Christopher Golden

Christopher Golden
Harvard University | Harvard · Department of Nutrition

PhD, MPH

About

158
Publications
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6,414
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Publications

Publications (158)
Preprint
Coral reef fisheries are a vital source of nutrients for thousands of nutritionally vulnerable coastal communities around the world. Here, we evaluated the potential effects of expanding sustainable-use marine protected areas (MPAs) to improve the nutrition of coastal communities. Using information from underwater visual surveys from 2,518 sites lo...
Article
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Background: Access to high-quality dietary intake data is central to many nutrition, epidemiology, economic, environmental, and policy applications. When data on individual nutrient intakes are available, they have not been consistently disaggregated by sex and age groups, and their parameters and full distributions are often not publicly availabl...
Article
Omega-3 EPA and DHA fatty acids are vital for human health, but current human nutritional requirements are greater than supply. This nutrient gap is poised to increase as demand increases and the abundance of aquatic foods and the amount of omega-3 they contain may dwindle due to climate change and overfishing. Identifying and mitigating loss and i...
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Blue foods play a central role in food and nutrition security for billions of people and are a cornerstone of the livelihoods, economies, and cultures of many coastal and riparian communities. Blue foods are extraordinarily diverse, are often rich in essential micronutrients and fatty acids, and can often be produced in ways that are more environme...
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The Kiribati 2019 Integrated Household Income and Expenditure Survey (Integrated HIES) embeds novel ecological and human health research into an ongoing social and economic survey infrastructure implemented by the Pacific Community in partnership with national governments. This study seeks to describe the health status of a large, nationally repres...
Article
Aquaculture has been viewed as a potential pathway to healthy and sustainable diets by increasing global nutrient-rich food production while minimizing environmental impacts. Here, we explore environmental and nutritional synergies, trade-offs, and constraints that illuminate the role of aquaculture to deliver on this double bottom line.
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Malagasy subsistence farmers, who comprise 70% of the nearly 26 million people in Madagascar, often face food insecurity because of unreliable food production systems and adverse crop conditions. The 2020–2021 drought in Madagascar, in particular, is associated with an exceptional food crisis, yet we are unaware of peer-reviewed studies that quanti...
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Recent discussions of healthy and sustainable diets encourage increased consumption of plants and decreased consumption of animal-source foods for both human and environmental health. Seafood is often peripheral in these discussions. This paper examines the relative environmental costs of sourcing key nutrients from different kinds of seafood, othe...
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The Pacific food system has become progressively more integrated into global food regimes. This integration has had impacts on availability and consumption of food, population health, and vulnerability to external drivers. We describe major elements of the contemporary food system to provide a foundation for analysis of food system transitions and...
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Hunting is one of the greatest threats to nonhuman primates worldwide. Despite Madagascar’s status as a primate mega-diversity country, a critical lack of information on the hunting of lemurs at the national scale persists. Here, we synthesize the current state of knowledge of the annual rates of household-level lemur hunting near ten protected are...
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Despite contributing to healthy diets for billions of people, aquatic foods are often undervalued as a nutritional solution because their diversity is often reduced to the protein and energy value of a single food type (‘seafood’ or ‘fish’)1–4. Here we create a cohesive model that unites terrestrial foods with nearly 3,000 taxa of aquatic foods to...
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Food systems that support healthy diets in sustainable, resilient, just, and equitable ways can engender progress in eradicating poverty and malnutrition; protecting human rights; and restoring natural resources. Food system activities have contributed to great gains for humanity but have also led to significant challenges, including hunger, poor d...
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Small-scale fisheries and aquaculture (SSFA) provide livelihoods for over 100 million people and sustenance for ~1 billion people, particularly in the Global South. Aquatic foods are distributed through diverse supply chains, with the potential to be highly adaptable to stresses and shocks, but face a growing range of threats and adaptive challenge...
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Numerous studies have focused on the need to expand production of ‘blue foods’, defined as aquatic foods captured or cultivated in marine and freshwater systems, to meet rising population- and income-driven demand. Here we analyze the roles of economic, demographic, and geographic factors and preferences in shaping blue food demand, using secondary...
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Food systems are at the center of a brewing storm consisting of a rapidly changing climate, rising hunger and malnutrition and significant social inequities. At the same time, there are vast opportunities to ensure that food systems produce healthy and safe food in equitable ways that promote environmental sustainability, especially if the world ca...
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Recognized as an emerging global crisis in the mid-1990s, the “nutrition transition” is marked by a shift to Western diets, dominated by highly processed, sugar-sweetened, and high caloric foods. Occurring in parallel to these health transitions are dramatic shifts in the natural systems that underlie food availability and access. Traditionally, en...
