Christophe Lopez

Christophe Lopez
French National Centre for Scientific Research | CNRS · Laboratoire de Neurosciences Cognitives

PhD in Neuroscience, Hab. Dir. Res.

About

104
Publications
25,599
Reads
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3,406
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Introduction
Highlights: The vestibular and multisensory foundations of bodily self-consciousness. I am a neuroscientist interested in vestibular and multisensory integration in healthy humans as well as in functional recovery after lesions of the vestibular system. I investigate the effects of vestibular stimulation on various aspects of bodily perception and awareness (embodiment, self-location, self-motion, ownership for body parts) and visuo-spatial cognition (mental imagery and perspective taking).
Additional affiliations
October 2011 - present
October 2011 - February 2017
French National Centre for Scientific Research
Position
  • Research Scientist at CNRS / Chargé de recherche au CNRS
January 2010 - September 2011
Universität Bern
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (104)
Article
Out-of-body experiences (OBEs) are states during which people experience their centre of awareness as located outside of their physical body, along with the sensation of seeing the environment from an elevated viewpoint. OBE is encountered in epilepsy, migraine and depersonalization, and it is not an uncommon experience in the general population. C...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The present study provides a functional mapping of vestibular responses in the human insular cortex. Methods: A total of 642 electrical stimulations of the insula were performed in 219 patients, using stereotactically implanted depth electrodes, during the presurgical evaluation of drug-refractory partial epilepsy. We retrospectively...
Article
Mental body representations are flexible and depend on sensory signals from the body and its surrounding. Clinical observations in amputees, paraplegics and brain-damaged patients suggest a vestibular contribution to the body schema, but studies using well-controlled psychophysical procedures are still lacking. In Experiment 1, we used a tactile di...
Article
The vestibular system provides the brain with sensory signals about three-dimensional head rotations and translations. These signals are important for postural and oculomotor control, as well as for spatial and bodily perception and cognition, and they are subtended by pathways running from the vestibular nuclei to the thalamus, cerebellum and the...
Preprint
Full-text available
Vestibular inputs from the inner ear are at the basis of the vestibulo-spinal and vestibulocollic reflexes involved in balance control. Studies have focused on how attentional load and emotions influence balance, but low-level social cues, such as observing human bodies in motion, have been neglected. Yet, individuals observing another person in a...
Article
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During navigation, humans mainly rely on egocentric and allocentric spatial strategies, two different frames of reference working together to build a coherent representation of the environment. Spatial memory deficits during navigation have been repeatedly reported in patients with vestibular disorders. However, little is known about how vestibular...
Preprint
The Cambridge Depersonalization Scale (CDS) developed by Sierra and Berrios in 2000 allows to draw a comprehensive overview of the clinical symptoms pertaining to depersonalization-derealization disorders and to measure the frequency and duration of these symptoms. The CDS was validated in patients suffering from depersonalization-derealization dis...
Article
Full-text available
The human vestibular cortex has mostly been approached using functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography combined with artificial stimulation of the vestibular receptors or nerve. Few studies have used electroencephalography and benefited from its high temporal resolution to describe the spatiotemporal dynamics of vestibu...
Article
Full-text available
There are tight functional and anatomical links between the vestibular and interoceptive systems, and both systems have shown to fundamentally underlie emotional processes and our sense of a bodily self. Yet, nothing is known about how long-term bilateral vestibulopathy (BVP) influences interoception and its relation to embodiment and the sense of...
Article
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Vestibular rehabilitation (VR) is practiced across Europe but little in this area has been quantified. The aim of this study was to investigate current VR assessment, treatment, education, and research practices. This was an online, cross-sectional survey with 39 VR specific questions and four sections: demographics, current practice, education, an...
Article
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While it is well known that the vestibular system is responsible for maintaining balance, posture and coordination, there is increasing evidence that it also plays an important role in cognition. Moreover, a growing number of epidemiological studies are demonstrating a link between vestibular dysfunction and cognitive deficits in older adults; howe...
