Christoph Kirchlechner

Christoph Kirchlechner
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | KIT · Institute of Applied Materials

Professor

About

136
Publications
27,833
Reads
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2,956
Citations
Citations since 2016
93 Research Items
2689 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
Additional affiliations
January 2020 - present
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Position
  • Institute Head
August 2015 - September 2015
University of Tennessee
Position
  • Visiting Scientist
Description
  • Nanoindentation and pop in statistics
February 2013 - January 2020
Max Planck Institute for Iron Research GmbH
Position
  • Group Leader

Publications

Publications (136)
Article
Full-text available
Motivated by advances in flexible electronic technologies and by the endeavour to develop non-destructive testing methods, this article analyses the capability of computational multiscale formulations to predict the influence of microscale cracks on effective macroscopic electrical and mechanical material properties. To this end, thin metal films u...
Article
Full-text available
Bulk MAX phase materials were investigated heavily in the last decades due to their advantageous combination of metallic and ceramic properties. In recent years, MAX phases also gained the interest of the protective coatings community. Cr2AlC is a very promising material, since the crystalline MAX phase can be deposited at comparatively low (550 °C...
Article
Full-text available
Pop-in statistics from nanoindentation with spherical indenters are used to determine the stress required to activate dislocation sources in twin boundaries (TBs) in copper and its alloys. The TB source activation stress is smaller than that needed for bulk single crystals, irrespective of the indenter size, dislocation density and stacking fault e...
Article
In this work, we experimentally establish the isothermal nanofacet evolution at an asymmetric ∑5 tilt grain boundary in the Cu-Ag system using a diffusion couple approach. We investigate the nanofacet formation along the grain boundary in dependence of the Ag solute excess concentration. The initial grain boundary dissociates into asymmetric Ag-lea...
Preprint
Full-text available
Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to investigate the role of a coherent {\Sigma}3 (111) twin boundary on the plastic deformation behavior of Cu nanopillars. Our work reveals that the mechanical response of pillars with and without the twin boundary is decisively driven by the characteristics of initial dislocation sources. In the conditi...
Article
Understanding the orientation-dependent deformation behavior of NiTi shape-memory alloys at small length scales is of importance for designing nano- and micro-electromechanical systems. However, a complete understanding of the orientation- and size-dependent competition between the various modes of slip, deformation twinning, and martensitic transf...
Article
An optimised micro-shear testing protocol was adopted to measure the critical resolved shear stresses for basal and pyramidal I slip systems in pure magnesium. The micro-shear samples are carefully aligned for basal and pyramidal I slip by electron backscatter diffraction and fabricated by focussed ion beam milling. In situ scanning electron micros...
Article
We have performed micro pillar compression to investigate the influence of strain rate on the activation of three slip plane families, namely {110}, {112} and {123}, in ferrite of a dual phase steel. The critical resolved shear stress of all three slip plane families rises with increased strain rate. The strain rate sensitivity drops with increasin...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this work, we experimentally establish the isothermal nanofacet evolution at an asymmetric tilt grain boundary in the Cu-Ag system using a diffusion couple approach. We investigate the nanofacet formation along the grain boundary in dependence of the Ag solute excess concentration. The initial grain boundary dissociates into asymmetric Ag-lean s...
Article
Wafer curvature measurements reported in literature for polycrystalline (often textured) and epitaxial fcc metal thin films on hard substrates show a characteristic “signature” in the stress-temperature evolution for either type of films. While epitaxial films reveal characteristic elastic – ideal plastic deformation with no dislocation storage and...
Article
Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to investigate the impact of a coherent Σ3 (111) twin boundary on the plastic deformation behavior of Cu nanopillars. Our work reveals that the mechanical response of pillars with and without the twin boundary is decisively driven by the characteristics of initial dislocation sources. In the condition of...
Article
Full-text available
The mechanical properties of high-entropy alloys (HEAs) are still not deeply understood. Detailed knowledge of the strengthening mechanism, especially, the atomistic origin of solid solution hardening and its interplay with dislocation plasticity is needed. Here, we report on the dislocation glide behavior of a FeCoCrNiMn face-centered cubic (FCC)...
Article
Full-text available
Experimental fracture mechanics at the microscale became an indispensable tool for understanding and developing advanced material systems. In case of linear elastic fracture mechanics, stringent requirements are typically only warranted for very brittle materials. The material properties of semi-brittle materials might be accessible by elasto-plast...
Article
Microscale mechanical behaviour of single crystalline Barium Titanate (BaTiO3), a ferroelectric ceramic was studied by uniaxial in situ micropillar compression and nanoindentation. It was observed that pillars below 1 µm diameter reached the theoretical strength of BaTiO3 whereas larger pillars yielded at lower stress values with multiple stress dr...
