Christopher R Barnes

Christopher R Barnes
University of Victoria | UVIC · School of Earth and Ocean Sciences

BSc, PhD, DSc

About

211
Publications
40,931
Reads
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5,224
Citations
Additional affiliations
July 2005 - present
University of Victoria
Position
  • Professor Emeritus
Description
  • 2005- Professor Emeritus SEOS 1991-2005 Professor with tenure SEOS 1989-2000 Director Centre for Earth and Ocean Research (CEOR) 1991-1992 Acting Director SEOS 1992-2002 Director SEOS
September 2001 - June 2011
University of Victoria
Position
  • Director, NEPTUNE Canada
July 1991 - June 2002
University of Victoria
Position
  • Managing Director
Education
October 1964 - June 1965
University of Wales, Swansea, UK
Field of study
  • Micropaleontology
September 1961 - October 1964
University of Ottawa
Field of study
  • Geology (Paleontology)
September 1958 - June 1961
University of Birmingham
Field of study
  • Geology

Publications

Publications (211)
Article
Full-text available
The Joint Task Force, Science Monitoring And Reliable Telecommunications (JTF SMART) Subsea Cables, is working to integrate environmental sensors for ocean bottom temperature, pressure, and seismic acceleration into submarine telecommunications cables. The purpose of SMART Cables is to support climate and ocean observation, sea level monitoring, ob...
Article
During the Late Ordovician, the Laurentian craton was characterized by extensive carbonate facies marking a major Katian transgression, which was followed by carbonates and evaporites associated with the Hirnantian/Gamachian regression and sea level drawdown in response to the Gondwana glaciation. Regionally, the Late Ordovician was also marked by...
Article
Full-text available
The Joint Task Force (JTF) for S cience M onitoring A nd R eliable T elecommunications (SMART) Subsea Cables will facilitate integration of sensors into commercial submarine telecommunications cables for climate monitoring and disaster warning. Our vision is a planetary scale array monitoring ocean heat and circulation and sea-level rise and revolu...
Article
Full-text available
The ocean is key to understanding societal threats including climate change, sea level rise, ocean warming, tsunamis, and earthquakes. Because the ocean is difficult and costly to monitor, we lack fundamental data needed to adequately model, understand, and address these threats. One solution is to integrate sensors into future undersea telecommuni...
Article
In the Canadian part of Laurentia, large systematic conodont collections were assembled by many specialists over recent decades primarily for lower Paleozoic biostratigraphy, with some having sampling strategies to test ecologic hypotheses. The Laurentian plate straddled the paleoequator and accumulated extensive carbonate deposits, amenable to con...
Article
Stratigraphic, palaeontologic, and palaeomagnetic data support a hypothesis that argues for the Argentine Precordillera rifting from the southwestern margin of Laurentia in low latitudes during the Cambrian, migrating across the Iapetus Ocean, colliding with the Gondwanan margin in the late Middle Ordovician, and receiving glaciogenic sediments in...
Chapter
Full-text available
The Kechika Formation, a laterally extensive platform-to-basin facies, typically lies unconformably on Cambrian strata. Its five members, which are diachronous, have gradational and conformable contacts. Basinal facies of the Road River Group comprise three formations: the Ospika (Lower to Middle Ordovician), Pesika (Lower Silurian), and Kwadacha (...
Chapter
Full-text available
This study describes a transect across the Macdonald Platform to Ospika Embayment. At least two periods of renewed extension along the early Paleozoic Cordilleran margin occurred in the latest Cambrian and late Early Ordovician, marked by deposition of the Kechika Formation and the abrupt platform-to-basin transition marking deposition of the Skoki...
Article
Full-text available
Cornwallis Island in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago provides one of the world’s best areas for establishing an integrated graptolite-conodont biozonation for the Late Ordovician-Silurian given the well-exposed interfingering relationship of the basinal shale and carbonate platform facies. Building on earlier graptolite work, 180 samples were colle...
Article
Full-text available
The conodont biostratigraphy for the Upper Ordovician – Upper Silurian carbonate shelf (Irene Bay and Allen Bay formations) and interfingering basinal (Cape Phillips Formation) facies is established for parts of Devon and Ellesmere islands, central Canadian Arctic Islands. Revisions to the interpreted regional stratigraphic relationships and correl...
