Christopher Callahan Conway

Christopher Callahan Conway
Fordham University · Department of Psychology

Ph.D.

About

53
Publications
25,982
Reads
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3,243
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 2014 - August 2015
Boston University
Position
  • PostDoc Position
August 2013 - August 2014
University of California, Los Angeles
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (53)
Preprint
Mental health research is at an important crossroads as the field seeks more reliable and valid phenotypes to study. Dimensional approaches to quantifying mental illness operate outside the confines of traditional categorical diagnoses, and they are gaining traction as a way to advance research on the causes and consequences of mental illness. The...
Preprint
Mental health research is at an important crossroads as the field seeks more reliable and valid phenotypes to study. Dimensional approaches to quantifying mental illness operate outside the confines of traditional categorical diagnoses, and they are gaining traction as a way to advance research on the causes and consequences of mental illness. The...
Preprint
Mental health research is at an important crossroads as the field seeks more reliable and valid phenotypes to study. Dimensional approaches to quantifying mental illness operate outside the confines of traditional categorical diagnoses, and they are gaining traction as a way to advance research on the causes and consequences of mental illness. The...
Preprint
Mental health research is at an important crossroads as the field seeks more reliable and valid phenotypes to study. Dimensional approaches to quantifying mental illness operate outside the confines of traditional categorical diagnoses, and they are gaining traction as a way to advance research on the causes and consequences of mental illness. The...
Article
Full-text available
The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) is an empirical effort to address limitations of traditional mental disorder diagnoses. These include arbitrary boundaries between disorder and normality, disorder co‐occurrence in the modal case, heterogeneity of presentation within dis­orders, and instability of diagnosis within patients. This...
Article
Rumination is correlated with diverse types of internalizing problems, but the extent to which it relates to a higher-order internalizing spectrum versus disorder-specific pathology is unclear. Using a quantitative model of the internalizing dimension, we compared the strength of transdiagnostic versus diagnosis-specific pathways from brooding—the...
Article
Generations of psychologists have been taught that mental disorder can be carved into discrete categories, each qualitatively different from the others and from normality. This model is now outdated. A preponderance of evidence indicates that (a) individual differences in mental health (health vs. illness) are a matter of degree, not kind, and (b)...
Article
Traditional diagnostic systems went beyond empirical evidence on the structure of mental health. Consequently, these diagnoses do not depict psychopathology accurately, and their validity in research and utility in clinical practice are therefore limited. The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) consortium proposed a model based on stru...
Article
Shortcomings of approaches to classifying psychopathology based on expert consensus have given rise to contemporary efforts to classify psychopathology quantitatively. In this paper, we review progress in achieving a quantitative and empirical classification of psychopathology. A substantial empirical literature indicates that psychopathology is ge...
Article
A robust literature demonstrates that psychopathology and personality pathology are well-represented within quantitatively-derived, hierarchical dimensional models. Nevertheless, the location of core traits comprising psychopathic personality (psychopathy) as defined by the triarchic model has not been clearly explicated. We extended hierarchical s...
Article
Genetic discovery in psychiatry and clinical psychology is hindered by suboptimal phenotypic definitions. We argue that the hierarchical, dimensional, and data-driven classification system proposed by the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) consortium provides a more effective approach to identifying genes that underlie mental disorder...
Article
Full-text available
Structural models of mental illness delineate the major phenotypic dimensions of psychopathology. These evidence‐based models, such as the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology, are poised to supplement—and even supplant—categorical diagnostic systems in research, assessment and treatment arenas. This special issue of Personality and Mental Heal...
Article
Objective: Diagnosis is a cornerstone of clinical practice for mental health care providers, yet traditional diagnostic systems have well-known shortcomings, including inadequate reliability, high comorbidity, and marked within-diagnosis heterogeneity. The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) is a data-driven, hierarchically based alte...
Article
Full-text available
Structural models of psychopathology provide dimensional alternatives to traditional categorical classification systems. Competing models, such as the bifactor and correlated factors models, are typically compared via statistical indices to assess how well each model fits the same data. However, simulation studies have found evidence for probifacto...
Article
Developmental research documents that anhedonia, or diminished interest in usual activities, is associated with a diverse array of emotional problems in childhood and adolescence. Meanwhile, official nosologies desginate anhedonia as a more specific characteristic of major depressive disorder. Using a quantitative model of the internalizing domain,...
