Christopher Hertzog

Christopher Hertzog
Georgia Institute of Technology | GT · School of Psychology

About

248
Publications
59,227
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
17,257
Citations
Additional affiliations
July 1985 - present
Georgia Institute of Technology
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (248)
Article
Full-text available
This ecological momentary assessment study examined the effect of naturally occurring stressors and perceived stress reactivity on alpha-amylase, a proxy of sympathetic nervous system arousal. There are age-related changes in physiological systems sensitive to stress, so the sample included 174 adults ages 20-78 (M=48.65, SD=19.28). At the beginnin...
Chapter
Older adults are slower to acquire new cognitive skills requiring a shift from controlled (algorithmic) processing to automatic responding based on retrieving newly unitized information from memory. Research demonstrates that older adults’ delayed retrieval shift is a strategic avoidance of relying on memory when doing so would be successful, not j...
Article
Older adults often demonstrate a monitoring deficit by producing more high-confidence memory errors on recognition memory tests. To eliminate lower memory performance by older adults (OA) as a candidate explanation, we studied how distinctive encoding enhances the retrieval-monitoring accuracy in older adults and younger adults (YA) under different...
Article
Full-text available
Traditional memory strategy training interventions improve older adults’ performance on tests of episodic memory, but have limited transfer to episodic memory tasks, let alone to everyday memory. We argue that an alternative approach is needed to assist older adults to compensate for age-related cognitive declines and to maintain functional capacit...
Article
Full-text available
Exposure to stressful events is an inevitable aspect of everyday life, such as encountering work deadlines or interpersonal conflicts. The body’s physiological stress systems can become activated when exposed to stressors, resulting in increases in cortisol from the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and/or increases in the alpha-amylase enzyme vi...
Article
Full-text available
During the COVID-19 global pandemic people’s lived experiences and day-to-day lives have been tremendously impacted. This impact is believed to be more severe in people with a memory-impaired partner at home. As part of an ongoing cognitive intervention project with the Emory-Georgia Tech Cognitive Empowerment Program (CEP), we conducted interviews...
Article
Full-text available
We report results from a new intervention study implementing an Everyday Memory and Metacognitive Intervention (EMMI). This intervention trains older adults on self-regulatory procedures for achieving everyday life goals by implementing a metacognitive perspective where participants learn mindful control over life tasks that place demands on planni...
Article
Full-text available
Background and Objectives The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the efficacy of an Everyday Memory and Metacognitive Intervention (EMMI) designed to improve everyday functioning of older adults. The EMMI emphasizes self-regulation as a behavioral approach to take priority over habitual behaviors that often impede everyday functioning. Rese...
Article
We examined younger and older adults' item selection behaviors to assess heuristics for self-regulating learning of English meanings of Chinese characters varying widely in figural complexity. Two study-test trials were used to assess whether (a) item selection behaviors on the first study opportunity would show evidence for a difficulty-based heur...
Article
This paper describes normative data for newly collected exemplar responses to 70 semantic categories described in previous norming studies (Battig & Montague, Journal of Experimental Psychology, 80(3, pt.2): 1-46, 1969; Van Overschelde, Rawson, & Dunlosky, Journal of Memory and Language, 50(3): 289-335, 2004; Yoon et al., Psychology and Aging, 19(3...
Preprint
This paper describes normative data for newly collected exemplar responses to 70 semantic categories described in previous norming studies (Battig & Montague, 1969; Van Overschelde, Rawson, & Dunlosky, 2004; Yoon et al., 2004). These categories were presented to 246 Young (18 – 39 years), Middle (40 – 59 years), and Older (60 years and older) Engli...
Article
Growth models (GM) of the mixed-effects and latent curve varieties have become popular methodological tools in lifespan research. One of the major advantages of GM is their flexibility in studying individual differences in change. We scrutinized the change functions of GM used in five years of publications on cognitive aging. Of the 162 publication...
