Christopher Paradise

Christopher Paradise
Davidson College · Biology

Ph.D.
Studying the impacts of land use on insect communities, and the effects of new pedagogies on student learning.

About

46
Publications
8,437
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
734
Citations
Introduction
I am Professor of Biology and Environmental Studies at Davidson College. I earned my MA from SUNY Binghamton and my PhD from Pennsylvania State University. I teach introductory biology, ecology, entomology, and several topical seminar courses. I have led a study abroad program in India focusing on ecology. Currently, I am researching effects of light pollution on communities of insects, the impact of land use patterns on stream insects and insect pollinators, and assessment of student learning.
Additional affiliations
August 2000 - present
Davidson College
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
July 2000 - April 2016
Davidson College
Position
  • Professor of Biology and Environmental Studies
March 1990 - July 1994
Pennsylvania State University
Position
  • Laboratory Coordinator

Publications

Publications (46)
Article
Full-text available
First order streams are rarely the focus of research even though they play an important hydrological and ecological role in upland landscapes and may be more susceptible to human impacts than larger streams. We studied 16 first order streams in the North Carolina Piedmont to examine relationships between land use, discharge, flashiness, and conduct...
Article
Full-text available
The integration of citizen science into undergraduate STEM courses improves science practice skills, enables students to contribute to the global collection of species occurrence data, and may increase understanding and appreciation of biodiversity. We integrated citizen science with a traditional insect collection in an entomology course at a libe...
Conference Paper
This study explores the relationship between specific conductivity and benthic macroinvertebrate communities, to determine the effects of increasing development on suburban headwater streams in the Piedmont of North Carolina. In order to do this, we installed stream gauges in 16 headwater streams north of Charlotte, North Carolina. At each stream s...
Article
Full-text available
The seminal report Vision and Change outlined improvements necessary for undergraduate biology courses to accomplish widely recognized learning objectives. Over the past 8 years, we have developed a two-semester introductory biology course that incorporates the core concepts and competencies recommended in Vision and Change. Using published researc...
Article
We monitored the accumulation of non-target arthropods and leaf litter on tree bands used for cankerworm control during a 4-week period in the autumn of 2013 prior to the beginning of cankerworm emergence. Accumulation of non-target arthropods and leaf debris may reduce the efficacy of tree bands in controlling cankerworms and harm non-target tree-...
Article
Full-text available
Multiple reports over more than a century have documented the problems with the way introductory biology has been taught in most colleges and universities. An influential recent report, Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education, has called specifically for a major overhaul of the content and mode of delivery for introductory biology. How...
Article
Full-text available
Livestock that is extensively managed can have higher diversity and abundance of insects in comparison to intensively managed livestock, although data are more equivocal within a gradient of extensively managed pastures. Additionally, biodiversity on farms is vulnerable to degradation of the surrounding landscape and changing patterns of land use....
Book
Integrating Concepts in Biology (http://www.bio.davidson.edu/ICB) is a living digital textbook that presents the main concepts of biology in a new, comprehensive format for majors' introductory biology courses. ICB focuses on 5 “Big Ideas” at 5 size scales so students attain deeper understanding of major concepts rather than disjointed facts emphas...
Article
Full-text available
Digital macrophotography holds potential as a valuable tool for observational studies and experiments in entomology and ecology. With advances in digital technology, high-resolution images can be acquired rapidly to capture fast-moving insects as they land for short periods of time. Macrophotography serves as an accurate and flexible method of obse...
Article
Full-text available
We redesigned the undergraduate introductory biology course by writing a new textbook (Integrating Concepts in Biology [ICB]) that follows first principles of learning. Our approach emphasizes primary data interpretation and the utility of mathematics in biology, while de-emphasizing memorization. This redesign divides biology into five big ideas (...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Insects and the services they provide are significant to agroecosystems. Low input farms depend on high biodiversity for ecosystem services, yet little is known about how livestock grazing systems affect diversity. Intensive high-input farming systems have been linked with decreased biodiversity, soil erosion, and habit...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background/Question/Methods We redesigned the first year college biology course (called Integrating Concepts in Biology) using first principles of learning: students learn best when they construct their own knowledge and when new material is related to what they already know. Our redesigned approach emphasizes data interpretation and the utility o...
