Christopher Hand

Christopher Hand
University of Glasgow | UofG · School of Education

Doctor of Philosophy

About

36
Publications
3,641
Reads
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554
Citations
Citations since 2016
30 Research Items
515 Citations
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Introduction
Cyberabuse: Victim-blaming, perceived incident severity, and observer characteristics. Emoji: the interplay between written language and emoji / digital faces - perceptions of message/text, emoji, sender characteristics. Psycholinguistics: the role of context in written language processing and its interplay with other variables; bi- and multi-lingual processors of language.
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (36)
Article
Full-text available
Emoji increasingly feature alongside written language in interpersonal communication. Boutet et al. (2021) showed that negative-face emoji led to a negativity effect on perceptions of message tone and senders' mood. We extended their design, considering the role of non-face emoji and the impact of text content and emoji on message clarity. We utili...
Article
Full-text available
This qualitative exploratory study investigated the embodied experiences and the meanings of Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response (ASMR) from the viewer’s perspective. ASMR research has been sparse and largely quantitative, assuming it to be a predominantly fixed physiological response of “tingles”, despite the acronym being rooted in pseudoscience...
Preprint
Full-text available
This large, international dataset contains survey responses from N = 12,570 students from 100 universities in 35 countries, collected in 21 languages. We measured anxieties (statistics, mathematics, test, trait, social interaction, performance, creativity, intolerance of uncertainty, and fear of negative evaluation), self-efficacy, persistence, and...
Article
Full-text available
We present data from two studies examining how COVID-19 restrictions affected health behaviours (alcohol consumption, diet, sleep quality, and physical activity levels), mental wellbeing (negative mood) and cognitive function (decision making, attention, learning, working memory, and time perception) in association with socio-demographic factors. S...
Article
Full-text available
Selective Exposure Theory (Aruguete & Calvo, 2018; Bigné et al., 2020) suggests that on social media, viewers pay most attention to content which aligns with their values and preferences. Individuals engage in self-assessment by comparing themselves to others (Social comparison theory: Festinger, 1954). We predicted that the characteristics of Inst...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated ASD-diagnosed adults’ and neurotypical (NT) controls’ processing of emoji and emoji influence on the emotionality of otherwise-neutral sentences. Study 1 participants categorised emoji representing the six basic emotions using a fixed-set of emotional adjectives. Results showed that ASD-diagnosed participants’ classifications of fea...
Article
Full-text available
Countries have instigated different restrictions in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. For instance, nationwide, strict “lockdown” in Scotland was enacted with breaches punishable by law, whereas restrictions in Japan allowed for travel and interaction, with citizens requested rather than required to conform. We explored the impact of these differe...
Article
Full-text available
Research has shown that celebrity and lay victims are attributed blame for cyberabuse incidents. The nature of victim-generated content and abuse volume contribute to victim blame (VB) and perceived severity (PS) of incidents. Complementary cyberbullying research demonstrates that perceived attractiveness co-varies with VB, suggesting a protective...
Preprint
Globally, everyday life has been restricted – varyingly – to control the COVID-19 pandemic. In January 2021, nationwide “lockdown” was enacted in Scotland with breaches punishable by law. Contrastingly, Japanese restrictions were managed prefecture-by-prefecture, with opportunities for travel and interaction, with citizens requested rather than req...
Article
Full-text available
Approximately half of stalking victims were previously in an intimate relationship with the perpetrator, and attachment style is strongly correlated with intimate partner stalking (IPS). In the first study to investigate polyvagal theory in IPS, we examined 58 adult participants' attachment style, sex, history of IPS, vagal tone activity (i.e., hea...
Article
Full-text available
Studies examining the effect of social isolation on cognitive function typically involve older adults and/or specialist groups (e.g., expeditions). We considered the effects of COVID‐19‐induced social isolation on cognitive function within a representative sample of the general population. We additionally considered how participants ‘shielding’ due...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research into Twitter cyberabuse has yielded several findings: victim-blaming (VB) was influenced by victims’ initial tweet-valence; perceived severity (PS) was influenced independently by tweet valence and abuse volume; VB and PS were predicted by observer narcissism and psychopathy. However, this previous research was limited by its narr...
Preprint
Full-text available
Studies examining the effect of social isolation on cognitive function typically involve older adults, and/or specialist groups (e.g., astronauts, Antarctic explorers). We considered the effects of COVID-19-induced long-term social isolation on cognitive function within a representative sample of the general population. We additionally considered h...
Article
Full-text available
The United Kingdom and Scottish governments instigated a societal lockdown in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Subsequently, many experienced substantial lifestyle changes alongside the stresses of potentially catching the virus or experiencing bereavement. Stressful situations and poorer health behaviors (e.g., higher alcohol consumption, unheal...
Article
Full-text available
