Christopher J Patrick

Christopher J Patrick
Florida State University | FSU · Department of Psychology

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300
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20,434
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Publications

Publications (300)
Article
Low resting heart rate (HR) is a known risk indicator for the development of antisocial behavior (ASB) and other clinical problems. Stimulation seeking and fearlessness have been explored as factors underlying the HR/ASB relationship, but these have often been conflated, which has complicated interpretation. We examined HR’s associations with ASB a...
Article
The triarchic model of psychopathy posits that three distinct trait dispositions-disinhibition, meanness, and boldness-contribute to the interpersonal, affective, and impulsive-unrestrained features of this condition and is represented to varying degrees in all conceptualizations and measures of psychopathy. Using data for incarcerated males (n = 2...
Article
Recent initiatives have focused on integrating transdiagnostic biobehavioral processes or dispositions with dimensional models of psychopathology. Toward this goal, biobehavioral traits of affiliative capacity (AFF) and inhibitory control (INH) hold particular promise as they demonstrate transdiagnostic stability and predictive validity across deve...
Article
Understanding factors that influence behavioral performance in high-pressure contexts is relevant to critical occupations such as first responders, military personnel, and frontline medical workers. A recent study by Yancey et al. (2019) demonstrated an association between boldness, a biobehavioral trait reflecting social dominance and fearlessness...
Article
Antisocial behavior has been linked to an increased tolerance of painful stimuli; however, there is evidence that pain behavior is multidetermined. The current study used pain measures from 3 different modalities (pain tolerance, pain ratings, electrocortical reactivity) and assessed triarchic traits of boldness and meanness to clarify the disposit...
Article
The present study sought to extend knowledge of the role of boldness, a transdiagnostic bipolar trait dimension involving low sensitivity to threat, in emotional reactivity and regulation using physiological and report-based measures. One prior study found that boldness was associated with reduced late positive potential (LPP) while passively viewi...
Article
The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) is a quantitative nosological system that addresses shortcomings of traditional mental disorder diagnoses, including arbitrary boundaries between psychopathology and normality, frequent disorder co-occurrence, substantial heterogeneity within disorders, and diagnostic unreliability over time and...
Article
Background We examined associations of adverse perinatal events with offspring violent and non-violent criminal convictions in men and women. Methods All singleton births between 1973 and 1995 (n = 1,146,570 men, n = 1,085,217 women) were identified through Swedish population-based registers. Information about adverse perinatal events was retrieve...
Article
Full-text available
The triarchic model of psychopathy conceptualizes variants of this clinical condition as expressions of three distinct biobehavioral dispositions, termed boldness, meanness, and disinhibition. As a trait-oriented model, the triarchic model situates psychopathy within a broader nomological network of personality and psychopathology, and has proven u...
Article
Multiple theoretical perspectives posit that drug use leads to biased valuation of drug‐related reward, at the expense of naturally occurring rewarding activities (i.e., reward dysregulation). Recent research suggests that the comparative balance of drug‐related and nondrug‐related reward valuation is a powerful determinant of substance misuse and...
Article
The startle reflex has been suggested to operate as a psychophysiological marker of psychopathic personality, based on findings from studies using a range of different methodologies and participant samples. The present review aims at synthesizing existing evidence of the relationship between psychopathy and the startle reflex across task paradigms,...
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Full-text available
The validity of self-report psychopathy assessment has been questioned, especially in forensic settings where clinical evaluations influence critical decision-making (e.g., institutional placement, parole eligibility). Informant-based assessment offers a potentially valuable supplement to self-report but is challenging to acquire in under-resourced...
Article
Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common, comorbid, and often disabling for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Identifying transdiagnostic symptom dimensions post-TBI may help overcome limitations of traditional psychiatric diagnoses and advance treatment development. We characterized the dimensional structure of neuropsychiatric symptoms at 2...
Article
Full-text available
The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) is an empirical effort to address limitations of traditional mental disorder diagnoses. These include arbitrary boundaries between disorder and normality, disorder co‐occurrence in the modal case, heterogeneity of presentation within dis­orders, and instability of diagnosis within patients. This...
Article
Background Recent efforts to classify subtypes of major depressive disorder marked by different psychophysiological indicators have identified blunted reward-related brain activation in gambling tasks as a characteristic linked specifically to depressed participants with impaired mood reactivity. Methods The current study compared individuals diag...
Article
Full-text available
Aberrant reward processing is a cardinal feature of various forms of psychopathology. However, recent research indicates that aberrant reward processing may manifest at temporally distinct substages and involve interdependent subcomponents of reward processing. To improve our understanding of both the temporal dynamics and distinct subcomponents of...
