Christopher M. Layne

Christopher M. Layne
University of California, Los Angeles | UCLA · Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioural Sciences

Ph.D.
Competency based education &training in fields of traumatic stress, bereavement; evidence-based practice & assessment.

About

148
Publications
145,714
Reads
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7,106
Citations
Introduction
I am Director of Education in Evidence-Based Practice for the UCLA National Center for Child Traumatic Stress, which oversees the National Child Traumatic Stress Network. My professional activities share the common aim of developing clinically useful theory, assessment tools, interventions, and training curricula relating to psychological, environmental, and biological factors that contribute to the origin, course, consequences, and treatment of posttraumatic and post-bereavement adjustment.
Additional affiliations
January 2010 - present
University of California, Los Angeles
Position
  • Research Psychologist
August 2006 - present
University of California, Los Angeles
Position
  • Chair, Core Curriculum on Childhood Trauma Task Force, National Child Traumatic Stress Network
Description
  • I have Chaired the NCTSN Core Curriculum on Childhood Trauma Task Force since its inception in Fall 2006.
July 2006 - present
UCLA/Duke University National Center for Child Traumatic Stress (2006-present)
Position
  • Program Director of Education in Evidence-Based Practice
Education
August 1989 - August 1996
UCLA Clinical Psychology doctoral program
Field of study
  • Clinical Psychology (major), minors in Statistics & Measurement, Social Psychology

Publications

Publications (148)
Article
Full-text available
To date, the US military has made major strides in acknowledging and therapeutically addressing trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in service members and their families. However, given the nature of warfare and high rates of losses sustained by both military members (e.g., deaths of fellow unit members) and military families (e.g., lo...
Article
Full-text available
Two bereavement-related disorders are proposed for the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V): Adjustment Disorder Related to Bereavement, to be located in the main body of the text as an official diagnostic entity; and Bereavement-Related Disorder, including a Traumatic Death Specifier, to be located in...
Article
Objective: The majority of U.S. mental health practitioners receive little to no foundational trauma education, and instead rely on in-service or continuing education to fill this deficit. Consequently, it is essential to have experienced mental health practitioners capable of delivering trauma education. Since 2009; experienced mental health prac...
Article
Full-text available
Given the devastation caused by disasters and mass violence, it is critical that intervention policy be based on the most updated research findings. However, to date, no evidence-based consensus has been reached supporting a clear set of recommendations for intervention during the immediate and the mid-term post mass trauma phases. Because it is un...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: This study examined bereavement-related risk markers (number of deaths, cause of death, and relationship to deceased) of mental and behavioral health problems (suicidal thoughts or behaviors, self-injury, depression, posttraumatic stress, and substance use) in a national sample of clinic-referred bereaved adolescents. Method: Particip...
Article
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The Grief Facilitation Inventory (GFI) is a newly-developed measure of caregiver behaviors theorized to facilitate or hinder children’s adaptive grief reactions. We examine its factor structure, reliability, and validity. An exploratory factor analysis identified four factors: Ongoing Connection, Existential Continuity/Support, Caregiver Grief Expr...
Article
Full-text available
Publicly available learning material to support professional learning about child traumatic stress. This resource guides users in applying the 12 Core Concepts: Concepts for Understanding Traumatic Stress Responses in Children and Families to "real-world" case material, with the goal of strengthening trauma-informed professionalism for a broad rang...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Most mental health practitioners receive minimal trauma training in their degree curriculum and rely on supplemental training to build additional skills. Since 2016, the Core Curriculum on Childhood Trauma (CCCT) has been used for brief in-service training of more than 2,000 mental health practitioners. Prior evaluation showed statistica...
Book
Full-text available
Skills for Psychological Recovery (SPR), is an intervention designed to follow Psychological First Aid (PFA) in the weeks and months following disasters and mass violence events. SPR aims to help survivors gain skills to manage distress and cope with post-disaster stress and adversity. The SPR Field Operations Guide was developed jointly by the Nat...
Article
Full-text available
The Persistent Complex Bereavement Disorder (PCBD) Checklist was constructed to facilitate the developmentally sensitive assessment of proposed PCBD criteria in bereaved children and adolescents 8–18 years of age. Initial analyses of the PCBD Checklist provided support for the hypothesized two-factor model. The purpose of the present study was to e...
Article
The Active Inhibition Scale (AIS; Ayers, Sandler, & Twohey, 1998) is an 11-item, self-report measure of emotional suppression among children and adolescents. Previous research with the AIS has linked emotional suppression to several clinically significant outcomes, such as posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and suicide, among trauma-exposed and b...
Preprint
A. Plan for most common issues seen in our setting. How well do we know our clients and anticipate/detect their needs? Identify our most common clinical issues /hypotheses; develop assessment methods for identifying each condition.
