Christopher J. Anderson

Christopher J. Anderson
The University of Warwick · Department of Politics & International Studies

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89
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Publications

Publications (89)
Article
To determine how public opinion matters for the politics of European integration, we need to know what Europeans say about Europe. Yet, despite a proliferation of analyses of public support for Europe, fundamental questions remain. First, does aggregate opinion reflect a single preference for Europe? Second, is the content of opinions similar acros...
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What explains citizens’ willingness to fight for their country in times of war? Using six waves of the World Values Survey, this study finds that individual willingness to fight is negatively related with country-level income inequality. When income inequality is high, the rich are less willing to fight than the poor. When inequality is low, the po...
Article
This paper examines the relationship between labor market policies (dismissal protection and unemployment benefits) and workers’ willingness to be flexible (e.g., accept lower pay or learn new skills) in order to remain gainfully employed. Drawing on the policy feedback literature, we argue that these policies not only influence actual labor market...
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This paper develops a model of immigrant attitudes towards immigration. We focus on two competing motivations to explain these attitudes: while kinship, solidarity, and shared experiences with other immigrants should lead to more favorable attitudes towards immigration, formal integration into a new society may create a new allegiance to the host c...
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We develop a model of immigrant political action that connects individual motivations to become politically involved with the context in which participation takes place. The article posits that opinion climates in the form of hostility or openness toward immigrants shape the opportunity structure for immigrant political engagement by contributing t...
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We investigate the partisan foundations of political legitimacy. We argue that the goals parties pursue shape their supporters’ views about the political system via the messages they communicate about the desirability of the political system. Combining public opinion survey data collected in 15 democracies with data on the goal orientations and pol...
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Little is known about how immigrants participate in politics and whether they transform political engagement in contemporary democracies. This study investigates whether citizenship (as opposed to being foreign-born) affects political and civic engagement beyond the voting booth. It is argued that citizenship should be understood as a resource that...
Article
Although income inequality is an important normative issue for students of democratic politics, little is known about its effects on citizens’ electoral participation. The authors develop a formal model of the incentives for left parties to mobilize lower income voters. It posits that countries’ income distributions and competition on the left prov...
Article
The economy was a major issue in Germany's 2009 election. The global economic crisis did not spare Germany, whose economy is tightly integrated into the global economy. So when the German economy experienced a historical shock, did voters connect their views of the economy with their vote choice? Or did they, as some research has suggested, recogni...
Article
We examined the effects of subjective and objective descriptive representation and district demography on African Americans' attitudes toward their member of Congress and the U.S. Congress as an institution. We investigated whether or not African Americans in more-racially homogeneous districts differ in their attitudes from counterparts in distric...
Chapter
An established literature in electoral studies maintains that the electoral system and other contextual factors shape the incentive structure for voters, and thereby influences individual electoral behavior. This chapter describes a theoretical framework for differentiating between various types of contextual effects on individual citizens. It also...
Article
A large body of electoral studies and political party research argues that the institutional context defines incentives that shape citizen participation and voting choice. Based on the unique resources of the Comparative Study of Electoral System surveys, this volume provides the first systematic comparative analysis of how and why cross-national d...
Chapter
This chapter examines the determinants of feelings of electoral representation in crossnational perspective. Based on CSES data from thirty-four democracies around the world, it argues that a country's macro-political context in the form of electoral systems and the menu of choices on hand at election time plays an important role in shaping people'...
Chapter
This chapter reviews the findings of this book and discusses their implications for the study of voter behavior. It argues that the effect of political institutions on voter behavior is typically indirect and contingent and that the most promixate contextual influences are typically different dimensions of the electoral supply in the form of party...
Chapter
Electoral institutions shape the potential costs and benefits of participation. This chapter argues that their effect on voter turnout is indirect by shaping the variety and stability of choices available to voters. Specifically, electoral institutions can produce political conditions that pull citizens into the democratic process by making voting...
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This article explores whether Europeans distrust the European Central Bank (ECB) because they dislike its policies or think they cannot control the institution. Distrust of the ECB is a function of individuals believing the bank cannot be counted on to fulfill the duties that Europeans have assigned it. Copyright (c) 2010 The Author(s). JCMS: Journ...
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Though comparative political economists have examined active labor market policies (ALMPs) by focusing narrowly on how they affect economic outcomes, this paper develops and argues for a broadened conception of how such policies can shape a variety of outcomes beyond the labor market. In particular, I argue that ALMPs have the potential to shape th...
Article
Despite the proliferation of analyses of public support for European integration, and the common suggestion that public opinion about integration has become more volatile, negative, or important for understanding the dynamics of the integration process, fundamental questions about Europeans’ support for the integration project and process remain. F...