Article
Questionnaires like the Metamemory in Adulthood Questionnaire (MIA; Dixon, Hultsch, & Hertzog, 1988) have been used to examine longitudinal changes and cross-sectional age differences in multiple metamemory facets (e.g., memory self-efficacy). This study used 3 independent cross-sectional samples (N = 1,555; ages 55-85) from the Victoria Longitudin...
Article
Full-text available
Technology presents opportunities to optimize whole person wellness and functioning. To understand tech readiness and the potential role of virtual (VR) and augmented reality (AR) to support optimal aging, we surveyed 604 participants from the nationally representative RAND American Life Panel. Participant age ranged from 50-90+, 51.5% were female,...
Article
Full-text available
Qualitative interview data about everyday remembering within the context of older adults ages 62-83, (N= 27, M=69.5, SD=5.72) and younger adults ages 18-24 (N=29, M=21.2, SD= 1.77) lives were collected and analyzed using constructivist grounded theory methods. This study sought to compare the processes used by these individuals in their pursuit of...
Article
Full-text available
Research from a variety of perspectives has emphasized the central role played by activity in supporting a variety of positive outcomes in later life. For example, participation in activities that place demands on personal resources has been shown to be beneficial in promoting brain, cognitive, and physical health. From another perspective, older a...
Article
Background: Little is known about the means by which older adults achieve memory-demanding goals in everyday life or alternatively about why they fail to do so. Objectives: We conducted qualitative interviews to evaluate what older people do to support everyday memory functioning. A principal focus was on understanding the ways in which individu...
Article
Busier people tend to perform better on cognitive tasks than less busy individuals. Nevertheless, the characteristics that are associated with greater perceived busyness are unknown. To address this question participants (N = 463) from the Dallas Lifespan Brain Study (ages 20–89) completed a self-report busyness assessment and demographic, health,...
Article
Full-text available
Over the past decades, memory training interventions have been developed in an attempt to stabilize or enhance memory functioning in aging. Only recently has attention been paid to individual differences in training gains and consequently to predictors of such gains. The aim of the present study was to identify which specific cognitive mechanisms/p...
Poster
How older adults describe the causal factors involved in memory successes and failures interplays with their beliefs about their own memory abilities and the behaviors they engage in to support their everyday remembering. Questions remain about how their beliefs and attributions about memory promote or deter the use of everyday memory strategies. T...
Article
Older adults produce more high-confidence recognition memory errors in episodic memory tasks. We studied how distinctive encoding enhances the retrieval-monitoring accuracy in older adults (OA) and younger adults (YA). Individuals viewed words consisting of four randomly selected exemplars (e.g., SALMON, BASS, PERCH, SHARK) from a taxonomic categor...
Article
The current study evaluated sex differences in (1) self-perceptions of everyday and academic spatial ability, and (2) metacognitive monitoring accuracy for measures of spatial visualization and spatial orientation. Undergraduate students completed the Paper Folding Test, Spatial Relations Test, and the Revised Purdue Spatial Visualization Test whil...
Article
We investigated if the relationship between age and regional limbic system brain structure would be moderated by diurnal cortisol output and diurnal cortisol slope. Participants aged 23–83 years collected seven salivary cortisol samples each day for 10 consecutive days and underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Age, sex, cortisol, and an age x corti...
Poster
Existing everyday memory questionnaires generally do not assess the information necessary to understand how older adults accomplish memory-demanding daily activities. These questionnaires typically tap the frequency of reported memory strategy use, but do not elicit qualitative information about how strategies or external memory aids are actually u...
Poster
Existing everyday memory questionnaires lack the depth of knowledge necessary to understand the how older adults accomplish memory-demanding daily activities. These assessments tap the frequency of reported memory strategy use, but do not elicit qualitative information about how strategies or external memory aids are used in daily life. Additionall...
Article
A growing body of research has examined whether people’s judgments of their own memory functioning accurately reflect their memory performance at cross-section and over time. Relatively less is known about whether these judgments are specifically based on memory performance, or reflect general cognitive change. The aim of the present study was to e...