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Aquatic foods from marine and freshwater systems are critical to the nutrition, health, livelihoods, economies and cultures of billions of people worldwide, but climate-related hazards may compromise their ability to provide these benefits. Here, we estimate national-level aquatic food system climate risk using an integrative food systems approach...
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Full-text available
Small-scale fisheries and aquaculture (SSFA) provide livelihoods for over 100 million people and sustenance for ~1 billion people, particularly in the Global South. Aquatic foods are distributed through diverse supply chains, with the potential to be highly adaptable to stresses and shocks, but face a growing range of threats and adaptive challenge...
Article
Micronutrient deficiencies constitute a pressing public health concern, especially in developing countries. As a dense source of bioavailable nutrients, aquatic foods can help alleviate such deficiencies. Developing aquaculture that provides critical micronutrients without sacrificing the underlying environmental resources that support these food p...
Article
The Makira Natural Park (Makira) is the largest terrestrial protected area in Madagascar, supporting nearly 200,000 people living around the park, who derive a significant proportion of their animal-source foods from hunting. Makira is currentlymanaged with three different policies: (1) traditional management with no external assistance; (2) commun...
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Understanding and responding to adverse human health impacts of global environmental change will be a major priority of 21st century public health professionals. The emerging field of planetary health aims to face this challenge by studying and promoting policies that protect the health of humans and of the Earth's natural systems that support them...
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Across the Global South, wildlife is an important source of nutrition and income, particularly for rural communities. While wildlife consumption provides a valuable source of nutrition, high levels of hunting can endanger wildlife species. In the Makira region of north‐eastern Madagascar, human health is threatened by food insecurity and malnutriti...
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Background: Large-scale variation in ecological parameters across Madagascar is hypothesized to drive varying spatial patterns of malaria infection. However, to date, few studies of parasite prevalence with resolution at finer, sub-regional spatial scales are available. As a result, there is a poor understanding of how Madagascar's diverse local e...
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The international development community is off-track from meeting targets for alleviating global malnutrition. Meanwhile, there is growing consensus across scientific disciplines that fish plays a crucial role in food and nutrition security. However, this ‘fish as food’ perspective has yet to translate into policy and development funding priorities...
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Global food demand is rising, and serious questions remain about whether supply can increase sustainably1. Land-based expansion is possible but may exacerbate climate change and biodiversity loss, and compromise the delivery of other ecosystem services2–6. As food from the sea represents only 17% of the current production of edible meat, we ask how...
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Aquatic foods are a critical source of human nutrition in many developing countries. As a result, declines in wild-caught fish landings threaten nutritionally vulnerable populations. Aquaculture presents an opportunity to meet local demand, but it also places pressure on natural resource inputs and causes a range of environmental impacts. Here, we...
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Background: Deforestation and land use change is widespread in Madagascar, altering local ecosystems and creating opportunities for disease vectors, such as the Anopheles mosquito, to proliferate and more easily reach vulnerable, rural populations. Knowledge of risk factors associated with malaria infections is growing globally, but these associat...
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Madagascar has experienced significant environmental change since 1960, particularly through forest clearing for agricultural expansion. Climatic patterns are undergoing change in Madagascar as well, with increasing temperatures, droughts, and cyclonic activity. The impact of these environmental and climatic changes will pose threats to food availa...
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Global demand for freshwater and marine foods (i.e., seafood) is rising and an increasing proportion is farmed. Aquaculture encompasses a range of species and cultivation methods, resulting in diverse social, economic, nutritional, and environmental outcomes. As a result, how aquaculture develops will influence human wellbeing and environmental hea...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Deforestation and land use change is widespread in Madagascar, altering local ecosystems and creating opportunities for disease vectors, such as the Anopheles mosquito, to proliferate and more easily reach vulnerable, rural populations. Knowledge of risk factors associated with malaria infections is growing globally, but these associati...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Deforestation and land use change is widespread in Madagascar, altering local ecosystems and creating opportunities for disease vectors, such as the Anopheles mosquito, to proliferate and more easily reach vulnerable, rural populations. Knowledge of risk factors associated with malaria infections is growing globally, but these associatio...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Deforestation and land use change is widespread in Madagascar, altering local ecosystems and creating opportunities for disease vectors, such as the Anopheles mosquito, to proliferate and more easily reach vulnerable, rural populations. Knowledge of risk factors associated with malaria infections is growing globally, but these associatio...
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Full-text available
