Christopher Hopwood

Christopher Hopwood
University of Zurich | UZH · Psychologisches Institut

Doctor of Philosophy

About

338
Publications
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Publications

Publications (338)
Article
Recent studies have reported an association between vegetarian diet and depression, although results have been inconsistent. This effect has most often been attributed to nutritional deficits among vegetarians. An alternative possibility is that individuals who are trying to reduce their meat intake experience cognitive dissonance related to enjoyi...
Article
Full-text available
Young adulthood is a critical developmental life stage and a period of enhanced vulnerability to stress. In 2020, young adults in Northern California were faced with a series of unforeseen, collective stressors: the COVID-19 pandemic, extreme wildfires, social tension associated with the murder of George Floyd, and a contentious election that culmi...
Article
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Background The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) and Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) are tools designed for personality dispositions for mental health symptoms. The present study was conducted to compare these models in terms of their relative sensitivity to the symptoms of personality...
Article
Full-text available
What personality traits characterize a typical parent? The purpose of this pre-registered study was to generate consensus-based Big Five personality prototypes of a typical father and mother through the eyes of 226 expecting parents and 281 nonparents (Total N = 507). We found that a prototypical father’s and mother’s personalities can be described...
Article
Past research syntheses provided evidence that personality traits are both stable and changeable throughout the life span. However, early meta-analytic estimates were constrained by a relatively small universe of longitudinal studies, many of which tracked personality traits in small samples over moderate time periods using measures that were only...
Article
Full-text available
The goal of this study was to identify the underlying latent dimensions that account for variation in sustainable behaviors (SBs) among American adults. Our strategy was to assess all of the SBs sampled in existing measures, as well as a number of other variables relevant to individual differences in SBs, in a community sample (N = 1234). Variation...
Article
In this study, we aimed to examine how moment-to-moment interpersonal behaviors of warmth and dominance in patients and therapists, as well as interpersonal complementarity, are related to withdrawal and confrontation ruptures as sessions unfold. Sixteen psychotherapy sessions from eight independent therapeutic dyads were sampled for the highest le...
Article
How do people’s religious beliefs and behaviors change over the course of adulthood? Previous research found rapid decreases in religiosity during young adulthood and rebounds in middle and late adulthood. However, secularization trends—if not accounted for—can bias or obscure age-graded changes in religiosity. Using longitudinal data from over 14,...
Chapter
Full-text available
Dimensional models are becoming increasingly important in the classification of personality disorders. A central concept of this paradigm shift is the notion of a continuum of personality functioning ranging from a healthy to an extremely disturbed personality. In the Alternative Model for Personality Disorders in DSM-5 Section III, this concept co...
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Introduction: Studying abroad is often considered a life-changing experience. However, research on studying abroad has not always disentangled selection from socialization effects, leading to uncertainty about the actual impact of this experience. In this 4-wave longitudinal study, we examined both selection and socialization effects of a 4-week i...
Article
Both clinical and personality psychologists are interested in assessing personality change, although they have tended to approach the issue in different ways. In this paper we argue that both sub-fields should focus more on basic issues in the assessment of personality change, and that they would make more progress on this issue together than alone...
Article
Objective: The goal of this paper is to promote the integration of two approaches to personality and assessment: Contemporary Integrative Interpersonal Theory (CIIT) and the Narrative Identity Approach (NI). Methods: We review CIIT and NI, describe their similarities and differences, and articulate opportunities to integrate the approaches to mo...
Article
The introduction of the alternative model of personality disorders in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Model of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) represented a substantive change in how personality disorders (PDs) are diagnosed. One barrier to its adoption (among several) in clinical practice, however, is...
Article
Personality and psychopathology have generally been regarded as distinct aspects of human behaviour, largely studied by researchers from different disciplines. However, an established body of research shows a common structure for personality and psychopathology phenotypes. This evidence has led to significant changes in how psychiatric problems are...