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While research shows that partisanship influences beliefs about the economy, it is yet to be established whether individual partisans engage in systematically different economic behaviors. Focusing on consumer behavior, the single largest determinant of economic activity in the United States, we develop a model of voters whose purchasing behavior i...
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Electoral institutions shape the potential costs and benefits of participation. We argue that, by shaping the range and diversity of choices available to voters, electoral institutions can pull citizens into the democratic process by making voting meaningful. Our analyses of data from 29 contemporary democracies around the world collected by the Co...
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We develop a theory of the partisan foundations of political legitimacy. We argue that political parties choose to take varying positions about the desirability of existing political institutions, and that partisans are motivated to adopt these positions as their own. This produces significant heterogeneity in legitimacy beliefs within countries, a...
Article
The focus in the behavioral study of politics is on individuals. As a subfield of political science, it examines actions (e.g., voting and protest) as well as cognitions (perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs); and as a subfield of comparative politics, it examines them in one, several, or many different countries. It encompasses the study of both co...
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This article discusses and reviews the growing literature on the nexus of macro-level structures and individual behaviour that some studies are a part of. It looks at the effects that macro-level institutions and contexts have on citizen behaviour, along with how political institutions and the environment where citizens form opinions and act, help...
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Recent years have seen increased attention to integrating what we know about individual citizens with what we know about macro-level contexts that vary across countries. This article discusses the growing literature on how people's interpretations, opinions, and actions are shaped by variable contextual parameters and provides a novel substantive a...
Article
The supposition that material welfare influences whether and how citizens participate in democratic politics has a long and rich tradition in the social sciences. Moreover, the notion that income and income inequality matter to democratic processes and the quality of democratic outcomes is widely accepted. Yet, while scholars have vigorously invest...
Article
The chapters in this book have examined the relationship between income inequality and processes of democratic representation in the advanced democracies of the West. They have traced the dimensions, evolution, and differences in income inequality across most if not all of the rich countries, including the United States and much of Europe. But asid...
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Similar concerns haunt academics and policy makers throughout the old world as recent scholarship suggests that excessive inequalities attack the foundations of democratic political regimes (Acemoglu and Robinson 2006; Boix 2003) and the distributive consequences of markets become increasingly unequal. But these long-standing and unresolved debates...
Book
The gap between the richest and poorest Americans has grown steadily over the last thirty years, and economic inequality is on the rise in many other industrialized democracies as well. But the magnitude and pace of the increase differs dramatically across nations. A country's political system and its institutions play a critical role in determinin...
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The predominant normative justification for research on economic voting has been its essential role in shaping democratic accountability. A systematic examination of this literature reveals, however, that economic voting is highly contingent on two critical moderating factors: voters themselves and the political context in which they make judgments...
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  This article examines a model of the domestic political economy of subjective employment insecurity in advanced industrial societies. Based on data on people's attitudes toward their job as well as levels of and kinds of social protection collected in 15 OECD countries, it shows that there are distinct manifestations of job insecurity that are af...
Article
Based on data collected for all national elections between 1961 and 2005, we examine the role of candidate images in shaping voting behaviour in German elections. Our analysis shows that Gerhard Schröder started the campaign on the defensive, but managed to run an impressive race of ‘catch up’ against Angela Merkel, his main competitor. In large me...
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While the positive consequences of social capital and civil society are widely accepted and appreciated, the question of how they originate and can be sustained has received relatively little attention from scholars. In this study, we approach this question from a cross-national and individual-level perspective by examining how population heterogen...
Article
This paper examines the impact that one feature of a country's institutional context -the party system - has on public support for governing parties in two West European democracies, Germany and Great Britain. Specifically, it argues that models of government popularity need to take politics and institutions into account, and need to do so in a sys...
Article
Do democratic elections and experience with democracy affect citizens' propensity to engage in political protest? If so, how? A model of protest potential based on the incentives election winners and losers face in new and established democratic systems is presented. Using surveys conducted by the International Social Survey Program (ISSP) in seven...
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Using cross-national survey data and information on government practices concerning human rights collected in 17 post-Communist states in Central and Eastern Europe, the authors examine the determinants of people’s attitudes about their country’s human rights situation. They find that not all people in countries that systematically violate human ri...
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Do democratic elections and experience with democracy affect citizens' propensity to engage in political protest? If so, how? We develop a model of protest potential based on the incentives election winners and losers face in new and established democratic systems. Using surveys conducted by the International Social Survey Program (ISSP) in sevente...