Article
Full-text available
The conodont biostratigraphy for the Upper Ordovician – Upper Silurian carbonate shelf (Irene Bay and Allen Bay formations) and interfingering basinal (Cape Phillips Formation) facies is established for parts of Devon and Ellesmere islands, central Canadian Arctic Islands. Revisions to the interpreted regional stratigraphic relationships and correl...
Article
Full-text available
Strontium isotope ages of foraminifers from Early Miocene to Late Pliocene (Neogene) sequences (21.2-3.4 Ma) are reported for the first time from the Queen Charlotte Basin (QCB) in Queen Charlotte Sound, offshore British Columbia. These ages, together with a revised foraminifer biostratigraphy and log data from two offshore wells, provide a high-re...
Data
A collection of 60,886 conodonts was recovered from 141 samples of the Outram, Skoki and Owen Creek Formations (Lower to Middle Ordovician) that outcrop through the Wilcox Pass section, Jasper National Park, Alberta, Canada. This section represents the standard reference section for the Lower-Middle Ordovician of the Southern Canadian Cordillera. T...
Chapter
Full-text available
Ocean observatories such as NEPTUNE Canada will transform our understanding of biological, chemical, physical and geological plate scale processes from the beach to the abyss. Real-time continuous monitoring, archiving, and long time series allow scientists to capture the temporal nature, characteristics and linkages of these natural processes in w...
Chapter
Full-text available
NEPTUNE Canada (NC) has built the world’s first regional cabled ocean observatory in the north-east Pacific Ocean off the coast of British Columbia. The observatory became operational in late 2009 with instruments added to the last node site in 2010-12 and others replaced or added on an ongoing basis. The observatory, and similar ones being planned...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
For well over a century, submarine cables have been providing voice, image, and data communications and connectivity between nations on most continents, providing an immense service to government, business and society. Progressive innovations in the technology of cable structure and fibres as well as shore facilities and maintenance services have k...
Article
Full-text available
Middle and upper Katian conodonts were previously known in the British Isles from relatively small collections obtained from a few localities. The present study is mainly based on 17 samples containing more than 17 000 conodont elements from an approximately 14-m-thick succession of the Sholeshook Limestone Formation in a road cut near Whitland, So...
Article
Full-text available
Environmental conditions within deep-sea ecosystems such as cold-seep provinces or deep-water coral reefs vary temporally and spatially over a range of scales. To date, short periods of intense ship-borne activity or low resolution, fixed location studies by Lander systems have been the main investigative methods used to investigate such sites. Ca...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The advent of the first cabled ocean observatories, with several others being planned, demonstrates the challenges, benefits and opportunities for ocean science and commercial applications. Examples are drawn primarily from NEPTUNE Canada (NC), which completed installation of the subsea infrastructure and 60 diverse instruments in 2009, with 40 mor...
Article
Full-text available
The discovery of magnetic spherules in acid-insoluble residues from conodont samples encouraged a systematic search for Ordovician micrometeorites from northwestern Argentina. Some 220 melted micrometeorites were recovered from the magnetic fraction of six samples (total rock weight: 23 kg) from the Cordillera Oriental (Santa Rosita Formation) and...
Article
Full-text available
The first cabled ocean observatories demonstrate the challenges, benefits, and opportunities for ocean science and commercial applications. NEPTUNE Canada's 800-km subsea infrastructure and 130 diverse instruments established the world's first regional cabled ocean observatory, northeast Pacific Ocean, off Canada's coast. Introducing abundant power...
Article
Full-text available
The NEPTUNE Canada cabled observatory network enables non-destructive, controlled experiments and time-series observations with mobile robots on gas hydrates and benthic community structure on a small plateau of about 1km 2 at a water depth of 870m in Barkley Canyon, about 100km offshore Vancouver Island, British Columbia. A mobile Internet operate...
Article
Full-text available
