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Christopher R. Pyke

Christopher R. Pyke
U.S. Green Building Council · Research Program

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73
Publications
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7,648
Citations

Publications

Publications (73)
Article
Buildings represent long-term, capital-intensive investments designed to perform for decades into the future. Consequently, the potential for changes in climate across the design lifetime of built environments represents an immediate challenge for planning, design, and construction. In this study, we consider the opportunities to assess Climate Sen...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the impacts of climate change on people and the environment requires an understanding of the dynamics of both climate and land use/land cover changes. A range of future climate scenarios is available for the conterminous United States that have been developed based on widely used international greenhouse gas emissions storylines. Clim...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Interactions between climate change and invasive species are projected to affect aquatic ecosystems, ecosystem services, imperiled species, the invasion process, and a wide-range of management activities. These changes create long-term challenges for the patch work of policies, information systems, and management appro...
Article
We review current understanding of the potential impact of climate change on the Chesapeake Bay. Scenarios for CO2 emissions indicate that by the end of the 21st century the Bay region will experience significant changes in climate forcings with respect to historical conditions, including increases in CO2 concentrations, sea level, and water temper...
Article
Proteolytic degradation of the extracellular matrix plays a crucial role in both cancer invasion and non-neoplastic tissue remodeling processes. In human cancers the components of matrix degrading protease systems (uPA, uPAR, PAI-1 and MMPs) can be expressed by either the non-neoplastic stromal cells, the cancer cells or both. Studies of the progno...
Article
Climate change and invasive species are often treated as important, but independent, issues. Nevertheless, they have strong connections: changes in climate and societal responses to climate change may exacerbate the impacts of invasive species, whereas invasive species may affect the magnitude, rate, and impact of climate change. We argue that the...
Article
Full-text available
Assessing and adapting to the impacts of climate change requires balancing social, economic, and environmental factors in the context of an ever-expanding range of objectives, uncertainties, and management options. The term decision support describes a diverse class of resources designed to help manage this complexity and assist decision makers in...
Article
"Map-based prioritization systems have become ubiquitous tools for allocating resources for biological conservation. Although the scientific basis for these systems continues to be debated, they have become a significant factor in international conservation. A recent study found that published conservation priorities are associated with over one th...
Article
Trefoil factors (TFFs) are essential for protection and restitution of the gastrointestinal mucosa but many aspects of TFF biology are unclear. Our aim was to compare the localization of endogenous TFFs and binding sites for injected TFF3 in the colon of healthy and colitic mice and to study the effect of TFF3 on dextrane sulfate sodium (DSS)-induc...
Article
Land use and land cover interact with atmospheric conditions to determine current climate conditions, as well, as the impact of climate change and environmental variability on ecological systems. Such interactions are ubiquitous, yet changes in LULC are generally made without regard to their biophysical implications. This review considers the poten...
Article
Full-text available
Several international conservation organizations have recently produced global priority maps to guide conservation activities and spending in their own and other conservation organizations. Surprisingly, it is not possible to directly evaluate the relationship between priorities and spending within a given organization because none of the organizat...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change impacts depend in large part on land-management decisions; interactions between global changes and local resource management, however, rarely have been quantified, We used a combination of experimental manipulations and simulation modeling to investigate the effects of interactions between cattle grazing and regional climate change o...
Article
Biological reserves are established to protect natural resources and represent the diversity of environments found within a region. Unfortunately, many systems of protected areas do not proportionally capture the range of environmental conditions occupied by species and communities. Combinations of habitat loss and climate change may exacerbate the...
Article
Conservation organizations and public agencies are interested in identifying and prioritizing areas for conservation action, often acquisition or easements. Typically, this requires the use of uncertain data and vaguely defined decision criteria. I developed a decision support system to address these uncertainty issues and assist in evaluating cons...
Article
Biological reserves are intended to protect species, communities, and ecosystems in human-dominated landscapes. However, existing protected areas represent only relatively small, geographically biased samples of species and habitats. Climate change and habitat loss can exacerbate these biases and the net result is a small, skewed subset of historic...
