Christopher Changwe Nshimbi

Christopher Changwe Nshimbi
University of Pretoria | UP · Centre for the Study of Governance Innovation (GovInn)

PhD

About

80
Publications
10,936
Reads
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323
Citations
Citations since 2016
73 Research Items
312 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100
Introduction
Director & Research Fellow: Centre for the Study of Governance Innovation (GovInn), University of Pretoria. Research interests: migration, regional integration, borders, informal economy, water. Teaching: Regional Integration; African & Regional Politics; States & Governance in Africa; Political Dynamics. Sits on technical working groups on labor & migration, the integrated water sector, social protection & well-being in Africa. Twitter: @csn_chris
Additional affiliations
June 2014 - June 2016
University of Pretoria
Position
  • Managing Director
June 2012 - May 2014
University of Pretoria
Position
  • PostDoc Position
January 2009 - September 2009
Zambian Open University
Position
  • Lecturer

Publications

Publications (80)
Chapter
This chapter discusses the immigration policy and legislative framework of South Africa in relation to the life experiences and interactions of selected immigrants with officials in the Executive branch of government as well as with some ordinary people on the ground, under the country’s law. South Africa is touted as country with one of the best c...
Article
Southern Africa has a long and complex history of migration. This article argues that overall, the mechanisms for governing migration and the practice of migration in the region ignore prevailing theoretical and ideological influences. Instead, Southern Africa operates on an age-long labour migration governance system predicated on private capital....
Article
This article argues that Roman Catholic bishops in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Zambia provide an arena for ordinary people to participate in politics and demand government accountability. The article analyses the bishops’ engagement with the populace as well as with the state through two dimensions of democratic quality: particip...
Chapter
Some theories separate church from state. They argue that neither should meddle in the affairs of the other. The separation, however, seems increasingly blurred in Africa, as politicians seem to be replacing professionals and advisers who are technocrats with charismatic church leaders. The church leaders, on their part, seem to be stepping into an...
Article
The ‘coloniality’, porosity, and ‘ungovernability’ of borders in West Africa, have engendered undocumented migration, in which most people engage to visit their kin and for economic reasons such as herding, farming, fishing, hunting, and trading. This occurs concurrently with human smuggling, human trafficking, gun-running, terrorism, and money lau...
Chapter
This chapter argues that the exclusive features of the state-centred mainstream mode of SADC governance have triggered two settings of engagement within which civil society interacts for alternative regionalisms. The chapter reveals that despite the existence of the Article 23 of the SADC Treaty, which establishes the joint governance system betwee...
Chapter
For the past few decades, regionalism has been conventionally analysed through a hierarchical lens, predominantly putting more emphasis on the role of state actors, politicians and technocrats, and to a lesser extent ordinary citizens and business associations (Fioramonti, Civil Society and World Regions: How Citizens are Reshaping Regional Governa...
Chapter
This chapter deploys New Institutionalism as an appropriate core lens through which strategies, norms and rules developed by regional civil society networks during their interaction within both formal and self-organised regionalisms can be analysed. In addition, the chapter discusses how the notion of New Regionalism is utilised in this book in ord...
Chapter
In this chapter, it is argued that, while interacting within both formal and self-organised regionalisms, Southern African civil society networks devise distinct institutional arrangements that inform a typology of their interaction in the region. The horizontal networks of civil society organisations exhibit distinct strategies, norms and rules co...
Chapter
This chapter identifies and discusses the kinds of strategies, norms and rules developed by Southern African civil society networks interacting within formal settings like the Regional Thematic Meetings of Senior Officials or Ministers, Statutory Meetings, SADC Secretariat, SADC-PF, SADC regional policy dialogues, Council of the Ministers and Heads...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the historical overview of regional integration in Africa and Southern Africa. It highlights that SADC is not only the offspring of the 1992 Declaration and Treaty of the SADC which established it, but also a significant part of the aspirations of the AU’s 1991 Abuja Treaty which envisaged effective integration of the contine...
Chapter
This chapter provides a conclusion to the book volume and asserts that regionalism can be viewed as an unconventional socio-political phenomenon that can also be promoted by non-state actors. The chapter proposes a conceptual expansion of regionalism that not only does understand non-state actors as dependent units of formal regional organisations...
Chapter
This chapter discusses conventional approaches to regional integration in Africa and Southern Africa. It brings to the fore how non-state actors and institutions are of paramount importance for inclusive regional integration that allows civil society actors to be not only important, but also independent, active agents in the formation of regions. T...
Article
Full-text available
This article argues that neither borders nor the ways in which migrants see them constitute significant deterrents to the migrants’ resolve to migrate. The argument is based on an investigation of migrants en route to Europe from the Horn of Africa and the ways in which they see EU external borders and how that contributes to the decision to migrat...
Book
Full-text available
This book discusses regional and continental integration in Africa by examining the management of migration across the continent. It examines borders and securitisation of migration and the challenges and opportunities that arise out of reconfigured continental demographics. The book offers insights on intra-Africa migrations and highlights how in...
Book
This book examines regional integration in Africa, with a particular focus on the Southern African Development Community (SADC). It argues that the SADC’s pursuit of a rationalist and state-centric form of integration for Southern Africa is limited, as it overlooks the contributory role and efficacy of non-state actors, who are relegated to the per...
Book
Full-text available
This book challenges the common European notions about African migration to Europe and offers a holistic understanding of the current situation in Africa. It advocates a need to rethink Africa-Europe relations and view migration and borders as a resource rather than sources of a crisis. Migrant movement from Africa is often misunderstood and misre...
Chapter
Full-text available
Africa and Europe seem increasingly interconnected, yet divided. Apart from the commonly mentioned factors of history and geographical proximity, both continents face a growing number and a broader variety of shared challenges, interests, and goals. Migration remains as the most pressing challenge, yet rather than considering this as a mere phenome...
Book
Full-text available