Article
Full-text available
Past psychiatric diagnoses are central to patient case formulation and prognosis. Recently, alternative classification models such as the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) proposed to assess traits to predict clinically relevant outcomes. In the current study, we directly compared personality traits and past diagnoses as predictors o...
Article
Advances in methods for longitudinal data collection and analysis have prompted a surge of research on psychological processes. However, decisions about how to time assessments are often not explicitly tethered to theories about psychological processes but are instead justified on methodological (e.g., power) or practical (e.g., feasibility) ground...
Article
It is common for people with mental health problems to report feelings of emptiness. However, the association of subjective emptiness with specific disorders and its unique role within dimensional taxonomies of personality pathology is not well understood. The present study assesses the transdiagnostic value of subjective emptiness using a recently...
Article
Objective We asked authors of this Special Issue to answer four questions: 1) Is there evidence that personality and psychopathology can be integrated?, 2) Is integration important?, 3) Can they be distinguished?, and 4) How can the difference be measured? Method We review each of the papers and place the special issue in a historical context. Re...
Article
Full-text available
Using data from 58,748 participants from a nationally representative German sample, we tested preregistered hypotheses about factors that impact concerns about the environment over time. We found that environmental concerns increased modestly from 2009 to 2017. Individuals in middle adulthood tended to be more concerned and showed more consistent i...
Article
Full-text available
This comment provides a discussion and critique of the Rorschach inkblot test. The current authors argue that a lot more rigorous research, is needed to determine whether and how to use the Rorschach to evaluate treatment change. The commentary builds on the recommendations of Aschieri and Pascarella by offering several specific ideas for how to im...
Preprint
We asked authors of this Special Issue to answer four questions: 1) Is there evidence thatpersonality and psychopathology can be integrated?, 2) Is integration important?, 3) Can they be distinguished?, and 4) How can the difference be measured?. Authors uniformly agreed that personality and psychopathology can be integrated within a common structu...
Article
Full-text available
The Alternative Model of Personality Disorders (AMPD) integrates several theoretical models of personality functioning, including interpersonal theory. The interpersonal circumplex dimensions of warmth and dominance can be conceptualized as traits similar to those in AMPD Criterion B, but interpersonal theory also offers dynamic hypotheses about ho...
Article
Significance Childhood lead exposure causes lifelong psychological problems, which may be more extensive than previously thought. In a sample of over 1.5 million people, we found that US and European residents who grew up in areas with higher levels of atmospheric lead had less adaptive personality profiles in adulthood (lower conscientiousness, lo...
Preprint
Childhood lead exposure has devastating lifelong consequences, as even low-level exposure stunts intelligence and leads to delinquent behavior. But these consequences may be more extensive than previously thought, because childhood lead exposure may adversely affect normal-range personality traits. Personality influences nearly every aspect of huma...
Article
Full-text available
Personality traits continue to change throughout the lifespan. However, we still know little about when, why, and how personality traits change. In this paper, we review the current state of scientific evidence regarding the nature, sources, and processes of personality trait stability and change. We revisit past disputes over the relative importan...
Article
Structural models of personality traits, particularly the five-factor model (FFM), continue to inform ongoing debates regarding what personality attributes and trait domains are central to psychopathy. A growing body of literature has linked the constructs of the triarchic model of psychopathy (boldness, meanness, disinhibition) to the FFM. Recentl...
Article
Full-text available
Background ADHD is a highly consequential disorder that is estimated to affect 2.5% of the adult population. Emerging models of psychopathology posit that disorders like ADHD can be usefully situated within general models of individual differences in personality, such as those recently implemented in the DSM and ICD for the diagnosis of personality...
Article
Withstanding the climate crisis will depend in part on individuals behaving in a more environmentally sustainable manner. However, relatively little is known about the individual factors that promote sustainable attitudes and behaviors (SABs). Although there are established cross-sectional associations between personality traits and SABs, it is unc...