Article
Full-text available
Latent Growth Curve Models (LGCM) have become a standard technique to model change over time. Prediction and explanation of inter-individual differences in change are major goals in lifespan research. The major determinants of statistical power to detect individual differences in change are the magnitude of true inter-individual differences in line...
Article
Full-text available
Subjective memory change (SMC) in adulthood involves the perception that one’s memory has declined from earlier levels of function. SMC has been conjectured to be more accurate than concurrent subjective memory because people use themselves as a standard of comparison. We used data from two longitudinal studies to contrast the accurate-monitoring-o...
Article
Methods: We evaluated differences between young adults and old adults in CRT performance and correlates of CRT performance. Older adults (ages 60 to 80) were paid volunteers who participated in experiments assessing age differences in self-regulated learning. Young adults (ages 17 to 35) were students participating for pay as part of a project ass...
Article
The importance of encoding strategies for associative recall is well established, but there have been no studies of aging and intraindividual variability (IAV) in strategy use during extended practice. We observed strategy use and cued-recall test performance over 101 days of practice in 101 younger adults (M = 25.6 years) and 103 older adults (M =...
Article
Objectives: The goal of the present research was to examine the potential of a learner-oriented approach to improving older adults' performance in tasks that are similar to real-life situations that require strategic deployment of cognitive resources. A crucial element of this approach involves encouraging older adults to explicitly analyze tasks...
Article
Full-text available
Background: An important aspect of successful aging is maintaining the ability to solve everyday problems encountered in daily life. The limited evidence today suggests that everyday problem solving ability increases from young adulthood to middle age, but decreases in older age. Objectives: The present study examined age differences in the rela...
Poster
We conducted a qualitative interview study with 25 older adults to learn more about their use of memory strategies within the context of their daily lives.
Article
Full-text available
We propose that the domain general process of categorization contributes to the perception of stress. When a situation contains features associated with stressful experiences, it is categorized as stressful. From the perspective of situated cognition, the features used to categorize experiences as stressful are the features typically true of stress...
Article
Although the hippocampus is thought to play a central role in the regulation of the cortisol awakening response (CAR), results from past studies examining the relationship between the CAR and hippocampal-mediated memory and cognition have been mixed. Inconsistent findings may be due to the use of cortisol samples collected on only 1-2days since red...
Article
Background: Previous studies have examined the relationships between physical health and leisure activities and between leisure activities and well-being, but, to our knowledge, none has examined these relationships simultaneously. Objective: This study investigated the relationships between leisure activities, health and well-being considering...
Article
Value-based remembering in free-recall tasks may be spared from the typical age-related cognitive decline observed for episodic memory. However, it is unclear whether value-based remembering for associative information is also spared from age-related cognitive decline. The current experiments evaluated the contribution of agenda-based based regulat...
Article
Full-text available
It is unclear why women have superior episodic memory of faces, but the benefit may be partially the result of women engaging in superior processing of facial expressions. Therefore, we hypothesized that orienting instructions to attend to facial expression at encoding would significantly improve men's memory of faces and possibly reduce gender dif...
Article
Full-text available
One's memory for past test performance (MPT) is a key piece of information individuals use when deciding how to restudy material. We used a multi-trial recognition memory task to examine adult age differences in the influence of MPT (measured by actual Trial 1 memory accuracy and subjective confidence judgments, CJs) along with Trial 1 judgments of...
Article
Full-text available
Researchers planning a longitudinal study typically search, more or less informally, a multivariate space of possible study designs that include dimensions such as the hypothesized true variance in change, indicator reliability, the number and spacing of measurement occasions, total study time, and sample size. The main search goal is to select a r...
Article
Full-text available
Aging researchers have long been interested in understanding individuals' subjective perceptions of their own memory functioning. Previous research has shown that subjective memory ratings are partly based on memory performance but also reflect the influence of other factors, such as depressive symptoms. The aim of the present study was to examine...
Article
-Beliefs about memory play a role in older adults' concerns about aging and can influence their performance on memory tasks. Visual analog scales can capture beliefs about how aging affects memory in general (the General Beliefs About Memory Instrument [GBMI]) and one's own memory (the Personal Beliefs About Memory Instrument [PBMI]). Data were com...