This book examines the enduring significance of borders in Southern Africa, covering encounters between people, ideas and matter, and the new spatialities and transformations they generate in their historical, social, economic and cultural contexts. Situated within debates on borders, borderlands, sub- and regional integration, this volume examines...
Chapter
Well into 2018, the narrative of international migration continued being dominated by (especially media and populist) accounts of migrants from developing and least developed countries undertaking perilous journeys to Europe. The narrative tells of people desperately attempting to escape poverty (and, perhaps, war and conflict too) for better life...
Chapter
Migration is a force that has led to the transformation of modernity (Papastergiadis, The turbulence of migration: Globalization, deterritorialization and hybridity. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2000). This transformation has taken many forms and continues to do so. In order to better understand the complexity of the situation, this book addresses both...
Chapter
The historical continuities around migration suggest that it not only is a potent force and phenomenon but also has the capacity to transform societies. Africa-Euro migrations point to the need to move beyond a narrow, misinformed populist narrative of a flood of African refugees and migrants flowing into Europe. Further, intra-Africa migration, wh...
Article
Africa turned the corner of marginalization in international affairs at the beginning of the 21st century. The end of the Cold War and global shifts in power toward the end of the previous century were closely followed by “Africa rising.” This contrasted previous decades-long narratives of a hopeless, war-ravaged, and plague-ridden continent. The A...
Book
Full-text available
This book examines social, economic and political issues in West, Eastern and Southern Africa in relation to borders, human mobility and regional integration. In the process, it highlights the innovative aspects of human agency on the African continent, and presents a range of empirical case studies that shed new light on Africa’s social, economic...
Chapter
This chapter uses an analytical framework that enhances the understanding of regionalisation in Southern Africa by examining the dynamics at work between countries whose contiguous borders are covered by transboundary water resources. It highlights the path-dependent evolution of regionalisation through dynamics operating at two levels. First are s...
Chapter
Debates on borders, mobility and integration in Africa are ongoing and raise important issues, such as migration, regional integration and development, which were discussed at length in this book volume. Regarding migration, it has had developmental impacts especially in an African context although it presents a paradoxical tendency where African s...
Chapter
Cross-border migration brings to the fore the issue of borders, both in their material and symbolic form. On this basis, there is a need for understanding borders as multifaceted institutions, which are perceived differently by state and non-state actors. This introductory chapter interrogates and presents issues, experiences and perspectives on hu...
Chapter
This chapter investigates the role of the media in catalysing the ideology that African immigrants are undesirable and do not deserve to be in South Africa. It, therefore, argues that the way in which the immigrants are constructed and/or portrayed contributes to xenophobia. Further, it posits that such a construction of immigrants destroys the bas...
Chapter
Full-text available
Migration is a much broader phenomenon than the common descriptions would have us believe. Its very complexity creates the demand for simplistic and simplifying explanations and descriptions. Various offers of easy answers to the many open questions have gained wide support-despite their inaccuracy. Yet they have seldom been enough to thoroughly co...
Book
This book examines Africa-Europe relationships and intra-Africa relationships vis-à-vis migration. It analyses the African integration project that is being used to effectively manage migration within Africa and across its RECs, and harnessing it for development. The book presents debates related to the EU’s hardening and securitisation of its exte...
Article
Ideally, the free movement of goods and services should coexist with the free movement of people.
Chapter
This chapter seeks to gain insight into the influence of state power on the activities of grassroots actors in cross-border communities of proximate Southern African states. This, in relation to the pursuit of development in the wake of the sustainable development goals (SDGs). Specifically, it investigates the extent to which SDGs filter down, by...
Chapter
The causes of conflict in Africa are many, just as they are complex. In this book we expand on this debate by focusing on the porosity of African borders and their (possible) effect in fuelling war and conflict on one hand, and the possibility of being sources or facilitators of peace, on the other hand. It is understood that the people who cross t...
Book
This book looks at the ways African borders impact war and conflict, as well as the ways continental integration could contribute towards cooperation, peace and well-being in Africa. African borders or borderlands can be a source of problems and opportunity. There is often a historical, geospatial and geopolitical architecture rooted in trajectori...
Article
This paper engages in a normative analysis of water security, in view of the sustainable development goals (SDGs) and the call for transformation. It examines the role of river basin organizations (RBOs) and integrated water resources management (IWRM) to water governance, and the extent to which they are consistent with water security for developm...
Article
Regarded not only as a line that separates South Africa and Zimbabwe to underline the interiority and exteriority of the two countries, as well as to control and manage migration and immigration, Beitbridge border effectively plays out the immigration debates and dynamics at the heart of the nation-state of South Africa. Based on a qualitative stud...
Chapter
The concept national system of innovation (NSI) is popular in innovation parlance. In general, the definition of NSI locates the interactions that occur between the various elements promoting the production and use of knowledge in the confines of the nation-state. This is besides the fact that systems of national innovation, NSI policy, and policy...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Sub-Saharan Africa has a long history of internal and international migratory movements. Migration patterns and dynamics from, to and between rural areas are profoundly differentiated across regions, and flows have considerably evolved over time. Yet, more recently, rural migration takes place in the unique situation of a major rural and urban demo...
Article
This special issue of Africa Insight presents alternative perspectives on the debate about continental and regional integration in Africa. It explores the under-researched link between regional integration and African borders and borderlands, along with the informal socio-economic activities that occur in those spaces. The issue uncovers the realit...
Article
Full-text available
This document, and the research it contains, was compiled by the Institute for Social Development at the University of the Western Cape, in partnership with the Scalabrini Institute for Human Mobility in Africa (SIHMA) and funded by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). The research findings and the recommendations presented h...
Chapter
This contribution explores xenophobic tendencies in post-apartheid South Africa through historical sketches that revolve around debates of belonging, inclusion and exclusion. Such a historicity has created a legacy of suspicion and stigmatisation of migrants from within and without the country resulting in a fractured society with some implicit or...