Article
Full-text available
Quantum mechanically guided materials design has been used to predict the mechanical property trends in crystalline materials. Thereby, the identification of composition-structure-property relationships is enabled. However, quantum mechanics based design guidelines and material selection criteria for ultra-strong metallic glasses have been lacking....
Article
Full-text available
The interfacial fracture toughness of sintered hybrid silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on both Au and Cu substrates is studied as a function of sintering temperature. Interfacial microstructure and porosity evolution of Au/AgNPs and Cu/AgNPs are observed to impact the fracture toughness. An Au–Ag interfacial diffusion layer is resolved at the interface...
Article
This paper investigates the interdependence of the stacking fault energy (SFE) and the stress required for dislocation multiplication. For this purpose copper-aluminum (Cu-Al) alloys with varying Al content are investigated by spherical nanoindentation. The load-displacement curve shows a characteristic pop-in, which is interpreted as elastic-plast...
Article
In hard coating development there is a need for fast and efficient screening methods to assess the influence of changes in composition and structure evolution on the mechanical behavior. Nanoindentation constitutes a method that allows fast and efficient probing of mechanical properties. For another important mechanical characteristic of hard coati...
Article
A photolithographic process for the rapid fabrication of thin-film tensile-test structures is presented. The process is applicable to various physical vapor deposition techniques and can be used for the combinatorial fabrication of thin film tensile test structure materials libraries for the high throughput characterization of mechanical properties...
Article
Full-text available
In conventional metallic materials, strength and ductility are mutually exclusive, referred to as strength-ductility trade-off. Here, we demonstrate an approach to improve the strength and ductility simultaneously by introducing micro-banding and the accumulation of a high density of dislocations in single-phase high-entropy alloys (HEAs). We prepa...
Article
We study the effects of transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) on the micrometer-scale deformation of single crystalline pillars. Plastic deformation mechanisms (i) mediated by pure dislocation glide and (ii) strain-induced epsilon-martensite transformation are separated using compositionally complex model alloys. The results show that transforma...
Article
Extended diffusion layers of the cubic C15 and hexagonal C14 and C36 NbCo 2 Laves phases with concen- tration gradients covering their entire homogeneity ranges were produced by the diffusion couple tech- nique. Single-phase and single-crystalline micropillars of the cubic and hexagonal NbCo 2 Laves phases were prepared in the diffusion layers by f...
Article
Full-text available
Composition dependence of hardness and elastic modulus of the cubic and hexagonal NbCo2 Laves phase polytypes studied by nanoindentation - Volume 35 Issue 2 - Wei Luo, Christoph Kirchlechner, Juan Li, Gerhard Dehm, Frank Stein
Article
Full-text available
Compression of micropillars is followed in situ by a quick nanofocused X‐ray scanning microscopy technique combined with 3D reciprocal space mapping. Compared to other attempts using X‐ray nanobeams, it avoids any motion or vibration that would lead to a destruction of the sample. The technique consists of scanning both the energy of the incident n...
Article
Energy dispersive X-ray Laue diffraction is applied to investigate the deformation behavior of individual grains in a polycrystalline nickel wire under tensile loading. 38 Laue spots are identified in the Laue pattern which originate from 9 separate grains. The simultaneous measurements of the Laue spot's position and energy obtained by using a 2D...
Article
In modern multiphase materials, damage initiation and growth during plastic deformation is a commonly observed and technologically relevant process. To reliably assess the state of damage in a specimen or, ultimately, a formed product, precise and comparable damage quantification is required. Furthermore, the key to understanding the initiation and...
Article
Full-text available
High fracture toughness is crucial for the application of metallic glasses as structural materials to avoid catastrophic failure of the material in a brittle manner. One fingerprint for fracture toughness in metallic glasses is the fraction of hybridized bonds, which is affected by alloying Pd57.4Al23.5Y7.8M11.3 with M = Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, Os, Ir, Pt,...
Article
We used micropillar compression experiments to study the plasticity of ferrite and martensite of two commercial dual phase steel grades (DP800). The activation of all three slip plane families, namely {110}, {112}, {123}, was observed in single crystalline ferrite pillars. They exhibit a comparable mean critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) of 147...
Article
Full-text available
Perfect slip transfer through single coherent Σ3 twin boundaries is known to be a cross-slip-like mechanism occurring at low stresses, which is expected to strongly depend on material properties like stacking fault energy. In the present study, we extend the argument of perfect slip transfer to (i) multiple closely spaced coherent twin boundaries i...