Article
Are five-factor traits and borderline personality symptoms the same features with different names? The existing literature offers reasons to think they are the same and reasons to think they are different. We examined longitudinal associations between these variables in a sample of patients assessed 12 times over 24 years using latent curve models...
Preprint
The Continuous Assessment of Interpersonal Dynamics (CAID) is an observational coding method that enables continuous tracking of warmth and dominance in both members of a dyad as an interaction unfolds. Research using this tool has revealed dynamic patterns relevant to psychopathology and psychotherapy, suggesting considerable potential for clinica...
Article
Full-text available
Proenvironmental attitudes and behaviors have been increasing over the past decade. In this study, we use longitudinal panel data from a nationally representative sample of the Swiss population (N=9,106) to replicate the finding that proenvironmental attitudes are linked with proenvironmental consumer behaviors, and present novel evidence that chan...
Article
Contemporary Integrative Interpersonal Theory is an evidence-based model of personality, psychopathology, and intervention. In this paper, we review six assumptions of CIIT that distinguish it from other frameworks and suggest five particularly promising and important areas for future research.
Article
The Continuous Assessment of Interpersonal Dynamics (CAID) is an observational coding method that enables continuous tracking of warmth and dominance in both members of a dyad as an interaction unfolds. Research using this tool has revealed dynamic patterns relevant to psychopathology and psychotherapy, suggesting considerable potential for clinica...
Article
Objective In this study we examined whether discrepancies between interpersonal values and interpersonal efficacies are associated with distress, and provide a framework through which similar questions regarding intrapersonal alignment may be investigated. Method Using interpersonal circumplex scales, we assessed interpersonal values and efficacie...
Preprint
Advances in methods for longitudinal data collection and analysis have prompted a surge of research on psychological processes. However, decisions about how to time assessments are often not tethered explicitly to theories about psychological processes, but are instead justified on methodological (e.g., power) or practical (e.g., feasibility) groun...
Preprint
Contemporary Integrative Interpersonal Theory is an evidence-based model of personality, psychopathology, and intervention. In this paper, we review six assumptions of CIIT that distinguish it from other frameworks and suggest five particularly promising and important areas for future research.
Preprint
We developed a 19-item measure, the Motivations to Eat Meat Inventory (MEMI), that fit a four-factor model in three samples (total N= 2175), including one with a large number of vegetarians. Using this instrument, we generated psychological profiles associated with each motive, and showed that the structure and correlates of meat-eating motives is...
Article
Full-text available
We established realness as the relatively stable tendency to act on the outside the way one feels on the inside, without regard for proximal personal or social consequences. In nine studies, we showed that realness is a) a core feature of individual differences in authenticity, b) generally adaptive but largely unrelated to agreeableness, c) highly...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research suggests that there are four primary motives to eat meat: that it is natural, normal, necessary, or nice. However, these motives have not yet been distinguished empirically; the lack of a measurement tool that can distinguish these motives has contributed to a literature that focuses primarily on meat-eating motivation or justific...
Article
Full-text available
The three most common motives for plant-based diets in western populations are health, the environment, and animal rights. This study compares the structure, endorsement rates, and personality correlates of these motives among vegetarian and omnivorous (i.e., non-vegetarian) respondents. We found evidence for configural, metric, and scalar equivale...
Article
Suicide among young people is an increasingly prevalent and devastating public health crisis around the world. To reduce the rate of suicide, it is important to identify factors that can help us better predict suicidal ideation and behaviors. Adolescent temperament (effortful control, negative emotionality, positive emotionality) may be a source of...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: ADHD is a highly consequential disorder that is estimated to affect 2.5% of the adult population. Emerging models of psychopathology posit that disorders like ADHD can be usefully situated within general models of individual differences in personality, such as those recently implemented in the DSM and ICD for the diagnosis of personalit...