Chapter
Taking the case of informal cross-border traders from Southern Africa in Johannesburg, human mobility is discussed as one of four productive factors that are key to regional integration. Employing three levels of analysis—regional, national and local—discussion is confined to economically active persons. Key Southern African Development Community (...
Article
South Africa attracts migrants from other parts of Africa, Asia, Europe, Australia and the Americas. However, the immigration debate within the country apparently revolves around immigrants from the other parts of Africa, including the Southern African Development Community (SADC) region, and projects them as undesirable in a way best interpreted a...
Article
This paper examines the activities of informal cross-border traders (ICBTs) in the contiguous borderlands of Zambia, Malawi and Mozambique, in order to determine the replicability and feasibility of the growth triangle phenomenon, which was imported as a concept for economic development from Southeast Asia. It also seeks to establish whether ICBTs...
Chapter
Six decades after Africa started attaining independence its states remain distinct and underdeveloped, despite the “Africa rising” hype and the historical consideration that integration is essential to transformation and development. Why is Africa failing to integrate and subsequently achieve development and overcome poverty? This chapter attempts...
Chapter
Cross-Border migration in the Southern African region has a long history. For example, from the late 1800s, Mozambicans worked seasonally on farms in the Western Cape of South Africa. Furthermore, in the 1860s, large-scale migration to the diamond fields in Kimberly from Mozambique, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi and Swaziland, among others, preceded mi...
Chapter
Full-text available
Based on a review of the literature and interviews conducted between 2009 and 2011 with Mozambicanmigrants and members of their families, this chapter investigates some of the main characteristics of labour migration as well as the importance of remittances for the livelihoods of Mozambican households in the post-apartheid period. It then identifie...
Chapter
Cross-border migration and trade are an important and integral part of migration in the SADC region. They contribute to poverty reduction, and are a source of livelihood for many people. Despite the lack of SADC policies that enhance cross-border migration and trade, these appear to be a practical approach to regional economic integration from belo...
Book
Full-text available
Based on migration dynamics in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) region, this edited volume focuses on the activities of grassroots and informal non-state actors. The authors explore cross-border economic activities, migration governance issues, the regional integration project of the SADC, and implications for sustainable developme...
Research
Full-text available
Il est possible pour les pays africains de conjuguer libéralisation du commerce, croissance économique et droits de l’homme dans le cadre de la Zone de libre-échange continentale (ZLEC), et ils y trouveront un intérêt économique et politique. C'est une des conclusions de cette étude, menée en 2016-2017 par la Commission des Nations unies pour l'Afr...
Chapter
This contribution considers the possibility of a borderless Southern Africa—under the auspices of the Southern African Development Community (SADC). This is done against the realities and understandings of migration and contested notions of citizenship and development in Southern Africa. A thorough review of legislative and policy frameworks of dif...
Book
Full-text available
The human rights implications of the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) are likely to be significant. The Economic Commission for Africa, the Friedrich-Ebert- Stiftung and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights commissioned this ex-ante human rights impact assessment of the AfCFTA to identify possible adverse...
Article
This paper examines the cross-border sociocultural and economic activities of the inhabitants of the contiguous border areas of Zambia, Malawi, and Mozambique (ZMM), in order to compare perceptions towards each of these practices by various actors including informal cross-border traders (ICBTs), ordinary inhabitants of the borderland communities of...
Article
Full-text available
This paper provides a review of relevant global, regional and national legislative frameworks that seek to address human trafficking and considers the effectiveness of such legislation in the Southern African region. To a lesser extent, the paper also considers the possibility of implementing effective legislation on human smuggling in a region wit...
Technical Report
Full-text available
On the African continent, migration especially within the sub-regions has always been part of everyday life, with the causes for migration being different from region to region. The motives for migration and the challenges facing the individual African regions and countries vary considerably. However, it is notable that the search for work, economi...
Article
Purpose Despite enacting numerous legislations, policies and practices accommodating third country nationals, Europe continues to erect a fortress against foreigners. The recent migration crisis on the shores of the Mediterranean seem to validate this view. As Europe searches for optimal solutions to the migration crisis, recent media and humanitar...
Article
ABSTRACT This paper examines the contribution of networks of cross-border grassroots non-State actors to regional integration. It uses three assumptions to determine whether sub-regional schemes augment regional integration: (a) networks of grassroots non-State actors connect communities that share common backgrounds, histories and cultures; (b) in...
Article
This paper surveys frameworks of labour migration in southern Africa and determines South Africa's policy responses to inflows of migrants from seven neighbouring countries. Legislations, policy reports and scientific publications on migration were thoroughly reviewed and interviews and correspondence with key policymakers were conducted. Statistic...
Article
Full-text available
This report focuses on labour migration policy frameworks in a regional context. It provides an overview of global and regional standards and subsequently focuses on policy evolution in the Southern African regions. In particular, it deals with the set of policy frameworks regulating labour migration towards South Africa from the following neighbou...
Article
Places in the world unable to access new technologies cannot tap into the benefits of globalisation and risk further marginalisation from global trade (Castells, 1998). Does information and communication technology (ICT), therefore, contribute to marginalisation of least developed countries (LDCs) in Southeast Asia (SEA) and Eastern and Southern Af...
Article
This paper discusses the threat to sideline some economies or sections thereof from the activities that are characteristic of globalization in the contemporary global political economy, in an attempt to define the term marginalization. This is partly motivated by the observation that no work currently exists that is devoted to defining or conceptua...
Article
Full-text available
International migration has increased pace of late. There were 214 million international migrants globally in 2010 and 155 million in 1990. 18% of the growth in the global immigrant population (representing a migrant stock increase of 13 million) between 1990 and 2010 included migrants in the global south. Most of these originated from within the g...