Article
Recent studies employing body illusions have shown that multisensory conflict can alter body representations and modulate low-level sensory processing. One defining feature of these body illusions is that they are sensory driven and thus passive on behalf of the participant. Thus, it remained to establish whether explicit alteration of own-body rep...
Article
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Third-person perspective full-body illusions (3PP-FBI) enable the manipulation, through multisensory stimulation, of perceived self-location. Perceived self-location is classically measured by a locomotion task. Yet, as locomotion modulates various sensory signals, we developed in immersive virtual reality a measure of self-location without locomot...
Article
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A growing number of studies indicate that cognitive complaints are common in patients with peripheral vestibular disorders. A better understanding of how vestibular disorders influence cognition in these patients requires a clear delineation of the cognitive domains affected by vestibular disorders. Here, we compared the consequences of left and ri...
Article
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The bodily self is a fundamental part of human self-consciousness and relies on online multimodal information and prior beliefs about one's own body. While the contribution of the vestibular system in this process remains under-investigated, it has been theorized to be important. The present experiment investigates the influence of conflicting grav...
Article
Introduction Les informations vestibulaires (issues de l’oreille interne) et les informations intéroceptives (provenant du cœur, des reins, des viscères, etc.) seraient essentielles à la construction d’une conscience de soi corporelle et à la perception de l’espace. Une perte vestibulaire peut modifier la conscience de soi, tout autant que celle de...
Article
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There is increasing evidence that vestibular disorders evoke deficits reaching far beyond imbalance, oscillopsia and spatial cognition. Yet, how vestibular disorders affect own-body representations, in particular the perceived body shape and size, has been overlooked. Here, we explored vestibular contributions to own-body representations using two...
Article
Introduction/Background In Humans, the sense of upright is fundamental reference for bipedal behavior and spatial cognition. Our knowledge of these neural bases is limited to the perception of the vertical in the extrapersonal space (visual vertical, VV). Anatomical correlates of the sense of body upright (postural vertical, PV) are unknown. We ide...
Article
Introduction La localisation du soi corporel–l’expérience que le soi est situé en un point unique de l’espace à un moment donné (normalement dans le corps)–dépend de l’intégration cohérente de signaux visuels, tactiles, proprioceptifs, vestibulaires et intéroceptifs. L’« illusion du corps entier » permet de manipuler expérimentalement la localisati...
Article
Introduction Les illusions de sortie du corps (out-of-body experience, OBE) sont caractérisées par le sentiment d’être localisé hors du corps et de « percevoir » l’environnement depuis un point élevé. Les OBE seraient dues à une intégration erronée des informations visuelles, somesthésiques et vestibulaires [1], comme l’ont suggérées des études de...
Conference Paper
Introduction Nous faisons l’expérience du monde selon une perspective en première personne, mais pouvons simuler le point de vue des personnes qui nous entourent (prise de perspective en troisième personne : 3PP). La 3PP étant un processus cognitif incarné, nous avons étudié le rôle des informations vestibulaires dans la 3PP. Matériel et méthodes...
Article
Full-text available
Recent findings suggest that vestibular information plays a significant role in anchoring the self to the body. Out-of-body experiences of neurological origin are frequently associated with vestibular sensations, and galvanic vestibular stimulation in healthy participants anchors the self to the body. Here, we provide the first objective measures o...
Article
Introduction Recent studies have highlighted the vestibular contributions to cognition, affective control and self-consciousness (Lopez, 2016), but only few studies measured how cognition influences vestibular information processing. There is to date no neurophysiological study linking vestibular processing and social cognition. This is surprising...
Article
Introduction Les atteintes du système vestibulaire dégradent la posture, la locomotion et la stabilisation du regard. Certains patients avec une atteinte vestibulaire rapportent également des modifications de la perception de leur soi, ou des sensations d’étrangeté et d’irréalité de leur corps et leur environnement. Ces symptômes se rapprochent des...
Article
Introduction Le rôle des informations vestibulaires dans la cognition spatiale est de plus en plus étudié. En particulier, les informations vestibulaires canalaires influencent la prise de perspective visuo-spatiale en troisième personne, c’est-à-dire la simulation d’un point de vue allocentré. En revanche, peu d’études se sont intéressées à l’infl...
