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Christopher C. M. Kyba

Christopher C. M. Kyba
Breakthrough Prize Laureate
Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ · Remote Sensing

About

133
Publications
72,505
Reads
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11,537
Citations
Citations since 2016
63 Research Items
6463 Citations
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Publications

Publications (133)
Article
Full-text available
Freshwater microbes play a crucial role in the global carbon cycle. Anthropogenic stressors that lead to changes in these microbial communities are likely to have profound consequences for freshwater ecosystems. Using field data from the coordinated sampling of 617 lakes, ponds, rivers, and streams by citizen scientists, we observed linkages betwee...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, many sports stadiums have begun using high power lighting systems to help the grass grow on the playing surfaces. These lights supplement winter sunlight, which is sometimes insufficient due to the low elevation of the sun and shading from the surrounding walls. In many stadiums, grow lights are operated at night, and the waste light emis...
Article
Full-text available
The spatial and angular emission patterns of artificial and natural light emitted, scattered, and reflected from the Earth at night are far more complex than those for scattered and reflected solar radiation during daytime. In this commentary, we use examples to show that there is additional information contained in the angular distribution of emit...
Conference Paper
The presentation will detail the proposed N8 (Night) mission – Global Environmental Effects of Artificial Nighttime Lighting. It was originally proposed as Earth Explorer 11 to ESA (European Space Agency). At any moment, one half of the Earth’s surface is experiencing daytime and one half nighttime. Most Earth surface observation missions focus on...
Article
Full-text available
The VIIRS day/night band (DNB) high gain stage (HGS) pixel effective dwell time is in the range of 2–3 milliseconds (ms), which is about one third of the flicker cycle present in lighting powered by alternating current. Thus, if flicker is present, it induces random fluctuations in nightly DNB radiances. This results in increased variance in DNB te...
Article
Full-text available
In nature, light is a key driver of animal behaviour and physiology. When studying captive or laboratory animals, researchers usually expose animals to a period of darkness, to mimic night. However, ‘darkness’ is often poorly quantified and its importance is generally underappreciated in animal research. Even small differences in nocturnal light co...
Preprint
Full-text available
Artificial skyglow is a form of light pollution with wide ranging implications on the environment. The extent, intensity and color of skyglow depends on the artificial light sources and weather conditions. Skyglow can be best determined with ground based instruments. We mapped the skyglow of Berlin, Germany, for clear sky and overcast sky condition...
Article
Full-text available
Light pollution is an environmental stressor of global extent that is growing exponentially in area and intensity. Artificial skyglow, a form of light pollution with large range, is hypothesized to have environmental impact at ecosystem level. However, testing the impact of skyglow at large scales and in a controlled fashion under in situ condition...
Article
Full-text available
Hyde et al. previously examined the trends in light emission measured by satellite for 98 communities located in or near areas certified as “International Dark Sky Places” (IDSP), and did not find evidence of a difference in trends in comparison to 98 communities of similar size located further away. Here we re-examine the satellite dataset, making...
Preprint
Full-text available
Light pollution is an environmental stressor of global extent that is growing exponentially in area and intensity. Artificial skyglow, a form of light pollution with large range, is hypothesized to have environmental impact at ecosystem level. However, testing the impact of skyglow at large scales and in a controlled fashion under in situ condition...
Article
Full-text available
Studies of the impact of environmental pollutants on health outcomes can be compromised by mismeasured exposures or unmeasured confounding with other environmental exposures. Both problems can be exacerbated by measuring exposure from data sources with low spatial resolution. Artificial light at night, for example, is often estimated from low-resol...
Article
Full-text available
With the growing size and use of night light time series from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite Day/Night Band (DNB), it is important to understand the stability of the dataset. All satellites observe differences in pixel values during repeat observations. In the case of night light data, these changes can be due to both environmental e...
Article
Artificial light at night (ALAN) can have negative impacts on the health of humans and ecosystems.1, 2, 3, 4 Marine organisms, including coral reefs in particular, rely on the natural light cycles of sunlight and moonlight to regulate various physiological, biological, and behavioral processes.5, 6, 7, 8 Here, we demonstrate that light pollution ca...
Article
Full-text available
Temporal variation of natural light sources such as airglow limits the ability of night light sensors to detect changes in small sources of artificial light (such as villages). This study presents a method for correcting for this effect globally, using the satellite radiance detected from regions without artificial light emissions. We developed a r...