Network

Cited By

Projects

Projects (6)
Archived project
The objective of the research project MIGRAFRICA (Determinants and drivers of migration in Africa) is to develop a regional overview of the main determinants and drivers of migration in SSA focusing on the structural causes of rural out-migration. It presents the main finding analytically and graphically in a working paper, an in-depth case study and an Atlas focused on the main migratory trends and drivers from, across and to SSA. The publications will be in both English and French.
Project
The Africa-EU relations, migration, development and integration (AEMDI) project, aims to bring into conversation leading academics, policy makers, political observers and practitioners from civil society to explore and examine intra-Africa migration on one hand and EU-Africa relationships vis-à-vis migration on the other hand. Efforts to integrate Africa, through the RECs, should, then, be informed by lessons and parallels drawn from across Africa, and chiefly, the integration experience of the EU—particularly the Schengen Area—in moving from free movement of labour (only) to EU citizenship, as enshrined in Article 20 (1) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. The main outcome of AEMDI is the promotion of the Jean Monnet Programme and adoption of best practices from the EU`s successes in regional integration, in Africa. The impacts of AEMDI will include increased networking and expertise between/of academics, policy makers, professionals and relevant stakeholders in Africa and the EU. AEMDI responds to the need to promote development and well-being in Africa through, among other things, learned experiences from observed successes in EU integration.
Project
The project interrogates mobility issues affecting ordinary people and economically active human resources within and across the borders of Africa’s disparate states. It also explores the dynamics of cooperation and the governance of trans-boundary natural resources. This is in a quest to examine the relationship between the spatial mobility of borders and development, as well as the migration regimes within which states that share contiguous borders in given geographic territories are embedded.