Article
To establish a trait-dispositional variable as an indicator of liability for the development of substance use disorders (SUDs), the trait must share heritable variance with SUDs and its association should not be primarily attributable to a direct impact of SUDs on characteristics that define the trait. The current work applied a co-twin control (CT...
Article
Psychopathic traits have been routinely associated with poor treatment outcomes in correctional settings. Less is known about how psychopathic traits relate to treatment processes (e.g., perceptions of treatment; adjustment to treatment), particularly in nonforensic settings. The current study tested for relationships between psychopathic traits, a...
Article
The present study compared the primary models used in research on the structure of psychopathology (i.e., correlated factor, higher-order, and bifactor models) in terms of structural validity (model fit and factor reliability), longitudinal measurement invariance, concurrent and prospective predictive validity in relation to important outcomes, and...
Article
Shortcomings of approaches to classifying psychopathology based on expert consensus have given rise to contemporary efforts to classify psychopathology quantitatively. In this paper, we review progress in achieving a quantitative and empirical classification of psychopathology. A substantial empirical literature indicates that psychopathology is ge...
Article
In this article, we present the hierarchical taxonomy of psychopathology (HiTOP), an evidence-based alternative to the categorical approach to diagnostic classification that has considerable promise for integrative psychotherapy research and practice. We first review issues associated with the categorical approach that may have constrained advances...
Article
This chapter examines the relationships between psychopathy and personality disorders (PDs) as defined in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM‐5), with a focus on comorbidity, or the co‐occurrence of PDs with one another and with psychopathy. PDs listed in Section II of the DSM‐5 are grouped by themati...
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Full-text available
A growing body of research supports the value of a multimodal assessment approach, drawing on measures from different response modalities, for clarifying how core biobehavioral processes relate to various clinical problems and dimensions of psychopathology. Using data for 507 healthy adults, the current study was undertaken to integrate self-report...
Article
Full-text available
In the psychological science field, there is substantial interest in quantifying individual differences in self-regulatory capacity because of its transdiagnostic relevance to various forms of psychopathology. Trait disinhibition and impulsiveness are popular conceptualizations of dispositions reflecting self-regulation of behavioral and emotional...
Article
A robust literature demonstrates that psychopathology and personality pathology are well-represented within quantitatively-derived, hierarchical dimensional models. Nevertheless, the location of core traits comprising psychopathic personality (psychopathy) as defined by the triarchic model has not been clearly explicated. We extended hierarchical s...
Article
We critique Roy et al.'s (2020; this issue) approach to characterizing the item-level factor structure of the three scales of the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM), in light of the manner in which the TriPM scales were developed, the purposes they were designed to serve, and the growing body of evidence supporting their construct validity. We f...
Article
Full-text available
The DSM-5 alternative model for personality disorders (AMPD) groups traits into domains based on factor analyses of self-report data. AMPD traits may need to be configured differently to interface with neurobiology. Focusing on biobehavioral risk for externalizing problems in 334 adults, the authors used structural modeling to evaluate how well alt...
Article
Recent initiatives emphasize the need to consider developmental and transdiagnostic contributions of temperamental variation to psychopathological expression. Triarchic neurobehavioral trait dimensions (boldness, meanness, disinhibition), which demonstrate compatibility with established temperament models and can be quantified using items from diff...
Article
The triarchic model of psychopathy includes a disinhibition dimension related to externalizing outcomes, a meanness dimension pertaining to callous-unemotional traits, and a boldness dimension referring to emotional stability and high confidence in peer relationships. Some dimensions of psychopathy have been extensively investigated in samples of c...
Article
The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) is an empirical structural model of psychological symptoms formulated to improve the reliability and validity of clinical assessment. Neurobiology can inform assessments of early risk and intervention strategies, and the HiTOP model has greater potential to interface with neurobiological measures...
Article
The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) represents a crucial step forward in the empirical refinement of psychiatric nosology. Although grounded in factor analyses of clinical symptoms and affiliated traits, HiTOP encourages research using measures of other types, including neural‐system variables, to clarify coherent processes contrib...
Article
Genetic discovery in psychiatry and clinical psychology is hindered by suboptimal phenotypic definitions. We argue that the hierarchical, dimensional, and data-driven classification system proposed by the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) consortium provides a more effective approach to identifying genes that underlie mental disorder...
Article
Full-text available
Biologically relevant personality traits of weak inhibitory control (disinhibition) and threat sensitivity confer vulnerability to various clinical problems. Difficulties with emotion regulation have also been studied extensively in relation to risk for and maintenance of psychopathology. However, it remains unclear how emotion regulation strategie...