Article
This study evaluated the hydrologic sensitivity of vernal pool ecosystems in the Central Valley of California to climatic changes projected for 2100. A vernal pool water-balance model was used to evaluate rain-fed vernal pools at four locations under future conditions projected by two contrasting global climate models. The potential for change in t...
Article
Combinations of habitat loss and climate change can alter the distribution of environmental conditions available to organisms. The magnitude and direction of these changes may have important implications for ecological processes and species persistence. This study explored the potential impacts of projected changes in climate and land-use for five...
Article
Previous studies have emphasized the role of ischemia in inducing vascular thrombosis. Using a skin flap model of acute ischemia in the rat, we studied the effect of active-site inactivated factor VIIa (FVIIai), an inhibitor of tissue factor (TF), on tissue survival during acute ischemia. Ribonuclease protection analysis revealed an increase in TF...
Article
This study deals with the floristic composition of lowland tropical forest in the watershed of the Panama Canal. The floristic composition of large trees in 54 forest plots was analysed with respect to environmental factors, including precipitation, geologic parent material, stand age, topography, and soils. The plots contain 824 species of trees w...
Patent
Full-text available
Activation of plasminogen to plasmin is inhibited by preventing the binding of a receptor binding form of urokinase-type plasminogen activator to a urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor in a mammal, thereby preventing the urokinase-type plasminogen activator from converting plasminogen into plasmin. DNA fragments which encode for soluble, a...
Article
Vascular changes are considered the major histopathological indicator of chronic allograft dysfunction. These changes are characterized by intimal thickening caused by accumulation of primarily smooth muscle cells. Contributing factors may be of both immunological and nonimmunological origin. Cold ischemia has been shown to trigger intimal prolifer...
Article
Full-text available
Endocytosis and recycling of coagulation factor VIIa (VIIa) bound to tissue factor (TF) was investigated in baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells stably transfected with TF or TF derivatives. Cell surface expression of TF on BHK cells was required for VIIa internalization and degradation. Approximately 50% of cell surface-bound VIIa was internalized in o...
Article
In this study we have used in situ hybridization with radiolabeled antisense RNA probes to examine the expression of mRNA for urokinase-type plasminogen activator and its receptor in histologic samples of squamous cell (n = 7) and basal cell (n = 7) carcinomas of the skin. Messenger RNA for both urokinase-type plasminogen activator and its receptor...
Article
Angiopoietins are ligands for the endothelial cell tyrosine kinase receptor Tie-2. Ang-1, the major physiological activator of Tie-2, promotes blood vessel maturation and stability. Ang-2 counteracts this effect by competitively inhibiting the binding of Ang-1 to Tie-2. Using a combined RNase protection/semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polyme...
Article
An intimately regulated cell surface activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is believed to be of critical importance for the control of trophoblast invasion. A histological investigation of the expression and localization of three different MMPs, the membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 2 (MT1-MMP, MT2-MMP) and matrix metalloprotei...
Patent
Full-text available
Activation of plasminogen to plasma is inhibited by preventing the binding of a receptor binding form of urokinase-type plasminogen activator to a urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor in a mammal, thereby preventing the urokinase-type plasminogen activator from converting plasminogen into plasmin. DNA fragments which encode for soluble, ac...
Article
This study collected new data on sediment thickness and distribution and integrated it with existing data on the distribution of plant species within a small (0.5 ha) created, tidal salt marsh in Langley, Virginia, USA. The presence of the reedPhragmites australis was found to be inversely correlated with sediment accumulation on the marsh surface....
Article
The spatial expression of mRNA for matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), its putative activator, the membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), and the MMP-2 substrate type IV collagen was investigated in human placentas of both normal and tubal ectopic pregnancies and in cyclic endometrium using in-situ hybridization. Cytokeratin staining a...
Article
The components of the plasminogen activation system have been reported to have prognostic impact in several cancer types, e.g. breast-, colon-, gastric- and lung cancer. Most of these studies have used quantification by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on tumour tissue extracts. However, results in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) studie...
