Christoph Lumer

Christoph Lumer
Università degli Studi di Siena | UNISI · Department of Social, Political and Cognitive Sciences

About

54
Publications
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243
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Introduction
I am a philosopher working various fields: ethics, action theory, theory of practical rationality, metaphilosophy. Main research topics are: - prioritarianism - the deontic part of welfare ethics - epistemological argumentation theory - action theory - moral responsibility - types of philosophical theories (metaphilosophy) - utility theory / prudential desirability theory - practical rationality

Publications

Publications (54)
Article
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The article critically discusses Walton’s (and co-authors’) argument scheme approach to good argumentation. Four characteristics of Walton’s approach are presented: 1. Argument schemes provide normative requirements. 2. These schemata are enthymematic. 3. There are associated critical questions. 4. The method is inductive, abstracting schemata from...
Chapter
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The article develops an internalist justification of welfare ethics based on empathy. It takes up Hume's and Schopenhauer's internalistic (but not consistently developed) justification approach via empathy, but tries to solve three of their problems: 1. the varying strength of empathy depending on the proximity to the object of empathy, 2. the uncl...
Chapter
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In this paper, first the term 'prioritarianism' is defined, with some mathematical precision, on the basis of intuitive conceptions of prioritarianism, especially the idea that "benefiting people matters more the worse off these people are". (The prioritarian weighting function is monotonously ascending and concave, while its first derivation is sm...
Preprint
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This position paper of Working Group 2 of the European Network for Argumentation and Public Policy Analysis (COST Action CA17132; https://publicpolicyargument.eu) reviews goals and functions of public argumentation. Drawing on a variety of disciplines, the paper introduces basic distinctions and charts out options. It is meant to guide reflection o...
Book
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“Dalla filosofia dell’azione alla filosofia della mente” è stato il percorso di alcuni filosofi di nazionalità varia degli anni 1980 – come Paul Churchland negli Stati Uniti o Ansgar Beckermann in Germania – che prima si sono interessati agli aspetti più teorici nella filosofia dell’azione, come il modo di funzionamento delle azioni e la loro spieg...
Article
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According to many criteria, agency, intentionality, responsibility and freedom of decision, require conscious decisions. Freud already assumed that many of our decisions are influenced by dynamically unconscious motives or that we even perform unconscious actions based on completely unconscious considerations. Such actions might not be intentional,...
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Article
This article discusses a challenge to the traditional intentional-causalist conceptions of action and intentionality as well as to our everyday and legal conceptions of responsibility, namely the psychological discovery that the greatest part of our alleged actions are performed automatically, that is unconsciously and without a proximal intention...
Article
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Many philosophers of action, including Bratman and Mele, conceive intentions functionally, as executive states: intentions are mental states that represent an action and tend to cause this action. In the philosophical tradition (e.g. for Aristotle, Thomas Aquinas, Leibniz, Kant) another function of intentions, which may be called “volitive”, played...
Article
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In a recent paper in this journal, David Botting defended pragma-dialectics against epistemo-logical criticisms by exponents of the epistemological approach to ar-gumentation, i.e., Harvey Siegel, John Biro and me. In particular, Bot-ting tries to justify with new argu-ments a Functional Claim, that the function of argumentation is to re-solve disp...
Chapter
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Anerkennung bildet formal eine dreistellige Relation: x anerkennt y als z. Bei x und y kann es sich sowohl um Individuen als auch um Gruppen handeln, z bildet dabei den evaluativen Gesichtspunkt, unter dem die Anerkennung erfolgt. Aus dieser Einstellung von x erwachsen Konsequenzen sowohl für den ethischen bzw. rechtlichen Status von y als auch für...
Article
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Being a formal and general as well as the most widely accepted approach to practical rationality, rational decision theory should be crucial for justifying rational morals. In particular, acting morally should also (nearly always) be rational in decision theoretic terms. After defending this thesis, in the critical part of the paper two strategies...
Article
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This contribution discusses some problems of Pragma-Dialectics and explains them by its consensualistic view of the function of argumentation and by its philosophical underpinnings. It is suggested that these problems can be overcome by relying on a better epistemology and on an epistemological theory of argumentation. On the one hand Pragma-Dialec...