Article
Full-text available
Metacommunity ecology is concerned with effects of dispersal and habitat conditions on the structure and dynamics of local communities. We tested the effects of distance between communities and habitat size (a proxy for local conditions) on structure and dynamics of communities in a metacommunity. Mesocosms of two sizes were placed varying distance...
Article
Full-text available
The effects of predation on water-filled treehole communities in North Carolina were examined using mesocosm experiments and observations in natural treeholes. The presence of the predator Toxorhynchites rutilus and leaf litter abundance were manipulated in mesocosms to examine interactions between resources and predation. Long-term examination of...
Article
Full-text available
Increasing development north of Charlotte, NC, threatens aquatic life in streams by reducing riparian zones and increasing runoff. Runoff, sedimentation from erosion, and poor construction practices are principal sources of pollution. We asked how land use and disturbance affected benthic insects. We visited nine streams from May to October 2001, c...
Article
Full-text available
Abiotic and biotic factors in a local habitat may strongly impact the community residing within, but spatially structured metacommunities are also influenced by regional factors such as immigration and colonization. We used three years of monthly treehole census data to evaluate the relative influence of local and regional factors on our study syst...
Article
Full-text available
The primary resource of temperate forest treeholes is leaf litter, and different insects specialize on particular stages of decay. Helodes pulchella (scirtid beetle) takes part in a processing chain by shredding leaf litter and creating material for other consumers. We hypothesized that variation in scirtid density and resources influences the inse...
Article
Full-text available
The primary resource of temperate forest treeholes is leaf litter, which exists along a continuum of decay states, with different insects specializing on particular states. Scir-tid beetles (Helodes pulchella) take part in a processing chain interaction by shredding and processing leaf litter, thereby creating material for consumption by other detr...
Article
Full-text available
Treeholes are detritus-based communities, and resource quantity and quality play a large role in structuring such communities. The primary resource is leaf litter, but decaying invertebrates also are a resource to treehole inhabitants. These communities are subject to a variety of disturbances, which may affect resources or cause widespread mortali...
Article
Full-text available
Community composition may be determined by a variety of factors, including habitat dimension, abiotic conditions, and biotic interactions. Habitat dimensions may influence abiotic conditions, thus modifying community structure or biotic interactions. We used six different mesocosm sizes, two depths crossed with three surface areas, to test hypothes...
Article
Full-text available
Malathion is an organophosphorus insecticide, which is often sprayed to control mosquitoes. When applied to aquatic habitats, malathion can also influence the embryogenesis of non-target organisms such as frogs and fish. We modified the frog embryo teratogen assay in "Xenopus" (FETAX), a standard toxicological assay, into an investigative undergrad...
Article
Malathion is an organophosphorous pesticide widely used to control mosquitoes in urban areas and pests, such as boll weevils, in agricultural areas. Zebrafish, Danio rerio, are model organisms for developmental toxicology research because they are readily available, produce large numbers of clear embryos, and are sensitive to environmental changes....
Article
Full-text available
I surveyed,treeholes in central Pennsylvania,for 7 mo in 1995 to investigate relationships among insect communities and water and leaf litter resources. I used water volume, essential to growth of treehole larvae, as an indicator of habitat size. Leaf litter is the basal food resource in treehole communities, and litter volume is related to the amo...
Article
1. Scirtid beetles (Coleoptera: Scirtidae) are common inhabitants of water-filled treeholes and interact with other detritivores in a processing chain commensalism. The strength of the commensalism is determined by resource quantity and the organisms involved have different tolerances to low pH. To determine the effects and interactions of resource...
Article
Full-text available
We used a simple experimental design to test for the effects of microcosm scaling on the growth and survival of the mosquito, Culex pipiens. Microcosm and mesocosm studies are commonly used in ecology, and there is often an assumption that scaling doesn't affect experimental outcomes. The assumption is implicit in the design; choice of mesocosms ma...
Article
1. Both resources and abiotic factors may affect biotic interactions. One interaction that occurs in treehole habitats involves leaf shredders that facilitate growth of detritivores, and it may be affected by both leaf litter quantity and changes in water quality. 2. Water chemistry in central Pennsylvania treeholes has been impacted by acid deposi...