Chapter
Layne, C. M., & Kaplow, J. B. (2020). Assessing bereavement and grief disorders. In E. A. Youngstrom, M. J. Prinstein, E. J. Mash, & R. A. Barkley (Eds.), Assessment of Disorders in Childhood and Adolescence (5th ed., pp. 471-508). New York: Guilford Press. Reviews the literature on childhood bereavement and applies principles of evidence-based as...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this chapter we draw on multiple theories— including conservation of resources (COR) theory (Hobfoll, 1989, 2012), traumatic stress theory, and developmental psychopathology (Layne, Beck, et al., 2009; Pynoos, Steinberg, & Wraith, 1995)— to formulate an integrative conceptual framework. Our aims are to propose a diverse “family” of adjustment tr...
Chapter
Written for school professionals, this chapter, proposes a typology of four different trajectories of positive post-traumatic adjustment (e.g., stress resistance, resilient recovery, protracted recovery) and six different trajectories of negative post-traumatic adjustment (e.g. decline, delayed decline). It also proposes a typology of different att...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Active Inhibition Scale (AIS; Ayers, Sandler, & Twohey, 1998) is an 11-item self-report measure of emotional suppression among children and adolescents. Previous research with the AIS has linked emotional suppression to several clinically-significant outcomes (e.g., posttraumatic stress symptoms and suicide) among trauma-exposed and bereaved yo...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The impact of trauma on mental and physical health has long been recognized as a significant public health issue, yet there has been little unanimity about how to best develop a trauma-capable national workforce. The Core Curriculum on Childhood Trauma (CCCT) is being used to train a wide variety of mental health professionals and child...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives This study describes a pilot open trial of Multidimensional Grief Therapy, an assessment-driven, phasic individual therapy for bereaved youth. This study provides a preliminary outcome evaluation with respect to maladaptive grief reactions, post-traumatic stress symptoms, and depressive symptoms in bereaved youth. Methods The sample con...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Children and adolescents who experience potentially traumatic events are at risk for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although psychometrically sound measures are now available to assess these youth, brief tools are currently needed for screening purposes. Two studies were conducted to develop and validate the UCLA PTSD R...
Article
Full-text available
As the intensity of such high-impact weather events increases (Walsh et al., 2016), more children will be exposed to potentially traumatic natural disasters, including hurricanes and hurricane-related flood events. Hurricane and flood exposure place youth at risk for a number of negative mental health outcomes, including posttraumatic stress disord...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To describe the test construction procedure and evaluate the internal consistency, criterion-referenced validity, and diagnostic accuracy of the Child/Adolescent Self-Report Version of the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index for DSM-5 (RI-5) across 2 independent samples. Method: Study 1 examined the clarity, developmental appropriateness, accept...
Article
Objective: The clinical and nosological significance of grief reactions in youth exposed to a shared trauma (9/11, the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States) was tested by examining whether the predictors (ie, non-loss-related trauma versus traumatic bereavement), clinical correlates, factorial structure, and phenomenology of gr...
Article
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Objective: To evaluate potential differences in therapeutic outcomes between youths who completed a full course of treatment as planned compared to youths who terminated treatment prematurely. Method: Using longitudinal data from the National Child Traumatic Stress Network (NCTSN) Core Data Set, the present study examined demographic characteristic...
Article
This study proposes a method for calculating the annual incidence rate of sibling bereavement among US youth using national epidemiological data. The proposed model combines data on family household size with national death statistics to calculate the number of siblings affected by the death of a child annually. From 2012 to 2015, an average of 61,...
Article
The present paper has two primary aims. The first is to propose basic guidelines for applying EBA concepts, principles, and practices to the task of assessing youth in the aftermath of a hurricane. These guidelines draw upon multiple sources, including both empirical studies of hurricane exposure-related risk factors and consequences and our clinic...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Childhood bereavement is linked to suicide‐related behaviors in adolescence and adulthood, but candidate mechanisms through which bereavement may lead to suicide‐related behaviors have not been explored. One candidate pathway is that grief reaction arising from bereavement lead to increased perceived burdensomeness and/or thwarted belongi...
Poster
Full-text available
Curricula for training mental health professionals, including child and adolescent psychiatrists, on the complex impacts of child trauma are limited. To address this issue, the National Child Traumatic Stress Network (NCTSN) developed the Core Curriculum on Childhood Trauma (CCCT) which incorporates 12 Core Concepts into child trauma case studies d...
Article
Building upon prior research documenting differential effects of psychological maltreatment, physical, and sexual abuse on youth mental health outcomes (Spinazzola et al., 2014), the present study sought to clarify the relative predictive contributions of type of maltreatment compared to salient exposure characteristics. The sample included 5058 cl...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined links between the language bereaved children use to describe the death of their caregiver and children's psychological/behavioral functioning and coping strategies. Participants included 44 children (54.5% male) aged 7 to 12 (M = 9.05) years who were bereaved by the death of a caregiver. Children were assessed via self‐ and care...