Article
In the first part of this chapter (sections 2-5) an empirical theory of practical reasons is sketched and defended. It consists of: hypotheses about what intentions are, namely optimality beliefs, (2), hypotheses about how intentions are formed on the basis of probabilistic beliefs and intrinsic desires (3), a pluralist theory about intrinsic desir...
Book
Many important thinkers in the philosophical tradition, like Aristotle or Hume, have used an explicit theory of action as the basis of their respective normative theories of practical rationality and morality. The idea behind this architecture of theories is that action theory can inform us about the origin, bonds, reach and limits of practical rea...
Article
The first step of justification is to deduce,such norms,from even more general and abstract moral principles behind them. In the following, five such principles shall be presented, briefly motivated and differentiated from other critically competing principles. Subsequently, it shall be examined,what follows from them with respect to present proble...
Chapter
Anerkennung bildet formal eine dreistellige Relation: x anerkennt y als z. Bei x und y kann es sich sowohl um Individuen als auch um Gruppen handeln, z bildet dabei den evaluativen Gesichtspunkt, unter dem die Anerkennung erfolgt. Aus dieser Einstellung von x erwachsen Konsequenzen sowohl für den ethischen bzw. rechtlichen Status von y als auch für...
Article
In this paper an empirical theory about the nature of intention is sketched. After stressing the necessity of reckoning with intentions in philosophy of action a strategy for deciding empirically between competing theories of intention is exposed and applied for criticizing various philosophical theories of intention, among others that of Bratman....
Article
An overview of the epistemological approach to argumentation, explaining what it is, justifying it as better than a rhetorical or a consensual ist approach. systematizing the main directions and theories according to their criteria for good argumentation and presenting their contributions to major topics of argumentation theory. Also. an introducti...
Article
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The article outlines a general epistemological theory of argument: a theory that regards providingjustified belief as the principal aim of argumentation, and defends it instrumentalistically. After introducing some central terms of such a theory (2), answers to its central questions are proposed: the primary object and structure of the theory (3),...
Article
This paper tries to provide a complete list and classification of the motives for acting in accordance with morals, to explain the mechanisms underlying the less transparent among these motives, and to probe which of these motives are suited for justifying morals. (1) After giving reasons for the importance of an empirical theory of moral motives f...
Chapter
Full-text available
Anerkennung bildet formal eine dreistellige Relation: x anerkennt y als z. Bei x und y kann es sich sowohl um Individuen als auch um Gruppen handeln, z bildet dabei den evaluativen Gesichtspunkt, unter dem die Anerkennung erfolgt. Aus dieser Einstellung von x erwachsen Konsequenzen sowohl für den ethischen bzw. rechtlichen Status von y als auch für...
Article
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(1) The aim of the paper is to develop a reduction of fallacy theory, i.e. to 'deduce' fallacy theory from a positive theory of argumentation which provides exact criteria for valid and adequate argumentation. Such reductionism has several advantages compared to an unsystematic action, which is quite usual in current fallacy but which at least in p...
Article
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Pascals wager is expounded as a paradigm case of a practical,decision-theoretical argument for acting as if a proposition is true when wehave no theoretical reasons to accept or reject it (1.1.–1.2.). Thoughthe paradigm is fallacious in various respects there are valid and adequatearguments for acting as if certain propositions are true: that theor...
Article
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First, as a foundation for the other parts, aims and secondary effects of sports are explored (1) and the general concepts of 'norm' and 'moral norm' are defined (2). Then various kinds of rules and norms in sports are differentiated: primary and secondary, punishing rules etc. (3). The following parts are devoted to applied ethics: Several compone...
Chapter
Ziel dieses Beitrags ist es, das Verfahren und die Gültigkeitskriterien für einen bestimmten Typ von Interpretationen zu klären, mit dem u.a. die von einem Autoren beabsichtigte semantische Bedeutung eines Textes ermittelt werden kann. (Damit soll weder gesagt sein, daß diese Interpretationen die einzigen Mittel zur semantischen Bedeutungsermittlun...
Chapter
Praktische Argumentationen sind Argumentationen für Werturteile. In diesem Kapitel werden nur Argumentationen für elementare reine Werturteile behandelt. Denn aus diesem und den anderen Argumentationstypen lassen sich dann die Argumentationen für andere Arten von Werturteilen kombinieren. Teildeskriptive Werturteile beispielsweise müssen mittels De...
Chapter
Vor allem Kants kopernikanische Wende — also der Schritt von der Annahme, alle Erkenntnis müsse sich nach den Dingen richten, zu der Einsicht, die Gegenstände mü×ten sich nach den Regeln unseres Verstandes richten (Kant, KrV B XVIf.), d.h. der Übergang zu einem Verständnis von Erkennen als Aktivität, die die Gegenstände erst konstituiert (Bittner,...