Article
Shortcomings of approaches to classifying psychopathology based on expert consensus have given rise to contemporary efforts to classify psychopathology quantitatively. In this paper, we review progress in achieving a quantitative and empirical classification of psychopathology. A substantial empirical literature indicates that psychopathology is ge...
Preprint
Are five factor traits and borderline personality symptoms the same features with different names? The existing literature offers reasons to think they are the same and reasons to think they are different. We examined longitudinal associations between these variables in a sample of patients assessed 12 times over 24 years using latent curve models...
Article
Theoretical accounts of psychopathology often emphasize social context as etiologically centralto psychological dysfunction, and interpersonal impairments are widely implicated for many legacy diagnostic categories that span domains of psychopathology (e.g., affective, personality, thought disorders). Contemporary Integrative Interpersonal Theory (...
Article
In this article, we present the hierarchical taxonomy of psychopathology (HiTOP), an evidence-based alternative to the categorical approach to diagnostic classification that has considerable promise for integrative psychotherapy research and practice. We first review issues associated with the categorical approach that may have constrained advances...
Article
Subjective emptiness is a psychiatric symptom that is primarily assessed and studied as a criterion of borderline personality disorder, even though research suggests that it may have clinical importance beyond that diagnosis. The aim of this series of studies was to develop and validate a standalone self-report measure of subjective emptiness. A sy...
Article
Full-text available
A model of personality pathology including both general and specific components distinguishes severity of personality dysfunction from the characteristic style of its expression. This model has been proposed as an empirically based, dimensional alternative to categorical models. In this study, we evaluated this conceptual structure by examining ass...
Preprint
Suicide among young people is an increasingly prevalent and devastating public health crisis around the world. To reduce the rate of suicide, it is important to identify factors that can help us better predict suicidal ideation and behaviors. Adolescent temperament (Effortful Control, Negative Emotionality, Positive Emotionality) may be a source of...
Preprint
The extent to which clinical assessment enhances subsequent treatment benefits for patients has long been controversial, and we suggest specifying and examining more closely the conditions by which assessment can – or cannot - contribute to treatment process and ultimately patient benefit. We argue that this can contribute to more informative resea...
Preprint
Full-text available
Subjective emptiness is a psychiatric symptom that is primarily assessed and studied as a criterion of borderline personality disorder, even though research suggests that it may have clinical importance beyond that diagnosis. The aim of this series of studies was to develop and validate a standalone self-report measure of subjective emptiness. A sy...
Article
The Treatment Utility of Clinical Assessment (TUCA) has long been a controversial topic, with arguably more (strong) opinions than relevant, well-designed empirical research. We argue that this question has been tackled too broadly and that a more contextualized approach would likely be more informative. Instead of asking "what is the treatment uti...
Article
Antisocial personality is generally used to describe people who treat other people with callous disregard and disrespect. Although animal cruelty is diagnostic of conduct disorder, a precursor of antisocial personality in children, it is unclear whether the term antisocial also encompasses disregard and disrespect toward nonhuman animals among adul...
Article
We critique Roy et al.'s (2020; this issue) approach to characterizing the item-level factor structure of the three scales of the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM), in light of the manner in which the TriPM scales were developed, the purposes they were designed to serve, and the growing body of evidence supporting their construct validity. We f...
Chapter
and Keywords This chapter reviews structural and process assumptions of the Contemporary Integrative Interpersonal Theory of personality and presents the interpersonal situation as a synthetic and widely applicable framework for integrating the structure and dynamics of persons and situations. It is an interactional-dynamic perspective that is vari...
Preprint
A model of personality pathology including both general and specific components distinguishes severity of personality dysfunction from the characteristic style of its expression. Whether and how general and specific features of personality pathology relate to momentary dynamics of affect and interpersonal behavior remain open questions. We explored...
