Christopher P Lynam

Christopher P Lynam
Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science | CEFAS · Lowestoft Laboratory

PhD Marine Biology

About

82
Publications
34,192
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2,936
Citations
Additional affiliations
October 2001 - October 2007

Publications

Publications (82)
Article
Full-text available
Anarhichas lupus is a boreo-Arctic species with biological characteristics often associated with vulnerability to over-exploitation. Although not commercially targeted in the North Sea, A. lupus is a bycatch species in mixed demersal fisheries. Here we provide an overview of the status of A. lupus in the North Sea, as observed from commercial landi...
Article
Full-text available
Achieving Good Environmental Status (GES) requires managing ecosystems subject to a variety of pressures such as climate change, eutrophication, and fishing. However, ecosystem models are generally much better at representing top-down impacts from fishing than bottom-up impacts due to warming or changes in nutrient loading. Bottom-up processes ofte...
Article
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Understanding change at the base of the marine foodwebs is fundamental to understanding how climate change can impact fisheries. However, there is a shortage of empirical measurements of primary productivity, and models estimates often disagree with each other by an order of magnitude or more. In this study we incorporate information from empirical...
Article
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The Northeast Atlantic, a highly productive maritime area, has been exposed to a wide range of direct human pressures, such as fishing, shipping, coastal development, pollution, and non-indigenous species (NIS) introductions, in addition to anthropogenically-driven global climate change. Nonetheless, this regional sea supports a high diversity of s...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The species status assessment for the Marine Strategy Framework Directive is structured around five Good Environmental Status (GES) criteria, i.e., by-catch rate, population abundance, population demographic characteristics, species distribution and habitat for the species. The MSFD Biodiversity theme for species includes, among others, some highly...
Article
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Although frequently suggested as a goal for ecosystem-based fisheries management, incorporating ecosystem information into fisheries stock assessments has proven challenging. The uncertainty of input data, coupled with the structural uncertainty of complex multi-species models, currently makes the use of absolute values from such models contentious...
Article
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Being located between primary producers and fish, zooplankton are a key element of marine food webs, the trophic structure of which is dependent upon the size distribution of species. Changes in zooplankton community size structure have the potential to alter the food web structure and ultimately the quality of food for planktivorous fish. Zooplank...
Article
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Eutrophication is one of the most important anthropogenic pressures impacting coastal seas. In Europe, several legislations and management measures have been implemented to halt nutrient overloading in marine ecosystems. This study evaluates the impact of freshwater nutrient control measures on higher trophic levels (HTL) in European marine ecosyst...
Preprint
Many wild species affected by human activities require multiple surveys with differing designs to capture behavioural response to wide ranging habitat conditions and map and quantify them. While data from for example intersecting but disparate fish surveys using different gear, are widely available, differences in design and methodology often limit...
Article
Seabed substrates have the capacity to support a variety of marine communities. However, habitats provided by natural substrates are increasingly modified and supplemented by man-made structures. These provide hard surfaces suitable for colonisation by sedentary and/or non-migratory organisms, and may contribute to an interconnected system of benef...
Article
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Although an ecosystem approach to fisheries has been recognized as a means of progressing toward sustainable fishing, successful implementation of this approach has been limited. However, one way in which progress has been made is through the use of suites of indicators. Decision tree frameworks can be used to incorporate trends in ecological, fish...
Article
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The implementation of an Ecosystem Approach Fisheries Management (EAFM) in ICCAT has been slow and patchy, as it lacks a long-term plan, vision and guidance on how to operationalize it. Ecosystem plans are needed to formalize the process of operationalizing the EAFM by identifying and formalizing ecosystem goals and objectives, planning actions bas...
Article
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Integrating food web indicators into ecological status assessments is central to developing effective management measures that can improve degraded ecosystems. This is because they can reveal how ecosystems respond to environmental change that cannot be inferred from studying habitat, species or assemblages alone. However, the substantial investmen...
Technical Report
Full-text available
In a ‘bottom-up’ approach, WGECO compiled a list of candidate indicators for use in the ICES Ecosystem Overviews (EOs; ToR d.). These were mostly indicators which were scored earlier for their applicability for the EOs by WKFOOI, WKBIODIV and WGECO (including those in the 2018 WGECO report). A new scoring system for operationality was set up, based...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Several international legal agreements and guidelines have set the minimum standards and key principles to guide the implementation of an ecosystem approach to fisheries management (EAFM). However, the implementation of an EAFM in tuna Regional Fisheries Management Organizations (RFMOs) has been patchy and lack a long-term plan, vision and guidance...