Article
For more than a century, research on psychopathology has focused on categorical diagnoses. Although this work has produced major discoveries, growing evidence points to the superiority of a dimensional approach to the science of mental illness. Here we outline one such dimensional system-the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP)-that is...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter reviews literature investigating the complex relationships between stress and personality disorders. Various forms of early life adversity, particularly experiences of abuse and neglect, portend the development of personality disorders and maladaptive personality traits later in life. Much of this association appears to be causal (i.e....
Article
A large and consistent research literature demonstrates the superiority of dimensional models of mental disorder. Factor analytic research has mapped the latent dimensions underlying separate sets of mental disorders (e.g., emotional disorders), but a common framework-unencumbered by arbitrary historical boundaries between disorder groups-requires...
Article
Full-text available
Shortcomings of approaches to classifying psychopathology based on expert consensus have given rise to contemporary efforts to classify psychopathology quantitatively. In this paper, we review progress in achieving a quantitative and empirical classification of psychopathology. A substantial empirical literature indicates that psychopathology is ge...
Article
Borderline personality disorder (PD) has historically been cast as an unabating condition. Longitudinal data, however, support a more variable time course marked by remission and relapse. In the present study, we tested the possibility that borderline PD has both stable (i.e., consistently present across time and situation, as modern diagnostic sys...
Article
The latent structure of schizotypy and psychosis-spectrum symptoms remains poorly understood. Furthermore, molecular genetic substrates are poorly defined, largely due to the substantial resources required to collect rich phenotypic data across diverse populations. Sample sizes of phenotypic studies are often insufficient for advanced structural eq...
Article
The categorical model of personality disorder classification in the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed. [DSM–5]; American Psychiatric Association, 2013 American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psyc...
Article
Full-text available
The time course of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is far more variable than traditionally assumed. Shifting environmental conditions are theorized to account, at least in part, for fluctuations in symptom presentation over time. In the present study, we evaluated the reciprocal influences of stressful life events and borderline pathology in...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Adverse family environments confer susceptibility to virtually all psychiatric problems. This study evaluated two possible models to explain this diversity of associations. Stressful family circumstances during childhood could either activate general, transdiagnostic liabilities to mental disorder or promote numerous disorder-specific...
Article
1 Background Mental disorders cluster together systematically. Through factor analysis of disorder comorbidity, investigators are establishing the latent dimensions that underlie the development of related syndromes. However, these dimensions have not been validated across diverse patient samples, in which comorbidity patterns vary widely. 2 Metho...
Article
Borderline personality disorder (PD) historically is construed as an unremitting condition with poor prognosis. In the present study we take a new approach to examining stability and change in borderline PD by explaining symptom expression in terms of an unchanging foundation—termed borderline proneness—on one hand, and transitory influences on the...
Article
The developmental trajectories of emotional disorder symptoms during adolescence remain elusive, owing in part to a shortage of intensive longitudinal data. In the present study, we charted the temporal course of the tripartite model of anxiety and depression—which posits an overarching negative affect dimension and specific anhedonia and anxious a...
Article
Full-text available
Biased stress appraisals critically relate to the origins and temporal course of many—perhaps most—forms of psychopathology. We hypothesized that aberrant stress appraisals are linked directly to latent internalizing and externalizing traits that, in turn, predispose to multiple disorders. A high-risk community sample of 815 adolescents underwent s...
Article
Both acute stressful life events and ongoing strains are thought to confer vulnerability to emotional disorders. Unremitting stressful conditions may be particularly pathogenic, but prior research has struggled to delimit chronic versus transient stressful experiences. We aimed to isolate stable stressors-theorized to be indicators of a latent stre...
Article
Background: A personality disorder diagnosis signals a negative prognosis for depressive and anxiety disorders, but the precise abnormal personality traits that determine the temporal course of internalizing psychopathology are unknown. In the present study, we examined prospective associations between abnormal personality traits and the onset and...
Article
Full-text available