The influence of domain knowledge on reading behavior has received limited investigation compared to the influence of, for example, context and/or word frequency. The current study tested participants with and without domain knowledge of the Harry Potter (HP) universe. Fans and non-fans read sentences containing HP, high-frequency (HF), or low-freq...
Article
Digital images of faces such as emoji in virtual communication have become increasingly popular, but current research findings are inconsistent regarding their emotional effects on perceptions of text. Similarly, emoji effects on reading behaviours are largely unknown and require further examination. The present study (N = 41) investigated how the...
Article
Celebrities are increasingly utilizing social media platforms to establish their brand and interact with their fan base, but in doing so they often become the targets of online abuse. While such abusive acts are known to cause severe consequences in the general population little is known about how celebrity abuse is perceived by observers. This stu...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research into written language comprehension has been equivocal as to whether word frequency and contextual predictability effects share an early time course of processing. Target word frequency (low, high) and its predictability from prior context (low, high) were manipulated across two-sentence passages. Context sentences were presented...
Article
Full-text available
Cyberabuse is an escalating problem in society, as opportunities for abuse to occur in online public domains increase. Such acts are often defined by the frequency of abuse, and in many cases multiple individuals play a part in the abuse. Although consequences of such acts are often severe, there is typically little public sympathy/support for vict...
Poster
Full-text available
The functional distance hypothesis (FDH) predicts that tasks regulated by cerebral networks in closer anatomical proximity will cause more interference than tasks regulated by distant regions. Support for the FDH has been found in studies of left/right brain asymmetries in the interactions of concurrent communication and manual tasks. A mixed desig...
Article
Full-text available
Background Rape is underreported, potentially because individuals self-blame and/or are blamed by others. Research predominantly illustrates male-perpetrated stranger-rape of females; thus, there may be a perception that rape myth acceptance (RMA) and victim-blaming are most prevalent in males. The purpose of this rapid evidence assessment was to i...
Article
Full-text available
Contextual constraint is a key factor affecting a word's fixation duration and its likelihood of being fixated during reading. Previous research has generally demonstrated additive effects of predictability and frequency in fixation times. Studies examining the role of parafoveal preview have shown that greater preview benefit is obtained from more...
Article
Full-text available
Antonym pair members can be differentiated by each word’s markedness–that distinction attributable to the presence or absence of features at morphological or semantic levels. Morphologically marked words incorporate their unmarked counterpart with additional morphs (e.g., “unlucky” vs. “lucky”); properties used to determine semantically marked word...
Data
One hundred and fifty-four antonym pairs with markedness probabilities, word classifications and lexical and semantic variables used in the data analysis. (XLSX)
Data
Collocation data for one hundred and fifty-four antonym pairs with markedness probabilities and types. (XLSX)
Article
Individuals' Social Networking Site (SNS) profiles are central to online impression formation. Distinct profile elements (e.g., Profile Picture) experimentally manipulated in isolation can alter perception of profile owners, but it is not known which elements are focused on and attributed most importance when profiles are viewed naturally. The curr...
Article
The attenuation of perceived pain through exposure to music is known as music analgesia. The present study used a mixed-methods design, investigating whether self-chosen music moderated participants’ psychological and physiological responses to pain during cold pressor (CP) tasks. Thirty participants took part (14 males, 16 females; Mage = 27.77 ye...
Article
Choice-based experiments indicate that readers draw sophisticated inferences from logically equivalent frames. Readers may infer that a glass was previously full if described as currently half empty, and previously empty if described as currently half full. The information leakage framework suggests these inferences are made because information abo...
Article
Full-text available
The present study examined how word-initial letters influence lexical access during reading. Eye movements were monitored as participants read sentences containing target words. Three factors were independently manipulated. First, target words had either high or low constraining word-initial letter sequences (e.g., dwarf or clown, respectively). Se...
Article
Full-text available
A word's frequency of occurrence and its predictability from a prior context are key factors determining how long the eyes remain on that word in normal reading. Past reaction-time and eye movement research can be distinguished by whether these variables, when combined, produce interactive or additive results, respectively. Our study addressed poss...
Article
A word s frequency of occurrence and its predictability from a prior context are key factors that determine how long the eyes remain on that word in normal reading. Past reaction-time and eye movement research can be distinguished by whether these variables, when combined, produce interactive or additive results, respectively. Our study addressed p...
Article
Full-text available
The present thesis examines the effects of a range of factors on the processing of written language. The present thesis principally uses eye movement recording technology while participants read short passages of text. Factors known to influence written language processing range from lower-level perceptual constraints to higher-level discourse cont...

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