Article
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Marine ecosystems are influenced by multiple stressors in both linear and non-linear ways. Using generalized additive models (GAMs) fitted to outputs from a multi-ecosystem, multi-model simulation experiment, we investigated 14 major ecological indicators across ten marine ecosystems about their responses to fishing pressure under: (i) three differ...
Article
Full-text available
Moving toward ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) necessitates a suite of ecological indicators that are responsive to fishing pressure, capable of tracking changes in the state of marine ecosystems, and related to management objectives. In this study, we employed the gradient forest method to assess the performance of 14 key ecological ind...
Article
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Indicators are effective tools for summarizing and communicating key aspects of ecosystem state and have a long record of use in marine pollution and fisheries management. The application of biodiversity indicators to assess the status of species, habitats, and functional diversity in marine conservation and policy, however, is still developing and...
Article
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Artificial structures in the marine environment may have direct and/or indirect impact on the behaviour and space use of mobile foragers. This study explores whether environmental and physical features in the North Sea-including artificial structures (wrecks, wind turbines, cables, and oil and gas structures) were associated with local abundance of...
Article
An experiment during a fisheries independent survey in the North Sea was conducted to test whether sampling effort could be reduced without a significant loss in data precision. To examine potential effects of reducing tow duration from the standard 30 min to a proposed 15 min estimates of species encounter rates, species richness, and estimates of...
Article
An experiment during a fisheries independent survey in the North Sea was conducted to test whether sampling effort could be reduced without a significant loss in data precision. To examine potential effects of reducing tow duration from the standard 30 min to a proposed 15 min estimates of species encounter rates, species richness, and estimates of...
Article
Full-text available
Size-based indicators are used worldwide in research that supports the management of commercially exploited wild fish populations, because of their responsiveness to fishing pressure. Observational and experimental data, however, have highlighted the deeply-rooted links between fish size and environmental conditions that can drive additional, inter...
Article
Full-text available
Gelatinous zooplankton, including cnidarians, ctenophores, and tunicates (appendicularians, pyrosomes, salps and doliolids), are often overlooked by scientific studies, ecosystem assessments and at a management level. Despite the important economic consequences that they can have on human activities and on the marine food-web, arguments often relat...
Article
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The possible impacts of the European Commission’s proposed North Sea Multi-Annual Plan are evaluated in terms of its likely outcomes to achieve management objectives for fishing pressure, species’ biomass, fishery yield, the landed value of key species and ecosystem objectives. The method applies management strategy evaluation procedures that emplo...
Data
Technical methods of the uncertainty and MSE routine. (DOCX)
Article
As one of the most economically important marine ecosystems, the North Sea has been impacted by numerous anthropogenic activities. A move towards an ecosystem approach to fisheries is key in developing sustainable fisheries in marine ecosystems. The application of a previously tested decision tree framework that employs a suite of indicators sugges...
Article
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Phytoplankton primary production is at the base of the marine food web; changes in primary production have direct or indirect effects on higher trophic levels, from zooplankton organisms to marine mammals and seabirds. Here we present a new time-series on gross primary production in the North Sea, from 1988 to 2013, estimated using in situ measurem...
Article
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Marine environmental monitoring is undertaken to provide evidence that environmental management targets are being met. Moreover, monitoring also provides context to marine science and over the last century has allowed development of a critical scientific understanding of the marine environment and the impacts that humans are having on it. The seas...
Article
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Climate change and resource exploitation have been shown to modify the importance of bottom-up and top-down forces in ecosystems. However, the resulting pattern of trophic control in complex food webs is an emergent property of the system and thus unintuitive. We develop a statistical nondeterministic model, capable of modeling complex patterns of...
Article
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Wide-ranging, indicator-based assessments of large, complex ecosystems are playing an increasing role in guiding environmental policy and management. An example is the EU's Marine Strategy Framework Directive, which requires Member States to take measures to reach “good environmental status” (GES) in European marine waters. However, formulation of...
Article
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A Catalogue of Marine Biodiversity Indicators was developed with the aim of providing the basis for assessing the environmental status of the marine ecosystems. Useful for the implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), this catalogue allows the navigation of a database of indicators mostly related to biological diversity, non...
Article