Article
Objectives: Both bereavement and thwarted belongingness serve as risk markers for youth suicide-related behaviors. This study examined candidate predictors of thwarted belongingness among bereaved youth, including caregiver cause of death and surviving caregiver coping style. Methods: Forty-three caregiver-bereaved families (58 children aged 7-1...
Article
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Invited article published in The California Psychologist (official newsletter of the California Psychological Association).
Article
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The inclusion of Persistent Complex Bereavement Disorder (PCBD) in the DSM-5 appendix signifies a call for research regarding the distinguishing features and clinical utility of proposed PCBD criteria. Rigorously constructed tools for assessing PCBD are lacking, especially for youth. This study evaluated the validity and clinical utility of the PCB...
Preprint
The inclusion of Persistent Complex Bereavement Disorder (PCBD) in the DSM-5 appendix signifies a call for research regarding the distinguishing features and clinical utility of proposed PCBD criteria. Rigorously constructed tools for assessing PCBD are lacking, especially for youth. This study evaluated the validity and clinical utility of the PCB...
Preprint
The inclusion of Persistent Complex Bereavement Disorder (PCBD) in the DSM-5 appendix signifies a call for research regarding the distinguishing features and clinical utility of proposed PCBD criteria. Rigorously constructed tools for assessing PCBD are lacking, especially for youth. This study evaluated the validity and clinical utility of the PCB...
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT Background and scope of the problem. High prevalence rates of deaths by accidents, suicides, and homicides, coupled with expanding social networks, place adolescents at significant risk for traumatic bereavement occasioned by the traumatic deaths of their friends, romantic partners, and family members. Conceptual analysis. This conceptual...
Article
Full-text available
There is a need to delineate best practices for referring, assessing, and retaining students suspected of posttraumatic stress (PTS) and maladaptive grief (MG) in school-based treatment. Evidence-based risk-screening procedures should accurately include students who are appropriate for group treatment and exclude students who do not require treatme...
Article
Full-text available
Objective. Bereavement due to sudden loss may disrupt positive adjustment among youth, yet few studies have examined the age at which youth are most likely to first encounter sudden loss, the co-occurrence of sudden loss with other traumatic events, and the independent effects of sudden loss on academic functioning. Method. Data were analyzed from...
Method
Full-text available
This resource is a single page document highlighting the simplified 12 Core Concepts with their accompanying icons. The simplified 12 core concepts were constructed to be a basic tool for non-mental health professions (such as teachers, parents, undergraduates, and community groups) when using the 12 Core Concepts.
Technical Report
Full-text available
This is an introduction and overview to the Core Curriculum on Childhood Trauma. It describes what the curriculum is, who it might be useful for, and how to get involved with the Core Curriculum
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Descriptors: Problem Based Learning & Cognitive Load This presentation reviews the creation of instructional tools to aid learning in a problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum about child traumatic stress. The tool creation was a part of a larger curriculum improvement project using instructional design principles to improve the use and disseminati...
Presentation
Full-text available
This is a slide set that can be shared with learners before a Core Curriculum training to introduce them to the PBL cycle and the purpose of the Core Curriculum.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Descriptors: Collaborative Instructional Design & Problem Based Learning This presentation will discuss a collaborative project to improve a curriculum about child traumatic stress by integrating new instructional design principles with problem-based learning. This will include a discussion of the design process, how needs and constraints were incl...
Article
Full-text available
The death of a loved one, particularly a parent, has been identified as not only the most common, but also the most distressing form of adversity youth may experience in their lifetime. Surviving caregivers’ communication with their children may play a critical role in shaping bereaved children’s psychological functioning. However, few studies have...
Article
Full-text available
This study identifies risk factors for grief following a mass school shooting. Participants (N = 1,013) completed online questionnaires 3-4 months (Time 1) and 1 year (Time 2) post-shootings. We tested models predicting Time 2 grief reactions, exploring direct and indirect predictive effects of exposure variables (physical and social proximity) thr...
Article
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Promoting trust in public officials and active political engagement is vital to sustaining a well-functioning democracy. Developmental psychologists propose that youths’ beliefs about government and participation in politics are rooted in personal experiences within their communities. Previous studies have focused on how positive experiences within...
Article
Most mental health services for trauma-exposed children and adolescents were not originally developed for refugees. Information is needed to help clinicians design services to address the consequences of trauma in refugee populations. We compared trauma exposure, psychological distress, and mental health service utilization among children and adole...
Article
Full-text available
Objective. Internalizing and externalizing problems commonly co-occur with adolescent posttraumatic stress and grief reactions. However, little is known about whether these co-occurring symptoms moderate adolescents’ response to sequenced components of trauma- and grief-focused interventions. Method: Forty-four middle school students (aged 12 to 14...