Article
Objective: Diagnosis is a cornerstone of clinical practice for mental health care providers, yet traditional diagnostic systems have well-known shortcomings, including inadequate reliability, high comorbidity, and marked within-diagnosis heterogeneity. The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) is a data-driven, hierarchically based alte...
Article
To establish a trait-dispositional variable as an indicator of liability for the development of substance use disorders (SUDs), the trait must share heritable variance with SUDs and its association should not be primarily attributable to a direct impact of SUDs on characteristics that define the trait. The current work applied a co-twin control (CT...
Article
The biobehavioral traits of the triarchic model of psychopathy have well-known correlates with externalizing psychopathology. Although evidence also suggests associations with internalizing disorders, research has yet to formally model relationships between dimensions of internalizing psychopathology and triarchic traits. Employing a sample of 218...
Article
Full-text available
Psychopathy, as described by the triarchic model, encompasses three distinct phenotypes: boldness, meanness, and disinhibition. The current study sought to operationalize these in a sample of 100 Dutch male forensic-psychiatric patients with differing forms of personality pathology who participated in a multi-site randomized clinical trial. Using a...
Article
Callousness encompasses a lack of guilt, shallow affect, and deficient affiliative tendencies and relates to severe antisocial behavior. Across developmental stages, callousness is associated with abnormalities in emotional processing, including decreased physiological reactivity to emotional faces. The current study recruited an adult participant...
Article
Full-text available
Structural models of psychopathology provide dimensional alternatives to traditional categorical classification systems. Competing models, such as the bifactor and correlated factors models, are typically compared via statistical indices to assess how well each model fits the same data. However, simulation studies have found evidence for probifacto...
Article
The categorical model of personality disorder classification in the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed. [DSM–5]; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) is highly and fundamentally problematic. Proposed for DSM–5 and provided within Section III (for Emerging Measures and Models) was the...
Article
The latest edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) bridges a significant gap in psychiatric nosology by providing trait-based characterizations of psychopathy along with antisocial personality disorder within the Section III alternative model for personality disorders (AMPD). However, the representation of psych...
Article
Full-text available
Reward-deficit models of addiction posit weaknesses in reward sensitivity to be promotive of substance dependence, whereas the externalizing spectrum model views substance problems as arising in large part from a general disinhibitory liability. In the current study we sought to integrate these perspectives by testing for separate and interactive a...
Article
Set shifting involves the capacity to effectively and efficiently direct mental resources in the service of dynamically changing goal representations. This capacity is important in everyday life and may be vital in situations where processing resources needed for adaptive action may be diverted by cues for external danger or threat (e.g., first res...
Article
The Research Domain Criteria initiative aims to reorient the focus of psychopathology research toward biobehavioral constructs that cut across different modalities of measurement, including self-report and neurophysiology. Constructs within the Research Domain Criteria framework are intentionally transdiagnostic, with the construct of “acute threat...
Article
The etiology of major depressive disorder is heterogeneous, and differing pathways leading to the development of depression are proposed to account for alternative variants of depressive illness and their distinct comorbidity patterns. The present study was undertaken as a step toward developing a model for conceptualizing and quantifying dispositi...
Article
Recent scientific initiatives have called for increased use of neurobiological variables in clinical and other applied assessments. However, the task of incorporating neural measures into psychological assessments entails significant methodological challenges that have not been effectively addressed to date. As a result, neurophysiological measures...
Article
For more than a century, research on psychopathology has focused on categorical diagnoses. Although this work has produced major discoveries, growing evidence points to the superiority of a dimensional approach to the science of mental illness. Here we outline one such dimensional system-the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP)-that is...
Article
We describe efforts to formulate a quantitative measurement model for boldness, a construct that has been intensively discussed and investigated in the psychopathy literature in recent years. Although the Fearless Dominance factor of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI-FD) has served as a major referent for studying this dispositional const...
Article
This study compared how normative personality dimensions of the Five-Factor Model (FFM) and neurobehavioral traits of the triarchic model relate to psychopathic tendencies and clinical outcomes in an incarcerated sample of 277 Italian male offenders. Associations between triarchic model traits, measured using the TriPM and the FFM dimensions, measu...
Preprint
In this paper we present the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP), an evidence-based alternative to the categorical approach to diagnostic classification with considerable promise for integrative psychotherapy research and practice. We first review issues associated with the categorical approach that may have constrained advances in psy...
Article
Full-text available
Shortcomings of approaches to classifying psychopathology based on expert consensus have given rise to contemporary efforts to classify psychopathology quantitatively. In this paper, we review progress in achieving a quantitative and empirical classification of psychopathology. A substantial empirical literature indicates that psychopathology is ge...