Article
Transient liquid phase bonding offers one option to generate a robust lead-free die attach with sound thermal and electrical conductivity in microelectronic packages. However, it is a challenge to characterize the microstructure and mechanical behavior of the bonding layer because of its ultra-thin thickness and its nano-sized constituents. We show...
Conference Paper
Laves phases are intermetallic phases well known for their excellent strength at high temperatures but also for their pronounced brittleness at low temperatures. Especially in high-alloyed steels, Laves phases were long time regarded as detrimental phases as they were found to embrittle the material. Perusing the more recent literature, it seems th...
Article
Failure in engineering materials like steels is strongly affected by in-service deleterious alterations in their microstructure. White Etching Layers (WELs) are an example of such in-service alterations in the pearlitic microstructure at the rail surface. Cracks initiate in the rails due to delamination and fracture of these layers and propagate in...
Article
The study of mechanical properties of materials at high temperatures at the microstructural length regime requires dedicated setups for testing. Despite the advances in the instrumentation in these setups over the last decade, further optimization is required in order to extend the temperature range well-beyond 600 °C. Particularly, an improvement...
Article
Impact of in situ nanomechanics on physical metallurgy - Volume 44 Issue 6 - J. Kacher, C. Kirchlechner, J. Michler, E. Polatidis, R. Schwaiger, H. Van Swygenhoven, M. Taheri, M. Legros
Article
Load-displacement curves with spherical indenters often exhibit a so-called pop-in, which can be interpreted as elastic-plastic transition due to activation or even nucleation of dislocation sources. Due to the stochastic nature of deformation at the micron scale a wide distribution of pop-in loads (referred as pop-in statistics) can be observed. T...
Article
Full-text available
The fracture behavior of a white etching layer formed on the rail surface in pearlitic steels during the rail-wheel contact is investigated using indentation-based microcantilever fracture tests. The sample thickness is in the order of 5 μm. The local fracture toughness of the white etching layer, its neighboring brown etching layer, martensite and...
Article
Full-text available
The important role of grain boundaries for the mechanical properties of polycrystalline materials has been recognized for many decades. Up to now, the underlying deformation mechanisms at the nano- and micro scale are not understood quantitatively. An overview of the synthesis and subsequent mechanical testing of specific grain boundaries at the mi...
Article
MPIE has investigated spontaneous formation of martensite from ultimately deformed pearlite nanostructure. Pearlite steel wire with its plate structure from cubic volumetric-centered ferrum and cementite (Fe3C) is subjected to cold drawing and becomes thinner; its microstructure varies as well - it is getting more fi ne and, at the same time, gradu...
Article
Full-text available
We show that chemistry can be used to trigger a nanofaceting transition. In particular, the segregation of Ag to an asymmetric tilt grain boundary in Cu is investigated. Aberration-corrected electron microscopy reveals that annealing the bicrystal results in the formation of nanometer-sized facets composed of preferentially Ag-segregated symmetric...
Article
Nanoindentation tests have shown that exposure to deuterium plasma causes a decrease in pop-in load and an increase in hardness of tungsten. In this work, we use micro-compression tests to investigate the plastic deformation and apparent strain hardening of tungsten exposed to deuterium plasma. In comparison with the pillars tested at reference sta...
Article
We unravel the nature of twin boundary-associated strengthening in Fe-Mn-C twinning-induced plasticity steel (TWIPs) by micro-pillar compression tests. Dislocation interactions with a coherent twin boundary and their role on strain hardening were investigated. The results indicate that twin-matrix bundles dynamically introduced by deformation twinn...
Article
Hydrogen exposure has been found to result in metal embrittlement. In this work, we use nanoindentation to study the mechanical properties of polycrystalline tungsten subjected to deuterium plasma exposure. For the purpose of comparison, nanoindentation tests on exposed and unexposed reference tungsten were carried out. The results exhibit a decrea...
Article
We present the first measurement of the strain rate sensitivity of the ideal dislocation slip transmission through a coherent Σ3{111} copper twin boundary. For this purpose we have deformed 129 geometrically identical samples at different strain rates. The micron-sized samples are either single crystalline (87 pillars) or contain one vertical Σ3{11...
Article
Cu/Nb nanoscale metallic multilayers have been extensively investigated to understand how their mechanical behavior is influenced by the individual layer thickness. The general observed trend is that the yield stress of the multilayer increases with decreasing layer thickness. Important mechanical behaviors that have not been studied in-depth are t...