Significant advancements in understanding the complex evolution of the Tofino Basin at a convergent accretionary margin are enabled by combining contextual geologic information with new isotopic and paleontological data. A high-resolution Cenozoic chronostratigraphy of the basin is constrained by strontium isotope ages (36.9–1.3 Ma) of Late Eocene...
Article
Full-text available
The Upper Ordovician stratigraphy in southern Ontario represents the clastic foredeep associated with the Appalachian Taconic Orogeny transitioning northwest into coeval carbonate platform facies. Ten measured and sampled sections in both the Collingwood area and on Manitoulin Island, Lake Huron, provide two relatively complete composite sections (...
Article
Full-text available
After several years of planning, NEP-TUNE Canada [www.neptunecanada.ca], as part of the Ocean Networks Canada Observatory, largely completed the installation of the world's first regional cabled obser-vatory network in 2009. The 800 km cable loop west of Vancouver Island connects five nodes in coastal, conti-nental slope, abyssal plain and spread-i...
Article
Full-text available
NEPTUNE Canada is operating a regional cabled ocean observatory across the northern Juan de Fuca Plate in the northeastern Pacific. Installation of the first suite of instruments and connectivity equipment was completed in 2009, so this system now provides the continuous power and bandwidth to collect integrated data on physical, chemical, geologic...
Article
Full-text available
NEPTUNE Canada has installed and is operating a regional cabled ocean observatory from the coast across the northern Juan de Fuca Plate in the northeastern Pacific. Installation of the first suite of instruments and connectivity equipment was completed in 2009, so this system now provides the continuous power and bandwidth to collect integrated dat...
Article
Through summer 2009, NEPTUNE Canada installed a regional cabled ocean observatory across the northern Juan de Fuca Plate, north-eastern Pacific. This provides continuous power and high bandwidth to collect integrated data on physical, chemical, geological, and biological gradients at temporal resolutions relevant to the dynamics of the earth-ocean...
Article
Full-text available
NEPTUNE Canada (NC; www.neptunecanada.ca) will complete most of the installation of the world's first regional cabled ocean observatory in late 2009 off Canada's west coast. It will comprise five main observatory nodes (100-2700m water depths) linked by an 800km backbone cable delivering 10kVDC power and 10Gbps communications bandwidth to hundreds...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
NEPTUNE Canada (NC; www.neptunecanada.ca) plans to complete installation of the world's first regional cabled ocean observatory in late 2009 off Canada's west coast. It will comprise five main observatory nodes (100m-2700m water depths), an 800km backbone cable delivering 10kV DC power and 10Gbps communications bandwidth to hundreds of sensors, wit...
Article
Full-text available
The NEPTUNE Canada Project plans to complete the world's first, regional cabled ocean observatory across the northern Juan de Fuca tectonic plate, off Canada's west coast, in late 2009. The $100 M observatory will comprise five main observatory sites (in 100 m coastal to 2700m abyssal plain depths) along an 800 km backbone cable that delivers 10 kV...
Article
Full-text available
NEPTUNE Canada is installing a regional cabled ocean observatory across the northern Juan de Fuca Plate in the northeastern Pacific. When installation of the first suite of instruments and connectivity equipment is completed in 2009, this system will provide the continuous power and bandwidth to collect integrated data on physical, chemical, geolog...
Article
Full-text available
The Ordovician Period, long considered a supergreenhouse state, saw one of the greatest radiations of life in Earth's history. Previous temperature estimates of up to ~70°C have spawned controversial speculation that the oxygen isotopic composition of seawater must have evolved over geological time. We present a very different global climate record...
Article
Full-text available
The Ordovician Period, long considered a supergreenhouse state, saw one of the greatest radiations of life in Earth's history. Previous temperature estimates of up to approximately 70 degrees C have spawned controversial speculation that the oxygen isotopic composition of seawater must have evolved over geological time. We present a very different...
Article
Full-text available
The North-East Pacific Time-Series Undersea Networked Experiments (NEPTUNE) Canada is a pioneering multinode regional cabled ocean observatory project that aims to develop new technologies for cabled ocean observatories that will eventually transform the ocean sciences. The project, which represents a consortium of 12 Canadian universities, will co...