Article
This review article summarizes neuropsychological descriptions of abnormal body representations in brain-damaged patients and recent neuroscientific investigations of their sensorimotor underpinnings in healthy participants. The first part of the article describes unilateral disorders of the bodily self, such as asomatognosia, feelings of amputatio...
Article
The peripheral vestibular organs encode three-dimensional head rotations and translations and generate sensory signals that are transmitted to the vestibular nuclei, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. The human vestibular cortex is composed of at least 10 regions, including the parietoinsular vestibular cortex (PIVC) at the posterior end of the lateral...
Article
Purpose of review: The review presents a selection of recent studies in the field of vestibular neuroscience, including how vestibular stimulation modulates space and body perception. Recent findings: Recent neuroimaging studies identified the operculo-insular/retroinsular cortex as the core vestibular cortex and showed how it is reorganized aft...
Article
mammals, less is known about the brain mechanisms of vestibular processing in humans. In particular, of the studies that have been carried out in humans over the last 30 years, none has investigated how vestibular stimulation (VS) affects cortical oscillations. Here we recorded high-density electroencephalography (EEG) in healthy human subjects and...
Article
Full-text available
In the nineteenth century Pierre–Jean–Marie Flourens (1825) and Ernst Mach described the vestibular system and its peripheral organs while Robert Barany, rewarded by the Nobel prize in 1914, was the first to investigate vestibular disorders with caloric tests making surgical treatments of the vestibular organ possible. Recently, Graf and Klam (2006...
Article
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Introduction Des épilepsies du cortex vestibulaire peuvent conduire à une perte de l’ancrage du soi au corps (illusion de sortie du corps). L’objectif était de mesurer les conséquences d’une perte vestibulaire chronique sur l’ancrage du soi au corps en utilisant des tâches de prise de perspective visuo-spatiale. Méthodes Vingt patients (âge moyen...
Article
The degree to which others in our environment influence sensorimotor processing has been a particular focus of cognitive neuroscience for the past two decades. This process of self-other resonance, or shared body representation, has only recently been extended to more global bodily processes such as self-location, self-motion perception, balance an...
Article
Objectives: Four studies assessing vestibular compensation in Menière's disease patients undergoing unilateral vestibular neurotomy, using different analysis methods, are reviewed, with a focus on the different strategies used by patients according to their preoperative sensory preference. Material and methods: Four prospective studies performed in...
Article
The role of the vestibular system in posture and eye movement control has been extensively described. By contrast, how vestibular signals contribute to bodily perceptions is a more recent research area in the field of cognitive neuroscience. In the present review article, I will summarize recent findings showing that vestibular signals play a cruci...
Article
Four studies assessing vestibular compensation in Menière's disease patients undergoing unilateral vestibular neurotomy, using different analysis methods, are reviewed, with a focus on the different strategies used by patients according to their preoperative sensory preference. Four prospective studies performed in a university tertiary referral ce...
Chapter
Full-text available
There is increasing evidence that vestibular signals and the vestibular cortex are not only involved in oculomotor and postural control, but also contribute to higher-level cognition. Yet, despite the effort that has recently been made in the field, the exact location of the human vestibular cortex and its implications in vari-ous perceptional, emo...
Chapter
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To answer Alsmith's questions about the existence of a vestibular sense, we out-line in the first part of our reply why we believe the vestibular sense is a true " sixth sense " . We argue that vestibular information constitutes distinct sensory events and that absolute coding of body orientation and motion in the grav-ity-centered space is the imp...
Chapter
Full-text available
LOPEZ C. and DIEGUEZ S. (2015) La représentation du corps et ses troubles: approches de la neuropsychologie et des neurosciences cognitives. In: Pérennou D., Rode G., Azouvi P. and Brun V. (Eds.). La cognition spatiale. Sauramps Médical, Montpellier, p. 63–88.