Chapter
In diesem Kapitel werden universelle und die deskriptiven Argumentationstypen vorgestellt. Universell sind die Argumentationstypen, mit denen für alle Arten von Urteilen argumentiert werden kann: logische und erkenntnisgenetische Argumentationen. „Deskriptiv“ nenne ich diejenigen Argumentationstypen, mit denen nur für bestimmte Arten deskriptiver U...
Chapter
Da× Argumentationen im Gegensatz zu logischen Schlüssen „pragmatische“ Verfahren seien, ist in der Argumentationstheorie zu einem Gemeinplatz geworden. Insbesondere wird mit dieser Feststellung z.T. die (dialogische) Diskurstheorie der Argumentationen begründet. Der Begriff „pragmatisch“ist jedoch notorisch vieldeutig (zur Kritik siehe auch: Tugend...
Chapter
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Der Ausdruck „Argumentation“ wird in der Argumentationstheorie in drei verschiedenen Bedeutungen verwendet: Argumentation1 ≈ geordnete Folge von Urteilen (Aussagen oder Werturteilen) mit einem Argumentationsindikator (z.B.: deshalb, weil, da, also, meine These ist… , diese These kann folgenderma×en begründet werden … ); eines dieser Urteile ist die...
Article
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This article consists of three parts, two introductory, in which the limits and the methods of analysis of dialogues are expounded, and the major part, in which the main features of a philosophical theory of disputation are outlined.1. It was an essential aim of the philosophical analysis of argumentative dialogues to develop tools of substantiatio...
Article
Zusammenfassung: (1) Kantianer möchten Moral begründen ohne Rekurs auf Motive, die diese Moral inhaltlich bestimmen (= fundativer Externalismus); gleichwohl soll diese Begründung Menschen zur Moralbefolgung bewegen (= praktische Forderung). Dies setzt voraus, 1. daß es motivationsverleihende Mechanis-men gibt, die selbst inhaltlich einigermaßen neu...
Article
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This paper has four aims and sections, the first two are positive or constructive and deal with the concept of 'desire', the latter two, discussing various concepts of 'explanatory practical reason', are negative or critical. (1) First a certain concept of 'desire' is ex-plained, which lies broadly in a Humean tradition. (2) Then it will be shown t...
Article
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This paper presents two methods for interpreting human actions or their results with the aim of finding the underlying intention, the goal intention or the more comprehensive intention including the subject's considerations about various advantages of the chosen option as well as about its alternatives. The first interpretation method is simple and...
Article
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Erschienen in: Stiftung für die Rechte zukünftiger Generationen (Hg.): Handbuch Generationengerechtigkeit. München: ökom Verlag 2003. S. 105-123.
Article
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Der erste Teil des Aufsatzes (1-3) ist kritisch. In ihm werden insbesondere Begründungsdefizite der heute dominierenden wohlfahrtsethischen Theorien zum moralischen Status von Embryonen herausgearbeitet (3): Mit dem primären Rekurs auf die (dezisionalen) Präferenzen der Benefiziare lassen sich die gewünschten moralischen Positionen nicht kohärent b...
Article
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Geltung / Gültigkeit -Die Ausdrücke 'Geltung' (Ge.) und 'Gültigkeit' (Gü.) sind nicht nur mehrdeutig, sondern werden auch uneinheitlich und gerade in der Philosophie häufig in extrem unklarer Weise gebraucht. Zu unterscheiden sind: 1 1. Anerkennende Ge. = Anerkennung, Ansehen, Beachtung, Wertschätzung: Ge. verschaffen; an Ge. verlieren; wieder zur...
Article
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Erschienen in: Dieter Birnbacher; Gerd Brudermüller (Hg.): Zukunftsverantwortung und Generationensolidarität. Königshausen & Neumann 2001. S. 185-225.
Article
Apart from Rawls' maximin criterion, there are two main lines of correcting utilitarianism for considerations of distributional justice: egalitarianism (seeking to equalize utilities) and prioritarianism (giving more weight to improving the lot of those worse off). Though many people find prioritarianism appealing until now it has not been elaborat...
Article
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The subject of this paper is the distributive justice in financing greenhouse gas abatement. After separating the various questions of distributive justice in climate change (section 1) and isolating the financing issue (section 2), it is explored whether there exist already any effective moral norms resolving this question. It is argued that such...
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Moralbegründungen schöpfen die zu begründenden Moralitätskriterien typischerweise aus einer Quelle wie z. B. Rationalität oder moralische Intuition. Ziel des Aufsatzes ist, zu klären, welche derartige Quelle zur triftigen Moralbegründung geeignet ist. (1) Formale Adäquatheitsbedingungen für triftige Moralbegründungen werden vorgestellt. (2) Nur ein...
Article
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Erschienen in: In: Geert-Lueke Lueken (Hg.): Formen der Argumentation. Leipzig: Leipziger Universitätsverlag 2000. S. 53-71.) 1. Thema des Beitrages Ziel meines Beitrags ist, das Verhältnis von philosophischer Argumentationstheorie und philosophischer Logik genauer zu bestimmen. (Den Zusatz "philosophisch" werde ich im folgenden meist weglassen.) D...

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