Exposition ist eine wirksame Behandlung bei Angststörungen, jedoch zeigt eine substanzielle Anzahl von Klienten keine signifikante Symptomreduktion oder ein Wiederkehren der Angst. Es wird angenommen, dass ängstliche Personen Defizite in grundlegenden Mechanismen der Expositionstherapie, wie dem inhibitorischen Lernen, aufweisen. Ein gezieltes Ansp...
Article
Full-text available
Transdiagnostic models hold promise for transforming research and treatment practices for personality disorders (PDs), but widespread acceptance and implementation of such approaches will require persuasive evidence of construct validity and clinical utility. Toward that end, the authors examined the criterion-related validity of a transdiagnostic...
Article
Full-text available
Despite decades of research examining diathesis-stress models of emotional disorders, it remains unclear whether dysfunctional attitudes interact with stressful experiences to shape affect on a daily basis and, if so, how clinical and genetic factors influence these associations. To address these issues, we conducted a multi-level daily diary study...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research supports gene-environment interactions for polymorphisms in the corticotropin hormone receptor 1 gene (CRHR1) and the serotonin transporter gene linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) in predicting depression, but it has rarely considered genetic influences on stress sensitization processes, whereby early adversities (EA) increase d...
Article
Full-text available
Longitudinal studies of the exact environmental conditions and personal attributes contributing to the development of borderline personality disorder (BPD) are rare. Furthermore, existing research typically examines risk factors in isolation, limiting our knowledge of the relative effect sizes of different risk factors and how they act in concert t...
Article
Full-text available
Recent studies examining the interaction between the 5-HTTLPR locus in the serotonin transporter gene and life stress in predicting depression have yielded equivocal results, leading some researchers to question whether 5-HTTLPR variation indeed regulates depressive responses to stress. Two possible sources of inconsistent data in this literature a...
Article
Full-text available
Transdiagnostic and disorder-specific models of intergenerational transmission of internalizing pathology – ERRATUM - Volume 44 Issue 1 - L. R. Starr, C. C. Conway, C. L. Hammen, P. A. Brennan
Article
Full-text available
Background: Numerous studies have supported an association between maternal depression and child psychiatric outcomes, but few have controlled for the confounding effects of both maternal and offspring co-morbidity. Thus, it remains unclear whether the correspondence between maternal and offspring depressive and anxiety disorders is better explain...
Article
Full-text available
With the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) scheduled for publication in 2013, researchers continue to debate the optimal classification of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Much of the discussion has focused on the relative merits of dimensional versus categorical classification schemes for BPD....
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Peer socialization may be an important contributor to the rising prevalence of diet and muscle gain behaviors (i.e., body change behaviors) in adolescence. The present study longitudinally examined body change behaviors in preadolescents' friendship groups as predictors of preadolescents' own body change behaviors. It was predicted that...
Article
Full-text available
Originally formulated to understand the recurrence of depressive disorders, the stress generation hypothesis has recently been applied in research on anxiety and externalizing disorders. Results from these investigations, in combination with findings of extensive comorbidity between depression and other mental disorders, suggest the need for an exp...
Article
Full-text available
Despite consistent evidence that serotonin functioning affects stress reactivity and vulnerability to aggression, research on serotonin gene-stress interactions (G × E) in the development of aggression remains limited. The present study investigated variation in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) as a moderator of the...
Article
Full-text available
Tests of interpersonal theories of depression have established that elevated depression levels among peers portend increases in individuals' own depressive symptoms, a phenomenon known as depression socialization. Susceptibility to this socialization effect may be enhanced during the transition to adolescence as the strength of peer influence rises...
Article
Full-text available
Variation in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) has been linked to various cognitive-affective indices of stress sensitivity hypothesized to underlie vulnerability to depression. The current study examined the association of 5-HTTLPR with appraisals of naturally occurring acute life stressors in a community sample of 3...
Article
Full-text available
Building on interpersonal theories of depression, the current study sought to explore whether early childhood social withdrawal serves as a risk factor for depressive symptoms and diagnoses in young adulthood. The researchers hypothesized that social impairment at age 15 would mediate the association between social withdrawal at age 5 and depressio...
Article
Investigations of gene-environment interaction (GxE) in depression have implicated a polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) as a moderator of the stress-depression relationship. However, recent evidence for 5-HTTLPR GxE in depression has been inconsistent. This study examined the moderating effect of the va...

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