A few data are related to the anthropophily of Malagasy Phlebotomine sandflies. Prior studies focussed mainly to inventories and description of new species. Our goal was to emphasize the anthropophily of Malagasy Phlebotomine sandflies. We worked in the Makira region, using two simultaneous methods: human landing catches (HLC) and CDC light traps....
Book
A freely downloadable anthology of case studies in planetary health accompanied by case teaching notes for each of ten cases. Downloadable here: https://planetaryhealthalliance.org/case-studies
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Madagascar has experienced extensive deforestation and overharvesting, and anthropogenic climate change will compound these pressures. Anticipating these threats to endangered species and their ecosystems requires considering both climate change and habitat loss effects. The genus Varecia (ruffed lemurs), which is composed of two Critically Endange...
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Pica, the craved and purposive consumption of non-food substances, is a globally widespread behavior that has critical connections to public health. Although there is a rich literature describing these behaviors from nearly every culture around the world, there is a dearth of English language literature reporting these behaviors in Japan and Korea....
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Conservation officials work to manage complex and interacting human-environmental systems, where balancing needs between the two systems can become a source of tension. This study presents information on the use of natural resources by, and the health and welfare of, rural communities within and near Ankarafantsika National Park (ANP) in northweste...
Conference Paper
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initiative of 14 serving heads of government committed to catalysing bold, pragmatic solutions for ocean health and wealth that support the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and build a better future for people and the planet. By working with governments, experts and stakeholders from around the world, the High Level Panel aims to develop a road...
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Madagascar faces dual challenges in biodiversity conservation and public health. In order to identify strategies to reduce the unsustainable hunting of threatened species while maintaining or improving child nutrition, we quantified interactions among ecosystem indicators (lemur density and habitat biodiversity indices), health indicators (stunting...
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Dams provide energy and irrigation water, but also alter natural water flows that support fisheries. This tradeoff presents a risk for human nutrition in regions dependent on aquatic foods, including the Lower Mekong Basin (LMB), where over 100 dams are planned or in construction. Previous models estimate significant reductions in fishery productio...
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Background Land-use changes, such as deforestation, can increase the transmission potential of a landscape by increasing the abundance of preferred microhabitats for malaria vectors. However, this relationship between malaria and deforestation is complex and depends on factors such as the type of land use, the local ecology of malaria vector specie...
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Chickens are a key source of nutrition for rural Malagasy communities. Due to high endemic rates of Newcastle disease, it remains challenging to raise sustainable chicken flocks as a consistent food source. Here, we explore the impact of triannual Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine interventions on the growth and herd immunity acquisition of Mal...
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The Madagascar Health and Environmental Research-Antongil (MAHERY-Antongil) study cohort was set up in September 2015 to assess the nutritional value of seafood for the coastal Malagasy population living along Antongil Bay in northeastern Madagascar. Over 28 months of surveillance, we aimed to understand the relationships among different marine res...
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Objective We collected dietary records over the course of nine months to comprehensively characterize the consumption patterns of Malagasy people living in remote rainforest areas of north-eastern Madagascar. Design The present study was a prospective longitudinal cohort study to estimate dietary diversity and nutrient intake for a suite of macron...
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Protected areas (PAs) are fundamental for biodiversity conservation, yet their impacts on nearby residents are contested. We synthesized environmental and socioeconomic conditions of >87,000 children in >60,000 households situated either near or far from >600 PAs within 34 developing countries. We used quasi-experimental hierarchical regression to...
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Background: Traditional food systems are under pressure from various stressors, including climate change which is projected to negatively alter the abundance of marine species harvested by coastal First Nations (FNs) in British Columbia (BC). Objective: To model the potential impacts of the climate-related declines in seafood production on the n...
Data
Nutrient content of top 20 most consumed seafood species (Canadian Nutrient File, Health Canada, 2015). *—μg RAE, retinol activity equivalent, “–mg NE, niacin equivalent. (DOCX)
Data
Projected changes in nutrient intakes after substitution by potential alternative foods (chicken, canned tuna, and bread)1. 1—Average daily intake of nutrients, estimated base on gram-to-gram replacement by alternative foods. 2 –Baseline nutrient intakes from seafood based on the food frequency questionnaire of the FNFNES. 3 –Chicken: nutrient cont...
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The body-wide human microbiome plays a role in health, but its full diversity remains uncharacterized, particularly outside of the gut and in international populations. We leveraged 9,428 metagenomes to reconstruct 154,723 microbial genomes (45% of high quality) spanning body sites, ages, countries, and lifestyles. We recapitulated 4,930 species-le...
Data
Table S3. Assembly Statistics and Quality Control Measures for the 154,723 Reconstructed Genomes, Related to Figure 6