Article
Democratic elections are designed to create unequal outcomes-for some to win, others have to lose. This book examines the consequences of this inequality for the legitimacy of democratic political institutions and systems. Using survey data collected in old and new democracies around the globe, the authors argue that losing generates ambivalent att...
Chapter
Political Philosophers and democratic theorists since Aristotle have considered political discussion-or at least its ideal version, democratic deliberation- an essential, albeit potentially conflictual element of the democratic process (Bohman 1996; Elster 1998; Fishkin 1991; Macedo 1999). Discussions about politics, it is argued, allow citizens to...
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Using panel surveys conducted in Great Britain before and after the 1997 general election, we examine the relationship between voting behavior and post-election economic perceptions. Drawing on psychological theories of attitude formation, we argue that those who voted for Labour and the Liberal Democrats perceived the past state of the British eco...
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This study examines the determinants of mass preferences for membership in the European Union among citizens in applicant states of Central and Eastern Europe. We hypothesize that citizens in these countries evaluate prospective membership in the EU on the basis of collective and individual cost-benefit calculi. Moreover, we posit that attitudes to...
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Although the German constitution does not provide for the direct election of the head of the executive branch by the people, the preeminent position of the federal chancellor has long tempted commentators to describe the German political system as a “chancellor democracy.”1 Based on this characterization, one might be tempted to assume that the Ger...
Article
Using surveys conducted in sixteen mature and newly established democracies around the globe, this study examines the effect of corruption on people's attitudes toward government. The analysis demonstrates that citizens in countries with higher levels of corruption express more negative evaluations of the performance of the political system and exh...
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We compare the effect of being in the political minority after an election on political protest potential in mature and newly established democracies. Specifically, we examine whether being an electoral loser translates into a greater propensity to engage in protest than being in the majority. Moreover, we investigate whether the magnitude of this...
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The paper tests informational assumptions underlying strategic interaction and collective action models of government repression and dissent. Based on directly comparable data from 18 Central and East European countries collected between 1991 and 1996, this paper investigates whether citizens' perceptions of human rights conditions in a country are...
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Based on data from 18 Central and East European countries collected between 1991 and 1996, this article tests informational assumptions underlying strategic interaction and collective action models of goverment repression and dissent. Specifically, we investigate whether citizens' perceptions of human rights conditions in a country are systematical...
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We examine the effects of voting for the winners and losers of presidential and congressional elections on political trust. On the basis of survey and electoral data for 1972 and 1996, we argue and demonstrate empirically that presidential winner–loser status systematically affects citizens' trust in government. We find that voters for the losers o...
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I evaluate claims made in a recent paper, which challenges the validity of the widely-used Satisfaction with Democracy (SWD) indicator (Canache, Mondak, and Seligson 2001). I argue that the study falls short because the evidence presented in the paper does not actually nor necessarily lead to the inferences the authors draw. Because the results are...
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Using public opinion surveys conducted in the member states of the European Union, this paper seeks to provide a systematic understanding of public support for the EMU project and European–level monetary policy authority. We develop models of support for EU monetary policy that incorporate a utilitarian component and elements of multilevel governan...
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The article compares the effect of political majority and minority status on attitudes toward government in mature and newly established democracies. Specifically, it examines whether being in the majority translates into more positive attitudes toward government than being in the minority. Using surveys conducted by the International Social Survey...
Article
The article compares the effect of political majority and minority status on attitudes toward government in mature and newly established democracies. Specifically, it examines whether being in the majority translates into more positive attitudes toward government than being in the minority. Using surveys conducted by the International Social Survey...
Article
Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printed page of such transmission. The JSTOR Archive is a trusted digital repository providing for long-term preservation and access to leading academic journals and scholarly literature from around the world. The Archive is supported...
Article
A type of conventional wisdom has developed among many scholars that industrialized countries with independent central banks produce lower relative inflation rates than countries that do not have these institutions. We argue that the relative importance of central bank independence for fighting inflation changed fundamentally from the 1970s to the...
Article
Based on individual-level survey data collected in 13 European democracies, this study analyzes three alternative ways of modeling how political context affects the relationship between economic perceptions and vote intention. The three approaches are (1) institutional clarity of responsibility; (2) governing party target size; and (3) clarity of a...
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Using public approval for the President of the European Commission as an example, we investigate whether there are economic effects on public support for political authority: (1) when democratic accountability is absent; and (2) when public information about authorities is low. We find that economic effects as traditionally defined are weak, but th...
Article
This study examines attitudes about the economy under conditions of system change. We argue that citizens in new market economics are relative novices with regard to understanding the new economic environment at the beginning of the transition phase, but that they accumulate experience as time passes. We develop and test two hypotheses: (1) we expe...