Article
Proteoglycans constitute a heterogenous group of complex macromolecules, consisting of a backbone core protein and a variable number of sulfated polysaccharide side chains covalently linked to the core. A dual function for these polyanionic glycosaminoglycans in kidney physiology has been proposed: to maintain a fixed negative charge in the glomeru...
Article
The plasminogen activation system is an intricate system of serine proteases, protease inhibitors and protease receptors, whose ultimate function is to govern the conversion of the abundant plasma protease zymogen plasrninogen (Plg) to the active protease ptasmin. Plasmin has a broad substrate specificity, and has been implicated in the activation...
Article
Activation of plasminogen (Plg) has been proposed to play a role in proteolytic degradation of extracellular matrices in tissue remodeling events, including wound healing. However, there has been no definitive proof of involvement of Plg in such processes. We now report that healing of skin wounds is severely impaired in mice made deficient in Plg...
Article
Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) is a serine proteinase involved in degradation of the extracellular matrix during cancer invasion. uPA is up-regulated in breast cancer, and high levels of uPA in tumor extracts are strongly associated with poor prognosis. Like several other matrix proteinases, uPA is in some types of cancer, including breast c...
Article
Full-text available
Postlactational involution of the mammary gland is characterized by two distinct physiological events: apoptosis of the secretory, epithelial cells undergoing programmed cell death, and proteolytic degradation of the mammary gland basement membrane. We examined the spatial and temporal patterns of apoptotic cells in relation to those of proteinases...
Article
Degradation of the extracellular matrix during cancer invasion is accomplished by the concerted action of several proteolytic enzymes, including matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). We have studied the immunohistochemical localization of one of these enzymes, 92-kDa type IV collagenase (MMP-9), in short-term fixed specimens of 19 colon adenocarcinomas...
Article
Full-text available
Recombinant human gamma 2 chain of laminin-5 was expressed in Escherichia coli, and used to generate specific polyclonal antibodies which were used to study the distribution of the protein in human cancers. A total of 72 biopsies of human cancers were stained, including 23 cases of colon adenocarcinomas, 16 ductal breast carcinomas, 9 malignant mel...
Article
The host reaction is an important factor in the biological behavior of cancers. In human colon adenocarcinoma, stromal cells and some cancer cells express the urokinase receptor (uPAR), a molecule involved in the regulation of extracellular proteolysis. The present study reveals the identity of uPAR-expressing cell types and the subcellular localiz...
Article
Degradation of the extracellular matrix plays a crucial role in cancer invasion. This degradation is accomplished by the concerted action of several enzyme systems, including generation of the serine protease plasmin by the urokinase pathway of plasminogen activation, different types of collagenases and other metalloproteinases, and other extracell...
Article
Full-text available
The stroma reaction has an important role in tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. In various invasive human carcinomas, as well as in a mouse model for tumor invasion, transcripts encoding the transcription factor c-Ets1 were detected within stromal fibroblasts, whereas they were absent in epithelial tumor cells. This expression of c-Ets1 was of...
Article
Full-text available
Expression of the receptor for the urokinase type plasminogen activator (uPAR) has been studied by flow cytometry and immunohistology in normal blood and bone marrow cells, in vitro activated lymphoid cells, and tissue samples from reactive lymph nodes (n = 6), thymus (n = 2) and malignant lymphomas (n = 82), or leukemias (n = 32). HL-60 myeloid pr...
Article
Full-text available
All known laminin isoforms are cross-shaped heterotrimeric molecules, consisting of one heavy alpha chain and two light beta and gamma chains. Recently, a cDNA encoding a new gamma chain from laminin 5 (also known as kalinin) was sequenced. This chain, named gamma 2, showed extended homology to the classical gamma 1 chain but differed from this by...
Article
Recent studies have shown that molecules involved in generation and regulation of extracellular proteolytic activity are often expressed by non-malignant stromal cells during human cancer invasion. We have studied the expression of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator and the urokinase-type plasminogen activator cell-surface receptor in xenogra...