Article
Full-text available
Clinical diagnostic criteria for memory loss in adults typically assume that subjective memory ratings accurately reflect compromised memory functioning. Research has documented small positive between-person associations between subjective memory and memory performance in older adults. Less is known, however, about whether within-person fluctuation...
Article
Cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between memory complaint and memory performance were examined in a sample of old-old participants from the Berlin Aging Study (BASE; N = 504, ages 70 to 100, age M = 84.7 at study onset). Participants were measured 4 times over the course of 6 years. Similar to many previous studies, initial cross-sect...
Article
People estimate minimal changes in learning when making predictions of learning (POLs) for future study opportunities despite later showing increased performance and an awareness of that increase (Kornell & Bjork, 2009). This phenomenon is conceptualized as a stability bias in judgments about learning. We investigated the malleability of this effec...
Article
Full-text available
Unlabelled: BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: Skill acquisition often involves a shift from an effortful algorithm-based strategy to more fluent memory-based performance. Older adults' slower strategy transitions can be ascribed to both slowed learning and metacognitive factors. Experimenters often provide feedback on response accuracy; this emphasis may...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Older adults typically perform worse on measures of working memory (WM) than do young adults; however, age-related differences in WM performance might be reduced if older adults use effective encoding strategies. Objective: The purpose of the current experiment was to evaluate WM performance after training individuals to use effectiv...
Chapter
Memory complaints in adulthood and old age A main question regarding aging and memory complaints is whether they derive from manifestations of actual memory problems, from unfounded beliefs and fears, or from both. Two broad conclusions are supported by the evidence. First, although performance on episodic memory tasks typically declines with age,...
Article
Full-text available
The recently developed Perceived Stress Reactivity Scale (PSRS; Schlotz, Yim, Zoccola, Jansen, & Schulz, 2011) examines perceived stress reactivity with 6 different subscales. The authors of the current study build on initial validation work with this scale by evaluating patterns of the convergent and discriminant validity of scores on its 6 substa...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated the benefits of strategy-adaptation training for promoting transfer effects. This learner-oriented approach-which directly encourages the learner to generalize strategic behavior to new tasks-helps older adults appraise new tasks and adapt trained strategies to them. In Experiment 1, older adults in a strategy-adaptation training gr...
Article
Full-text available
An individual’s memory of past test performance (MPT) is often cited as the primary cue for judgments of learning (JOLs) following test experience during multitrial learning tasks (Finn & Metcalfe, 2007, 2008). We used an associative recognition task to evaluate MPT-related phenomena, because performance monitoring, as measured by recognition test...
Article
Full-text available
We tested the hypothesis that the feeling of knowing (FOK) after a failed recall attempt is influenced by recalling aspects of the original encoding strategy. Individuals were instructed to use interactive imagery to encode unrelated word pairs. We manipulated item concreteness (abstract vs. concrete) and item repetitions at study (one vs. three)....
Article
This study examined cultural differences in stereotypes and attributions regarding aging and memory. Two subcultures belonging to the same country, Italy, were compared on general beliefs about memory. Sardinians live longer than other areas of Italy, which is a publically shared fact that informs stereotypes about that subculture. An innovative in...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Age differences in feeling-of-knowing (FOK) accuracy were examined for both episodic memory and semantic memory. Younger and older adults either viewed pictures of famous faces (semantic memory) or associated non-famous faces and names (episodic memory) and were tested on their memory for the name of the presented face. Participants viewed...
Article
This study examined age and cultural differences on both personal and general beliefs about memory by comparing three age groups within two subcultures belonging to the same country: Milanese and Sardinian. Two innovative instruments on general and personal beliefs with graphic-rating-scale format (General Beliefs about Memory Instrument and Person...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies of metacognitive age differences in skill acquisition strategies have relied exclusively on tasks with a processing shift from an algorithm to retrieval strategy. Older adults' demonstrated reluctance to shift strategies in such tasks could reflect either a specific aversion to a memory retrieval strategy or a general, inertial res...
