are sometimes expanded to include less serious crimes, which raises a number of questions regarding juvenile justice (JJ) system response and processing. This article discusses the need, implementa...
Article
Regression modeling is the predominant analytic approach utilized in crime and justice studies. In its standard form, however, this analytic approach makes demands of data that often are ill‐suited to the realities of measuring criminal behavior and justice responses to it. Censored dependent variables that contain a strong “floor” or “ceiling” in...
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Although individuals low in self-control are more likely to engage in antisocial and criminal behavior, few studies have investigated its sources. Gottfredson and Hirschi argue that primary caregivers are largely responsible, whereas Wikström and Sampson contend that self-control is partially a function of neighborhood context. Using data from the...
Article
Offending specialization continues to be a subject of empirical inquiry for scholars interested in criminal careers. Early research consistently spoke to the generality of offending profiles, but more recent work has revealed somewhat mixed findings. These results have emerged alongside newly developed and applied methods that detect and describe o...
Article
It is a widely held view--in both research and policy communities--that desirable effects on delinquency and later offending from early prevention trials will attenuate once they are "scaled-up" or "rolled-out" for wider public use. Some of the main reasons for this include a reduced level of risk, a more heterogeneous population, insufficient serv...
Article
Although juveniles are known to experience relatively high levels of violence and abuse, study of their victimization is underdeveloped. Using data from a nationally representative survey of 1,000 youth, this study used latent class analysis to construct a typology of juvenile victims and latent class regression to explore previously proposed corre...
Article
Theories and prior research have outlined a constellation of adolescent risk behaviors that tend to co-occur, reflecting a general pattern. Although their generality has largely been supported, there is some question about how to best study and portray the relationship among these behaviors. This study used data from a survey administered to high s...
Article
We report the results of a parallel-process, latent growth model analysis examining the relationships between cocaine use and delinquent behavior among youths. The study examined a sample of 278 justice-involved juveniles completing at least one of three follow-up interviews as part of a National Institute on Drug Abuse–funded study. The results of...
Article
Empirical work consistently shows that offenders demonstrate diverse offending profiles over the life-course, but recent research also reveals indications of specialization in the short term. One way to reconcile these findings is the proposal that offenders favour certain offence types during the short term, largely because of opportunity structur...
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One of the most persistent questions plaguing researchers and service providers is how to best estimate the extent of targeted behaviors in relevant populations. One problem of particular importance is the prevalence of drug use in justice-involved populations. Data have been collected through such methods as self-report and analysis of biological...
Article
Extending previous research, this study utilized structural equation modeling to examine the effects of poor mother/child attachment, child neglect, juvenile sexual victimization (JSV), and Finkelhor and Browne's (1985) proposed construct of traumatic sexualization on vulnerability to adult sexual victimization. The proposed model was assessed usin...
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This study uses general strain theory to examine the direct and indirect relationship between early victimization and drug use. Few previous studies measure strain as victimization. Also, past studies tend to combine drug use measures with delinquency measures. This study expands this research by operationalizing strain as early victimization and u...
Article
In recent years a great deal of attention has turned to the need for policy-relevant research in criminology. Methodologically, attention has been trained on the use of randomized experimental designs and cumulative systematic reviews of evidence to accomplish this goal. Our work here reviews and demonstrates the utility of the Bayesian analytic fr...
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Many dependent variables of criminological interest have censored distributions. Investigations that use such variables increasingly have turned to the Tobit model, a censored regression technique that is specified based on a latent dependent variable. When used under suitable circumstances, this model provides appropriate estimates. This paper dis...
Article
Scholars have long argued that delinquency is a group phenomenon. Even so, minimal research exists on the nature, structure, and process of co-offending. This investigation focuses on a particular void, namely the stability of 1) co-offending and 2) co-offender selection over time, for which divergent theoretical expectations currently exist that b...
Article
The present study explores the relationships between Gottfredson and Hirschi's (199021. Gottfredson , Michael R. and Hirschi , Travis . 1990 . A General Theory of Crime . Stanford , CA : Stanford University Press . View all references) concept of low self-control and two forms of deviance more common among females than males, borderline personality...