Article
La posture de notre corps influence de façon préconsciente la perception émotionnelle que nous avons de nos congénères. Peu de données sont en revanche disponibles sur l’utilisation des informations proprioceptives liées au corps entier pour la perception visuo-spatiale. Cette étude décrit (Tâche1) comment ces informations proprioceptives sont util...
Article
Full-text available
Notre capacité à s’abstraire de notre propre point de vue pour adopter celui d’autrui, ou « prise de perspective visuo-spatiale », joue un rôle important dans la cognition sociale (1). Cette étude a pour objectif de mesurer l’influence des informations vestibulaires sur la prise de perspective en combinant des stimulations rotatoires naturelles du...
Article
The hundredth anniversary of Robert Bárány’s Nobel Prize in Medicine offers the opportunity to highlight the importance of his discoveries on the physiology and pathophysiology of the vestibular organs. Bárány developed the method of caloric vestibular stimulation that revolutionized the investigation of the semicircular canals and that is still wi...
Article
Introduction/Background: In Humans, the sense of upright is fundamental reference for bipedal behavior and spatial cognition. Our knowledge of these neural bases is limited to the perception of the vertical in the extrapersonal space (visual vertical, VV). Anatomical correlates of the sense of body upright (postural vertical, PV) are unknown. We id...
Article
Full-text available
Social cognition encompasses perception of self and others as well as self-other interactions. Self-other interactions rely on a wide range of cognitive processes such as memory, language, reasoning, and emotion processing (Beer and Ochsner, 2006). Within the last few years, one productive line of research in social neuroscience has investigated th...
Article
Full-text available
The consequences of vestibular disorders on balance, oculomotor control, and self-motion perception have been extensively described in humans and animals. More recently, vestibular disorders have been related to cognitive deficits in spatial navigation and memory tasks. Less frequently, abnormal bodily perceptions have been described in patients wi...
Article
Full-text available
Recent research on bodily self-consciousness has assumed that it consists of three distinct components: the experience of owning a body (body ownership); the experience of being a body with a given location within the environment (self-location); and the experience of taking a first-person, body-centered, perspective on that environment (perspectiv...
Article
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In three experiments we investigated the effects of visuo-tactile and visuo-vestibular conflict about the direction of gravity on three aspects of bodily self-consciousness: self-identification, self-location, and the experienced direction of the first-person perspective. Robotic visuo-tactile stimulation was administered to 78 participants in thre...
Article
Full-text available
THE OBSERVATION OF CONSPECIFICS INFLUENCES OUR BODILY PERCEPTIONS AND ACTIONS: Contagious yawning, contagious itching, or empathy for pain, are all examples of mechanisms based on resonance between our own body and others. While there is evidence for the involvement of the mirror neuron system in the processing of motor, auditory and tactile inform...
Article
Background: The observation of conspecifics influences our bodily perceptions and actions: Contagious yawning, contagious itching, or empathy for pain, are all examples of mechanisms based on resonance between our own body and others. While there is evidence for the involvement of the mirror neuron system in the processing of motor, auditory and ta...
Article
The vestibular system contributes to the control of posture and eye movements and is also involved in various cognitive functions including spatial navigation and memory. These functions are subtended by projections to a vestibular cortex, whose exact location in the human brain is still a matter of debate (Lopez and Blanke, 2011). The vestibular c...
Article
Ownership for body parts depends on multisensory integration of visual, tactile and proprioceptive signals. In a previous study, we demonstrated that vestibular signals also contribute to ownership for body parts, since vestibular stimulation increased illusory ownership for a rubber hand. However, it remained an open question whether the vestibula...
Article
Full-text available
The vestibular system contributes to a wide range of functions, from postural and oculomotor reflexes to spatial representation and cognition. Vestibular signals are important to maintain an internal, updated representation of the body position and movement in space. However, it is not clear to what extent they are also necessary to mentally simula...
Article
Unilateral damage to the labyrinth and the vestibular nerve cause rotational vertigo, postural imbalance, oculomotor disorders and spatial disorientation. Electrophysiological investigations in animals revealed that such deficits are partly due to imbalanced spontaneous activity and sensitivity to motion in neurons located in the ipsilesional and c...