Article
Current literature on the relationship between dispositional fear (or threat sensitivity) and amygdala gray matter volume (GMV) is heterogeneous, with findings including positive, negative, and null correlations. A clearer understanding of this relationship would help to determine the potential utility of amygdala volume as a biomarker of anxious/d...
Article
Full-text available
The measurement of cognitive and emotional empathy, reflecting abilities to understand and to experience or ‘feel’ the emotional states of others, is important for many studies pertaining to clinical conditions as well as normative personality characteristics. The Multifaceted Empathy Test (MET) has been shown to be a useful and efficient instrumen...
Article
Hervey Cleckley (1903–1984) was probably among the most influential psychiatrists of the 20th century, but the history of his intellectual contributions to psychopathy is not especially well known. Not all of Cleckley’s writings have stood the test of time, but others seem prescient, arguably anticipating current debates regarding such contentious...
Article
Full-text available
This study sought to characterize the factor structure of the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM) using data from a sample of 1,082 communitydwelling Italian adults. Exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) was used to compare the fit of a bifactor model for each TriPM scale, in which specific-content factors were specified along with a ge...
Article
Cambridge Core - Social Psychology - The Cambridge Handbook of Violent Behavior and Aggression - edited by Alexander T. Vazsonyi
Article
The latent structure of schizotypy and psychosis-spectrum symptoms remains poorly understood. Furthermore, molecular genetic substrates are poorly defined, largely due to the substantial resources required to collect rich phenotypic data across diverse populations. Sample sizes of phenotypic studies are often insufficient for advanced structural eq...
Article
Objective. Concussions cause diverse symptoms that are often measured through a single symptom severity score. Researchers have postulated distinct dimensions of concussion symptoms, raising the possibility that total scores may not accurately represent their multidimensional nature. This study examined to what degree concussion symptoms, assessed...
Article
The categorical model of personality disorder classification in the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed. [DSM–5]; American Psychiatric Association, 2013 American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psyc...
Article
Recent mental health initiatives have called for a shift away from purely report-based conceptualizations of psychopathology toward a biobehaviorally oriented framework. The current work illustrates a measurement-oriented approach to challenges inherent in efforts to integrate biological and behavioral indicators with psychological-report variables...
Article
Trait disinhibition, a clinical-liability construct, has well-established correlates in the diagnostic, self-rating, task-behavioral, and brain potential response domains. Recently, studies have begun to test for neuroimaging correlates of this liability factor, but more work of this type using larger data sets is needed to clarify its brain bases....
Article
Symptom-based models, typically operationalized through diagnostic interview, and trait models, typically operationalized via questionnaire inventories, reflect historically competing conceptions of personality disorder (PD). DSMD-5 includes models of both types, in Sections II and III, respectively. In this study, we sought to synthesize these alt...
Article
Methodological and conceptual differences across studies have impeded our understanding of the relationship between psychopathy and internalizing psychopathology. To shed further light on this question, we undertook correlational and structural-modeling analyses of data from two samples to characterize how facets of psychopathy relate to internaliz...
Article
Suicide is a major public health problem, claiming the lives of over 40,000 individuals in the United States each year. Efforts are needed to (1) identify those at heightened risk for suicide utilizing objective assessment methods, and (2) determine factors that may be protective against engaging in suicidal behavior, even in the context of the des...
Chapter
Aggressive behavior, in the sense of behavior that is hostile and/or involves some type of physical attack, has been widely observed in both humans and animals. This chapter reviews experimental findings in the context of prominent theoretical models in order to provide a perspective on how aggressive behavior can be understood in neurobiological t...
Article
The lexically based five-factor model (FFM) of personality has been a highly influential research framework for characterizing clinical-psychological conditions, including psychopathy, in lexical-trait terms. An alternative trait-descriptive framework, the triarchic model was formulated to characterize psychopathy in neurobehavioral-trait terms, in...
Article
Purpose Criminological theories of crime, delinquency, and deviancy emphasize the causal role of low self-control whereas models of psychopathology posit a general trait liability, “disinhibition”, contributing to persistent antisocial behavior and substance use. The aim of the current work was to link these compatible perspectives on deviancy thro...
Article
Full-text available
Psychopathy is a personality disorder representing an admixture of a fearless and dominant temperament with an impulsive and antisocial orientation. A sample of 1026 participants in the waiting room of the medical emergency department of a city hospital exhibited levels of fearless dominance similar to public university undergraduates and federal i...
Article
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Psychopathic individuals are characterized as “intra-species predators”—callous, impulsive, aggressive, and proficient at interpersonal manipulation. For example, despite their high risk for re-offending, psychopathic offenders often receive early release on parole. While reputed to be social chameleons, research suggests that even naive observers...