Article
Reviews the literature on aging and metacognition. The authors identify and treat 3 major categories of metacognitions: (1) knowledge about cognition and cognitive functions, (2) the monitoring of the current state of the cognitive system, and (3) beliefs about cognition (including beliefs about aging and cognition and beliefs about one's own cogni...
Article
Full-text available
Medication adherence has been increasingly recognized as an important factor in elderly persons' health. Various studies have shown that medication non-adherence is associated with poor health status in this population. As part of a study of the effects of two interventions to promote medication adherence in patients treated for memory problems, in...
Article
Full-text available
We instructed the use of mediators to encode paired-associate items, and then measured both cued recall of targets and mediators. Older adults (n = 49) and younger adults (n = 57) studied a mixed list of concrete and abstract noun pairs under instructions to either generate a sentence or an image to form a new association between normatively unrela...
Article
Full-text available
Previous behavioral evidence suggests that instructed strategy use benefits associative memory formation in paired associate tasks. Two such effective encoding strategies--visual imagery and sentence generation--facilitate memory through the production of different types of mediators (e.g., mental images and sentences). Neuroimaging evidence sugges...
Article
ABSTRACT In everyday prospective remembering, individuals must often delay the execution of a retrieved intention until they are in the appropriate setting. These so-called 'delay-execute' tasks are particularly troublesome for older adults, who consistently demonstrate impaired performance in this kind of laboratory task. To better understand this...
Article
Medication adherence is recognized as an issue of critical importance within health care, as many patients do not take their medications as prescribed. This study evaluated two interventions targeted at improving adherence in elderly patients being treated for memory impairments. Twenty-seven participants were randomly assigned to control (n = 11),...
Article
Highlights ► Metacognitive self-regulation involves a reciprocal interaction between monitoring cognition and controlling it through action. ► Older adults are at risk for cognitive failures unless they engage in effective proactive compensation for mechanistic decline. ► Simple methods for enhancing older adults’ everyday cognition are available a...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives. Prior research found age invariance in accuracy of delayed judgments of learning accuracy (Eakin, D. K., & Hertzog, C. [2006]. Release from implicit interference in memory and metamemory: Older adults know that they can’t let go. The Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 61, 340–347). We tested w...
Article
Full-text available
Background/Study Context: Interactive imagery is superior to rote repetition as an encoding strategy for paired associate (PA) recall. Younger and older individuals often rate these strategies as equally effective before they gain experience using each strategy. The present study investigated how experimenter-supervised and participant-chosen strat...
Article
Full-text available
Older adults adopt memory-based response strategies during consistent practice more slowly and less completely than younger adults. In two experiments, participants either prelearned all, half, or none of the noun-pair stimuli prior to the completion of a standard noun-pair lookup task. Higher proportions of prelearning generally led to a faster an...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated whether young and older adults vary in their beliefs about the impact of various mitigating factors on age-related memory decline. Eighty young (ages 18-23) and 80 older (ages 60-82) participants reported their beliefs about their own memory abilities and the strategies that they use in their everyday lives to attempt to con...
Article
Full-text available
We conducted three experiments to determine whether metamemory predictions at encoding, immediate judgments of learning (IJOLs) are sensitive to implicit interference effects that will occur at retrieval. Implicit interference was manipulated by varying the association set size of the cue (Experiments 1 and 2) or the target (Experiment 3). The typi...
Article
Full-text available
We examined the extent to which the content of beliefs about appropriate behavior in social situations influences blame attributions for negative outcomes in relationship situations. Young, middle-aged, and older adults indicated their level of agreement to a set of traditional and nontraditional beliefs. Five months later, we assessed the degree t...
Chapter
Full-text available
Adults of all ages experience difficulties remembering important information at times, and these difficulties occur more often as we grow older. Fortunately, a variety of easy-to-use strategies can be used to help people improve their learning and retention of a wide array of to-be-learned materials. In this chapter, we describe (a) many of these s...