Article
Comments on the target article by M. C. Ashton and K. Lee, who argue in favor of the six-factor HEXACO model over the Big Five (see record 2020-19340-001). Although the HEXACO model offers some specific advantages over the Big Five, both suffer from limitations common to universal, broad-bandwidth models of personality structure. The precedence of...
Preprint
Antisocial personality is generally used to describe people who treat other people with callous disregard and disrespect. Although animal cruelty is diagnostic of conduct disorder, a precursor of antisocial personality in children, it is unclear whether the term antisocial also encompasses disregard and disrespect toward non-human animals among adu...
Article
Full-text available
We created a facet atlas that maps the interrelations between facet scales from 13 hierarchical personality inventories to provide a practically useful, transtheoretical description of lower-level personality traits. We generated this atlas by estimating a series of network models that visualize the correlations among 268 facet scales administered...
Article
Full-text available
There is now compelling evidence that people’s typical patterns of thinking, feeling, striving, and behaving are both consistent and malleable. Therefore, researchers have begun to examine the distinct sources of personality stability and change. In this article, we discuss traditional classifications of sources, review key findings, and highlight...
Preprint
Personal concerns about climate change and the environment are a powerful motivator of sustainable behavior. People’s level of concern varies as a function of a variety of social and individual factors. Using data from 58,748 participants from a nationally representative German sample, we tested preregistered hypotheses about factors that impact co...
Article
McCrae (2020) argues that it is premature to explore interventions focused on personality change. In his commentary, he suggests that interventions should be promoted only if their effects in self-report data are confirmed by the additional opinion of informants. We agree with the essence of his position and would go further by envisioning a new fr...
Preprint
Theoretical accounts of psychopathology often emphasize social context as etiologically central to psychological dysfunction, and interpersonal impairments are widely implicated for many legacy diagnostic categories that span domains of psychopathology (e.g., affective, personality, and thought disorders). Contemporary Integrative Interpersonal The...
Preprint
Objective: The DSM-5 Alternative Model of Personality Disorders distinguishes core personality dysfunction common to all personality pathology from maladaptive traits that are specific variants of disorder. Previous research shows convergence between maladaptive and normal range trait domains as well as substantial correlations between maladaptive...
Article
Objective The DSM‐5 Alternative Model of Personality Disorders distinguishes core personality dysfunction common to all personality pathology from maladaptive traits that are specific variants of disorder. Previous research shows convergence between maladaptive and normal range trait domains as well as substantial correlations between maladaptive t...
Preprint
Objective: Although the link between mismatched interpersonal values and efficacies and increased interpersonal problems would seem intuitive, previous research has not directly tested this association. This study provides a more comprehensive examination of this relationship than has previously been attempted while also providing a framework throu...
Article
Life span theories of human development assert that people prioritize emotional values over informational values when they believe their time is limited. This process unfolds naturally as people age but may be accelerated by life-threatening events. We tested whether the experience of serious health adversity leads to changes in value orientation....
Article
Full-text available
Health, the environment, and animal rights represent the three main reasons people cite for vegetarian diet in Western societies. However, it has not been shown that these motives can be distinguished empirically, and little is known about what kind of people are likely to be compelled by these different motives. This study had three goals. First,...
Preprint
We created a facet atlas that maps the interrelations between facet scales from 13 hierarchical personality inventories to provide a practically useful, transtheoretical description of lower-level personality traits. We generated the atlas by estimating a series of network models that visualize the correlations among 268 facet scales administered t...
Preprint
Full-text available
There is now compelling evidence that people’s typical patterns of thinking, feeling, striving, and behaving are both consistent and malleable. Therefore, researchers have begun to examine the distinct sources of personality stability and change. In this article, we discuss traditional classifications of sources, review key findings, and highlight...
Article
The importance of personality for predicting life outcomes in the domains of love, work, and health is well established, as is evidence that personality traits, while relatively stable, can change. However, little is known about the sources and processes that drive changes in personality traits and how such changes might impact important life outco...