Article
Full-text available
The degree to which the outcome of biotic interactions is sensitive to resource levels is a fundamental issue in ecology. Conversely, resource availability may be affected by processing chain interactions. where organisms specialize on a resource in different states of decay. An organism upstream in the decay sequence can affect availability of res...
Article
There is an inverse correlation between sodium concentration ([Na]) and larval densities of insects in water-filled treeholes, suggesting that sodium might be a limiting resource or that it is controlled by biota. The effects of water [Na] and population density on the growth of the culicid Aedes triseriatus and the scirtid beetles Helodes pulchell...
Article
A 2-factor field microcosm experiment with 2 concentrations of sodium ([Na]) was performed with and without mosquitoes to test the hypothesis that Na is a limiting nutrient for the treehole mosquito, Aedes triseriatus (Say), at concentrations observed in the field. This experiment also tested the effects of both water [Na] and mosquito larvae on co...
Article
We monitored water chemistry of rain, stemflow, and treehole invertebrate communities in three landscape-scale regions in Pennsylvania receiving high, but different, atmospheric inputs of hydrogen and sulfate ions. We predicted that treeholes in the westernmost plateau region receiving the highest levels of those ions would have different water che...
Article
Full-text available
I used replicated artificial treehole habitats to determine how initial colonization and subsequent growth of treehole insect larvae were affected by water volume, leaf litter mass, and pH. Low leaf litter mass had the most significant and recurring effect on the communities. Densities of the common insects, Aedes triseriatus (Say), Culicoides gutt...
Article
We sampled water chemistry (Na, K, Ca, Mg, specific conductance) and fish species occurrence in freshwater wetlands in the lower Myakka River drainage area in southwestern Florida. Three fish species were absent from wetlands below 100 μS/cm. None were absent from natural wetlands, but six species were absent from constructed wetlands. The sailfin...
Article
We monitored water sodium concentration ([Na]), water volume, and larval densities of insects in natural treeholes and larval insects in simulated treeholes. In natural treeholes, water [ Na] was inversely correlated with mosquito and helodid beetle densities; water [Na] was positively correlated with water volume in 1996. The culicid Aedes triseri...
Article
Full-text available
We used laboratory microcosms designed to simulate treeholes to study the effect of changing levels of chemicals found in precipitation in central Pennsylvania (H+ and SO4=) on the treehole insects Aedes triseriatus (a mosquito), Helodes pulchella (a helodid beetle), and Culicoides guttipennis (a ceratopogonid midge), and treehole protozoans. Proto...
Article
Full-text available
The insect community living in central Pennsylvania treeholes in autumn consists primarily of larvae of two species of helodid beetles, Prionocyphon discoideus and Helodes pulchella, and larvae of one species of ceratopogonid midge,Culicoides guttipennis. We manipulated treehole volume and the densities of these insects in laboratory microcosms. We...
Article
Third-instar praying mantids (Tenodera sinensisSaussure: Mantidae) were fed either a sequence of unpalatable milkweed bugs (Oncopeltus fasciatusDallas: Lygaeidae) and palatable fruit flies (Drosophila melanogasterMeigen: Drosophilidae) or a control diet of palatable flies only. Mantids fed a sequence of 3 days of unpalatable bugs and 4 days of pala...
Article
A factorial experiment examined the effects of varying concentrations of the allelochemical rutin in caterpillars and the length of time the caterpillars had fed on the behavioral interactions of predatory stinkbugs (Podisus maculiventris) and their prey (Manduca sexta). Diet had no significant effect on defensive behavior of the caterpillars. The...
Article
Full-text available
First- and second-instar mantids given small amounts of food (similar to prey availability in the field) attained a smaller size and spent more time in those developmental stages than mantids offered as much as they could eat. In two of three cohorts, mantids reared during the first stadium on a low quantity diet recovered during the second stadium...
Article
When juvenile praying mantids (Tenodera sinensis)were exposed to unpalatable prey (the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus),they attacked, sampled, and then usually rejected the prey. About 70% of the handling time was spent feeding. When offered a second milkweed bug, the mantids usually attacked the prey. However, the overall time required for the...
Article
Juvenile praying mantids are faced with a wide variety of prey types, including physiologically harmful ones. How they respond to these prey, behaviorally and physiologically, is examined in this study. By adapting a technique developed by Blau et al. (1978) for herbivorous insects, we determined the deterrence and toxicity of unpalatable prey. Art...

Network

Cited By

Projects

Project (1)
Project
I am collaborating with Brad Johnson and several undergraduate students to understand how flashiness of first order streams in the Piedmont of North Carolina affects the communities of benthic macroinvertebrates living in those streams.