Article
Recent studies have analyzed the diversionary theory of international conflict. The theory which holds that state leaders occasionally turn to external conflict as a means of dealing with domestic political problems, has been widely accepted for centuries. Despite its intuitive appeal, quantitative studies have failed to document the phenomenon. Re...
Chapter
German politicians have long claimed that German unification and European integration are two sides of the same coin. Whether this has been a matter of political rhetoric brought on by the need to quell Europe’s fear of a greater German ambition or a matter of grand political design has not always been clear. It is evident, however, that German uni...
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This article argues that citizens employ proxies rooted in attitudes about domestic politics when responding to survey questions about the European integration process. It develops a model of public opinion toward European integration based on attitudes toward the political system, the incumbent government, and establishment parties. With the help...
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This paper examines the determinants of cross-national differences in political satisfaction across established and new democracies. On the basis of directly comparable data from over twenty West and East European countries collected between 1993 and 1995, it investigates political culture and performance-based explanations of cross-national differ...
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The scholarly literature dealing with the effects of economic conditions on government support and election outcomes in advanced industrialized democracies is extensive. fn2 Based on the so-called reward–punishment (or responsibility) hypothesis, empirical studies of economic conditions and government support often find that voters punish those inc...
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Do political institutions affect citizen satisfaction with democracy? If so, how? Using cross-sectional survey data for eleven European democracies together with data on the type of democracy in which individuals live, we demonstrate that the nature of representative democratic institutions (measured by Arend Lijphart's consensus-majority index of...
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This paper develops a conceptual framework for studying the performance of the government in what we term ‘barometer elections’. Barometer elections are defined as elections that reflect changes in citizens' attitudes toward the government in response to changing political and economic conditions, absent the opportunity to install a new executive....
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This paper investigates the dynamics of vote intention for the Danish and Norwegian Progress Parties. It shows that support patterns for these populist parties can be explained with similar independent variables. These include national economic conditions and political events. Empirical support for the usefulness of these variables is stronger in t...
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What are the aggregate dynamics of public support for European integration in the 12 EU member states? And how can they be explained? Given that mass support for integration varies both across time and across countries, the article tests the proposition that both types of variation can be explained with the help of national economic conditions, tim...
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The author examines the impact of social integration and the social environment on conventional and unconventional modes of political participation. Specifically, he examines the thesis that more social kinds of participation are more strongly affected by the social environment than are more individual kinds of political acts. The author finds that...
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This article investigates the relationship between economic conditions and party support for coalition parties in Denmark and the Netherlands. The article argues that the simple reward-punishment model cannot fully account for changes in citizens' support for parties, given variable economic performance. Using aggregate public support data for poli...
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How can differences in public support for membership in the European Union across the twelve EU member states and among its citizens be explained? Using Eurobarometer polls for 1982, 1986, and 1990, the paper examines how direct and indirect economic benefits associated with EU membership affect support for integration. We find that individuals liv...
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While a substantial literature has investigated the determinants of public support for European integration, little is known about whether these preferences actually matter for representational and political outcomes related to European integration. We address this question by examining the relationship between public support for the EU among membe...
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Does economic inequality diminish the capacity of democracies to extract voluntary sacrifice? And does inequality undermine citizen’s willingness to do their civic duty when the state is under threat? We address these questions by linking income inequality with people’s willingness to fight for their country with the help of individual-level data f...
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On the basis of cross-national survey data collected in 12 European democracies, we argue and demonstrate empirically that people who have experienced economic hardship are less satisfied with their lives and the performance of the political system. Moreover, we show that different kinds of economic hardship (financial and job-related difficulties)...
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Although immigrants constitute an increasing share of the population and the electorate in many established democracies, we know surprisingly littl e about how immigrants participate in civic life and how migration may help to transform the pa tterns of political engagement in contemporary democracies. In particular, we know little about the differ...
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Although immigrants constitute an increasing share of the population in many established democracies, we know surprisingly little about how they participate in civic life, and how increasing flows of migration may transform the pat terns of political engagement in contemporary democracies. In particular, little sys tematic research exists on whethe...
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Based on individual and macro-level data collected in 18 OECD democracies, we find that income inequality at the macrolevel depresses electoral participation. At the level of individual citizens, we find that the effects of income differentials are linear: individuals who are below the median income in society are less likely to participate in elec...
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While increased levels of migration in many European democracies have generated a growing body of research into the causes of anti-immigrant attitudes among native populations, we know surprisingly little about attitudes immigrants themselves hold towards immigration. How immigrants think about the issue of immigration is important because it affec...

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