Chapter
Growing recognition of the high prevalence rates of trauma exposure and its severe consequences across the life span have led to international calls to action to train clinicians in essential trauma competencies (Courtois and Gold 2009; Weine et al. 2002), many of which involve assessment (Cook et al. 2014). Nevertheless, standard assessment toolki...
Article
Full-text available
Citation: Layne, C. M., Abramovitz, R. Stuber, M., Ross, L., & Strand, V. (2017, January). The Core Curriculum on Childhood Trauma: A tool for preparing a trauma-informed mental health workforce. Traumatic StressPoints, 31, 1-8. (http://sherwood-istss.informz.net/informzdataservice/onlineversion/ind/bWFpbGluZ2luc3RhbmNlaWQ9NjI1MTUwNCZzdWJzY3JpYmV...
Book
Full-text available
Developed by experts in trauma psychiatry and psychology and grounded in adolescent developmental theory, this is a modular, assessment-driven treatment that addresses the needs of adolescents facing trauma, bereavement, and accompanying developmental disruption. Created by the developers of the University of California, Los Angeles PTSD Reaction I...
Article
Full-text available
Violence exposure in adolescence can disrupt ongoing adjustment, yet few studies have examined potential mechanisms that can explain these effects. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, we examined associations among adolescent violence exposure and indicators of adjustment in young adulthood, and tested whe...
Article
Full-text available
Refugee youth routinely encounter difficult challenges related to past trauma, loss, and resettlement stressors. The recent surge in refugees resettling in the United States has made it increasingly likely that mental health service providers will receive referrals to work with refugee youth. It is thus essential to prepare the national mental heal...
Article
Full-text available
Persistent Complex Bereavement Disorder (PCBD) is a newly proposed diagnosis placed in the Appendix of the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as an invitation for further research. To date, no studies have examined the dimensionality of PCBD or explored whether different PCBD criteria domains relate in...
Article
The severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms is linked to race and ethnicity, albeit with contradictory findings (reviewed in Alcántara, Casement, & Lewis-Fernández, 2013; Pole, Gone, & Kulkarni, 2008). We systematically examined Caucasian (n = 3,767) versus non-Caucasian race (n = 2,824) and Hispanic (n = 2,395) versus non-Hispani...
Article
Full-text available
The serious illness or death of a caregiver are two of the most distressing events that can befall a child, and are often temporally linked. Although both adversities may impact children’s mental health, studies have not yet attempted to disentangle the effects of parental illness versus those of parental death with regard to children’s psychologic...
Article
Full-text available
The authors examined factors theorized to contribute to adaptive functioning in 56 parentally bereaved children (age 7-13) who had lost their caregiver within the previous 6 months. Adaptive functioning, defined as falling below clinical threshold levels on all measures of depression, posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and internalizing/externalizing s...
Article
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Using a mixed-method design with Bosnian students (n = 63, ages 16-19) and their primary caregivers (n = 50), we explored the impact of post-war adversities on adolescent adjustment, adolescent-caregiver relationships, and future outlook 8 years after the 1992-1995 Bosnian civil war. Adolescents and caregivers identified themes linking the war and...
Technical Report
Please note that I am NOT authorized to disseminate this work directly to anyone (all requests that I send it to you will be ignored.) Instead, please follow the prescribed protocol by directing all inquiries, comments, or requests for copies to the National Center for PTSD (ncptsd@va.gov). Requests for copies can also be directed to either: Elan...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Please note that I am not permitted to disseminate this test directly, no matter who requests it. This test is officially owned by UCLA and copyright protected and distributed through UCLA's Office of Intellectual Property. For fee schedule and licensing agreement (available for online purchase) see http://oip.ucla.edu/PCBD. Developers can be con...
Article
Full-text available
Recent calls to action for competency-based training, evaluation, and credentialing of mental health professionals focus heavily on instilling the knowledge and skills needed for performing evidence-based assessment and treatment. We propose the content of a companion training curriculum in clinical decision-making that reflects the pervasive and i...
Article
Full-text available
Growing evidence supports the effectiveness of Trauma and Grief Component Therapy for Adolescents (TGCT-A) in reducing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and maladaptive grief (MG) reactions. This pilot study explored whether the specific focus of students’ narratives (i.e., focus on trauma vs. focus on loss) as shared by TGCT-A group me...
Article
Full-text available
Background and objectives: The vast majority of youth who lived through the Bosnian war were exposed to multiple traumatic events, including interpersonal violence, community destruction, and the loss of a loved one. This study examined factors that predict post-war psychological adjustment, specifically posttraumatic stress, in Bosnian adolescent...
Article
Full-text available
We examined bereaved children's and surviving caregivers' psychological responses following the death of the other caregiver as a function of t