Article
Expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor mRNA was examined in vivo in mouse skin wounds by in situ hybridization. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor mRNA was found in keratinocytes at the front of the regenerative epithelial outgrowths at the edge of 12-, 48-, and 96-hour-old wounds. The signal was strongest in the ker...
Data
On Feb 20, 1994 this sequence version replaced gi:433900.
Article
In order to invade and spread, cancer cells must degrade extracellular matrix proteins. This degradation is catalyzed by the concerted action of several enzymes, including metalloproteases such as interstitial collagenases, type IV collagenases and stromelysins [1], and serine proteases such as plasmin [2]. Plasmin is formed from its precursor, pla...
Article
Using 3' RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends), we have isolated a cDNA variant for the receptor for human urokinase plasminogen activator (uPAR). The deduced protein includes the amino-terminal ligand binding domain in uPAR, but lacks the carboxy-terminal membrane attachment by a glycolipid anchor. Genomic DNA analysis showed that the uPAR mRNA...
Article
Histological samples from 60 invasive ductal breast carcinomas were investigated for immunoreactivity for the receptor for urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPAR) with the use of two monoclonal antibodies recognizing different epitopes. In 51 cases, uPAR immunoreactivity was observed, and in 49 of these specimens, a population of periductal tis...
Article
The gene expression of two type IV collagen-degrading enzymes (72-kd and 92-kd type IV collagenases) was investigated in human colon adenocarcinomas by in situ hybridization. In all cases (18 out of 18), messenger RNA for the 72-kd type IV collagenase was present and located in numerous fibroblasts in the stroma surrounding the invasive cancer tiss...
Article
The matrix metalloproteinases appear to be elevated in tumors with metastatic potential, and may well be involved in penetration of the basement membrane and degradation of extracellular proteins including type IV collagen. An imbalance between the 72 kDa and 92 kDa type IV collagenases and the associated tissue inhibitors of these metalloproteinas...
Article
Full-text available
We have examined the expression of 2 type IV collagen degrading enzymes (Mr 72,000 and 92,000 type IV collagenases) in human skin cancer by in situ hybridization. In all cases of infiltrating carcinomas of squamous cell (9 of 9) and basal cell (5 of 5) types, messenger RNA for the Mr 72,000 type IV collagenase was present in numerous fibroblasts. T...
Article
Fourteen human colon adenocarcinomas were examined by in situ hybridization for the presence of mRNA for plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1). All specimens contained PAI-1 mRNA in endothelial cells of some vessels in the stroma immediately surrounding the invasive tumor glands, in granulation tissue, and in some capillaries located under...
Article
In this study in situ hybridization methods were used to examine biopsy samples from 13 adenocarcinomas of the colon for the presence of mRNA for the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) and its specific cell-surface receptor (u-PAR). In all cases, u-PA mRNA was present in fibroblastlike cells in the stroma adjacent to the invasive tumor nod...
Article
Plasminogen activator inhibitor-type 1 (PAI-1) was identified in extracts of Lewis lung carcinoma, and its immunohistochemical localization was studied together with that of urokinase-type (u-PA) and tissue-type (t-PA) plasminogen activators. All primary tumors (n = 11) contained heterogeneously distributed immunoreactivity against each of the thre...
Article
Plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) was identified in extracts of rat adrenal medulla, and its immunohistochemical localization was studied together with that of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA). By staining of adjacent sections and by double-staining of the same section we demonstrate that the same cells of the adrenal medulla c...
Article
Full-text available
Dexamethasone increases type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) activity released from the human fibrosarcoma cell line HT-1080. We demonstrated that dexamethasone caused about 10-fold increases in the intracellular and extracellular levels of PAI-1 protein, as measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, in the rate of PAI-1 biosynthes...
Article
Dexamethasone increases type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) activity released from the human fibrosarcoma cell line HT-1080. We demonstrated that dexamethasone caused about 10-fold increases in the intracellular and extracellular levels of PAI-1 protein, as measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, in the rate of PAI-1 biosynthes...

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