Article
Full-text available
Experimental and epidemiologic studies suggest that light at night (LAN) exposure disrupts circadian rhythm, and this disruption may increase breast cancer risk. We investigated the potential association between residential outdoor LAN and breast cancer risk. A population-based case–control study was conducted in Vancouver, British Columbia and Kin...
Preprint
Anthropogenic skyglow dominates views of the natural night sky in most urban settings, and the associated emission of artificial light at night (ALAN) into the environment of cities involves a number of known and suspected negative externalities. One approach to lowering consumption of ALAN in cities is dimming or extinguishing publicly owned outdo...
Article
Full-text available
Diffuse glow has been observed around brightly lit cities in nighttime satellite imagery since at least the first publication of large scale maps in the late 1990s. In the literature, this has often been assumed to be an error related to the sensor, and referred to as “blooming”, presumably in relation to the effect that can occur when using a CCD...
Article
Anthropogenic skyglow dominates views of the natural night sky in most urban settings, and the associated emission of artificial light at night (ALAN) into the environment of cities involves a number of known and suspected negative externalities. One approach to lowering consumption of ALAN in cities is dimming or extinguishing publicly owned outdo...
Article
Full-text available
Measuring the angular distribution of upwelling artificial light is important for modeling light pollution, because the direction of emission affects how light propagates in the atmosphere. We characterize the angular distributions of upwelling artificial light for Europe and northern Africa in 2018, based on night time radiance data for clear nigh...
Article
Artificial skyglow is a form of light pollution with wide ranging implications on the environment. The extent, intensity and color of skyglow depends on the artificial light sources and weather conditions. Skyglow can be best determined with ground based instruments. We mapped the skyglow of Berlin, Germany, for clear sky and overcast sky condition...
Article
Remote sensing of night light emissions in the visible band offers a unique opportunity to directly observe human activity from space. This has allowed a host of applications including mapping urban areas, estimating population and GDP, monitoring disasters and conflicts. More recently, remotely sensed night lights data have found use in understand...
Article
Full-text available
The night has historically been neglected in both disciplinary and interdisciplinary research. To some extent, this is not surprising, given the diurnal bias of human researchers and the difficulty of performing work at night. The night is, however, a critical element of biological, chemical, physical, and social systems on Earth. Moreover, researc...
Preprint
The night has historically been neglected in both disciplinary and interdisciplinary research. To some extent, this is not surprising, given the diurnal bias of human researchers, and the difficulty of performing work at night. The night is, however, a critical element of biological, chemical, physical, and social systems on Earth. Moreover, resear...
Preprint
Diffuse glow has been observed around brightly lit cities in nighttime satellite imagery since at least the first publication of large scale maps in the late 1990s. In the literature, this has often been assumed to be an error related to the sensor, and referred to as "blooming", presumably in relation to the effect that can occur when using a CCD...
Article
Full-text available
Remote sensing of night lights differs from other sources of remote sensing in its ability to directly observe human activity from space as well as in informing us on a new type of anthropogenic threat, that of light pollution. This special issue focuses on studies which used newer sensors than the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program - Operati...
Article
Full-text available
Artificial light at night is a novel anthropogenic stressor. The resulting ecological light pollution affects a wide breadth of biological systems on many spatio-temporal scales, from individual organisms to communities and ecosystems. However, a widely-applicable measurement method for nocturnal light providing spatially resolved full-spectrum rad...
Article
Full-text available
Maintaining records of artisanal and small-scale mining sites in developing countries requires considerable effort, so it would be beneficial if Earth observation data from space could assist in the identifying and monitoring of such sites. Artificial light emissions are common at industrial-scale mining sites and have been associated with small-sc...
Article
Full-text available
Sensors on remote sensing satellites have provided useful tools for evaluation of the environmental impacts of nighttime artificial light pollution. However, due to their panchromatic nature, the data available from these sensors (VIIRS/DNB and DMSP/OLS) has a limited capacity accurately to assess this impact. Moreover, in some cases, recorded vari...
Article
Full-text available
Artificial light at night has affected most of the natural nocturnal landscapes worldwide and the subsequent light pollution has diverse effects on flora, fauna and human well-being. To evaluate the environmental impacts of light pollution, it is crucial to understand both the natural and artificial components of light at night under all weather co...