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In Europe, and around the world, the approach to management of the marine environment has developed from the management of single issues (e.g. species and/or pressures) towards holistic Ecosystem Based Management that includes aims to maintain biodiversity and protect ecosystem functioning. Within the European Union, this approach is implemented th...
Article
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Sustainability of marine ecosystems and their services are dependent on marine biodiversity, which is threatened worldwide. Biodiversity protection is a major target of the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive, requiring assessment of the status of biodiversity on the level of species, habitats, and ecosystems including genetic diversity and the...
Article
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Human activities, both established and emerging, increasingly affect the provision of marine ecosystem services that deliver societal and economic benefits. Monitoring the status of marine ecosystems and determining how human activities change their capacity to sustain benefits for society requires an evidence-based Integrated Ecosystem Assessment...
Article
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To date there has been no evaluation of the capabilities of the Baltic Sea ecosys- tem models to provide information as outlined by the Marine Strategy Frame- work Directive. This work aims to fill in this knowledge gap by exploring the modelling potential of nine Baltic Sea ecosystem models to support this specific European policy and, in particul...
Article
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How have North Sea skate and shark assemblages changed since the early 20th century when bottom trawling became widespread, while their environment became increasingly impacted by fishing, climate change, habitat degradation and other anthropogenic pressures? This paper examines long-term changes in the distribution and occurrence of the elasmobran...
Article
IndiSeas (“Indicators for the Seas”) is a collaborative international working group that was established in 2005 to evaluate the status of exploited marine ecosystems using a suite of indicators in a comparative framework. An initial shortlist of seven ecological indicators was selected to quantify the effects of fishing on the broader ecosystem us...
Article
The ecosystem approach (EA) to environmental management is commonly associated with the holistic, integrative assessment of ecosystem status, where assessments of single elements are aggregated across one or multiple levels. Such an integrative assessment is required by the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Member states of the E...
Article
This study addresses a common assumption in fisheries science: that partial fishing mortality is directly proportional to fishing effort. It is important to challenge this a priori sensible assumption, as it is also built into many models and tools used by the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) to help provide advice and co...
Article
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Understanding how external pressures impact ecosystem structure and functioning is essential for ecosystem based approaches to fisheries management. We quantified the relative effects of fisheries exploitation and environmental conditions on ecological indicators derived from two different data sources, fisheries catch data (catch-based) and fisher...
Article
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European fisheries management have adopted maximum sustainable yield (MSY) targets for fishing mortality on commercial species to maximise the provision of food. EU member states are also committed to reach Good Environmental Status by 2020 through the Marine Strategy Framework Directive which aims to protect all ecosystem services. So, how will fi...
Article
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The European Union's Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) seeks to achieve, for all European seas, " Good Environmental Status " (GEnS), by 2020. Ecological models are currently one of the strongest approaches used to predicting and understanding the consequences of anthropogenic and climate-driven changes in the natural environment. We asses...
Article
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The large fish indicator (LFI), or 'proportion of fish greater than 40 cm length in bottom trawl surveys,' is a frequently debated indicator of Good Environmental Status in European regional seas. How does the LFI respond to changes in fishing pressure? This question is addressed here through analysis of fine-scale spatial trends in the LFI within...
Article
Fisheries provide critical provisioning services, especially given increasing human population. Understanding where marine communities are declining provides an indication of ecosystems of concern and highlights potential conflicts between seafood provisioning from wild fisheries and other ecosystem services. Here we use the nonparametric statistic...
Article
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Trophic level (TL)-based indicators have been widely used to examine fishing impacts in aquatic ecosystems and the induced biodiversity changes. However, much debate has ensued regarding discrepancies and challenges arising from the use of landings data from commercial fisheries to calculate TL indicators. Subsequent studies have started to examine...
Experiment Findings
infograpghic available here - interactivity works best if downloaded! http://figshare.com/articles/Significant_interactions_in_the_North_Sea_ecosystem_modelled_using_statistical_tGAMS_Interactive_with_key/967833
Technical Report
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Within the DEVOTES project, a catalogue of existing indicators of marine biodiversity and closely related topics such as non-indigenous species, food-webs, and seafloor integrity (EU Marine Strategy MSFD Descriptors 1, 2, 4, 6) has been established. Currently, the catalogue includes 557 entries with information on metadata ranging from indicator de...