Article
Full-text available
With the growing size and use of night light time series from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite Day/Night Band (DNB), it is important to understand the stability of the dataset. All satellites observe differences in pixel values during repeat observations. In the case of night light data, these changes can be due to both environmental e...
Chapter
Full-text available
In the context of light pollution, citizen science is an indispensable tool for both data collection and knowledge dissemination, especially for collecting data on larger scales, such as at landscape or community levels (Kyba 2018; Kyba et al. 2013). Citizen science can mobilise people with various interests on a global level to measure the impact...
Preprint
With the growing size and use of night lights time series from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite Day/Night Band (DNB), it is important to understand the stability of the dataset. All satellites observe differences in pixel values during repeat observations. In the case of night lights data, these changes can be due to both environmental...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In recent decades, the use of artificial illumination has rapidly increased, transforming nocturnal environments worldwide. Inappropriate and extensive use of artificial illumination results in light pollution: an increase in nocturnal light above natural levels and a disruption of natural light cycles. Light/dark cycles have been stable over geolo...
Preprint
Full-text available
Artificial light at night has affected most of the natural nocturnal landscapes worldwide and the subsequent light pollution has diverse effects on flora, fauna and human well-being. To evaluate the environmental impacts of light pollution, it is crucial to understand both the natural and artificial components of light at night under all weather co...
Article
Full-text available
Artificial skyglow is dynamic due to changing atmospheric conditions and the switching on and off of artificial lights throughout the night. Street lights as well as the ornamental illumination of historical sites and buildings are sometimes switched off at a certain time to save energy. Ornamental lights in particular are often directed upwards, a...
Article
Awareness of light pollution is spreading, but with changing lighting technologies, emissions are shifting to wavelengths our current measuring devices cannot assess well. Community involvement is essential to evaluate changes in sky brightness.
Article
Full-text available
The lighting of the Church of the Three Kings in Logatec, Slovenia was replaced in 2014. The power of the installation was reduced 96% from 1.6 kW to 58 W, and spill light from the site was effectively eliminated. As a result, the church is no longer visible in nighttime satellite images of the area, indicating a reduction of waste light from the s...
Article
Full-text available
Apps for mobile devices and web-based platforms are increasingly used in citizen science projects. While extensive research has been done in multiple areas of studies, from Human-Computer Interaction to public engagement in science, we are not aware of a collection of recommendations specific for citizen science that provides support and advice for...
Article
Full-text available
Changes in the total lit area and the radiance of stably lit area in the German federal states from 2012-2016 were investigated using the Day-Night Band of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite. Most states increased in both lit area and radiance. The lit area of Bayern and Schleswig-Holstein grew rapidly, at annual rates of 9.7% and 8.8% r...
Article
Full-text available
A central aim of the “lighting revolution” (the transition to solid-state lighting technology) is decreased energy consumption. This could be undermined by a rebound effect of increased use in response to lowered cost of light. We use the first-ever calibrated satellite radiometer designed for night lights to show that from 2012 to 2016, Earth’s ar...
Article
Full-text available
Measuring the brightness of the night sky has become an increasingly important topic in recent years, as artificial lights and their scattering by the Earth’s atmosphere continue spreading around the globe. Several instruments and techniques have been developed for this task. We give an overview of these, and discuss their strengths and limitations...
Article
Full-text available
Artificial skyglow is constantly growing on a global scale, with potential ecological consequences ranging up to affecting biodiversity. To understand these consequences, worldwide mapping of skyglow for all weather conditions is urgently required. In particular, the amplification of skyglow by clouds needs to be studied, as clouds can extend the r...
Article
Full-text available
Near all-sky imaging photometry was performed from a boat on the Gulf of Aqaba to measure the night sky brightness in a coastal environment. The boat was not anchored, and therefore drifted and rocked. The camera was mounted on a tripod without any inertia/motion stabilization. A commercial digital single lens reflex (DSLR) camera and fisheye lens...
Article
Full-text available
Tests on $B-L$ symmetry breaking models are important probes to search for new physics. One proposed model with $\Delta(B-L)=2$ involves the oscillations of a neutron to an antineutron. In this paper a new limit on this process is derived for the data acquired from all three operational phases of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory experiment. The sea...
Presentation
Full-text available
Sample of pioneer and influential studies on remote sensing at night on the last ten years.
Article
Christopher Kyba, Andrej Mohar and Thomas Posch seek a standard figure for moonlight illuminance.