Article
We report the enhancement of fracture toughness and strength of a cobalt‑tantalum-based metallic glass thin film with increasing boron content. The improvement of the mechanical performance is attributed to the formation of a compositionally lamellar compared to uniform glass microstructure, which becomes thinner with increasing boron content as re...
Article
The microstructural and mechanical characterization of an equiatomic YGdTbDyHo high entropy alloy with hexagonal close-packed structure was performed. The phase state and chemical homogeneity of the solid solution were analysed with respect to crystal structure, phase stability, and oxide formation. It was found that Y-rich precipitates form at gra...
Article
The fracture behaviour and microstructure evolution of sputtered Mo2BC films as a function of their deposition temperature is studied. Bipolar pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering was used to deposit Mo2BC thin films onto Si (100) wafers at substrate temperatures ranging from 380 to 630 °C. Microstructural characterization by transmission ele...
Article
Cubic and hexagonal NbCo2 Laves phases are known to have composition dependent hardness and yield strength. However, it is unknown whether this dependence is also reflected in their fracture toughness values. In order to elucidate the fracture behavior, single-crystalline micro-cantilevers of the cubic and hexagonal NbCo2 Laves phases having differ...
Article
A composition-spread Cu-Zr thin film library with Zr contents from 2.5 up to 6.5 at.% was synthesized by magnetron sputtering on a thermally oxidized Si wafer. The compositional and microstructural variations of the Cu-Zr thin film across the composition gradient were examined using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and high-...
Article
Full-text available
Micro pillar compression is used to analyze the strain rate dependence of copper pillars containing a penetrable high-angle grain boundary via in situ compression tests at strain rates ranging from 10− 1 to 10− 4 s− 1. While the grain-boundary containing pillars exhibit a clear strain-rate dependence of m = 0.04 ± 0.02, their single crystal counter...
Article
In situ micro-cantilever fracture testing is used to demonstrate changes in fracture behavior of nanostructured, heavily cold drawn pearlitic steel wires as a function of drawing strain and annealing conditions. It is shown that these steels exhibit a sharp transition in fracture behavior between a drawing strain of 320% and 520% with a drop in fra...
Article
When ductile metal films on compliant polymer substrates are strained in tension catastrophic failure can be suppressed by the substrate, thus allowing for their use in flexible electronics and sensors. However, the charge carrying ductile films must be of an optimum thickness and microstructure for the suppression of cracking to occur. Studies of...
Article
Focused ion beam machined microcantilevers are frequently used for fracture mechanics analysis of inhomogeneous solids at the micrometer scale. A finite element method study about the influence of the pre-crack geometry on the apparent fracture toughness is provided. We discuss the influence of material bridges and the effect of rounded pre-crack c...
Article
Full-text available
In-situ TEM Study of Mechanical Size Effects in TiC Strengthened Steels - Volume 23 Issue S1 - S. Taniguchi, R. Soler, C . Kirchlechner, C. Liebscher, A. Taniyama, G. Dehm
Article
The in situ characterization of the deformation and fracture behavior of brittle metal films is of great technological interest for many modern applications. A prominent example is the field of flexible electronics, which rely on the electrical and mechanical integrity of metal thin films on compliant substrates when exposed to straining or bending...
Article
Full-text available
The full strain and stress tensor determination in a triaxially stressed single crystal using X-ray diffraction requires a series of lattice spacing measurements at different crystal orientations. This can be achieved using a tunable X-ray source. This article reports on a novel experimental procedure for single-shot full strain tensor determinatio...
Article
Micro- and nanomechanical testing has seen a rapid development over the last decade with miniaturized test rigs and MEMS-based devices providing access to the mechanical properties and performance of materials from the micrometer down to the tenths of nanometer length scale. In this overview, we summarize firstly the different testing concepts with...
Article
Full-text available
The implications of various size effects on the deformation behavior of and near grain boundaries is not yet fully understood. In this manuscript, slip transfer mechanisms through a general high angle grain boundary (HAGB) allowing for easy transfer are investigated in order to understand the size dependence of the dislocation-grain-boundary intera...
Article
It is the aim of this paper to show the mechanisms behind the experimental observations of rather smooth sigmoidal deformations in bi-crystal micropillar tests (in contrast to single crystal micro-compression tests) and to point out that the appearance of such deformation modes are a further reason for being careful when interpreting the force-axia...
Article
Deformation twinning contributes to a high work-hardening rate through modification of the dislocation structure and a dynamic Hall-Petch effect in polycrystalline steel. Due to the well-defined compression axis and limited deformation volume of micro-pillars, micro-compression testing is a suitable method to investigate the mechanisms of deformati...
Article
The size dependence of the mechanical behavior of a single crystalline equiatomic FeCrCoMnNi single phase high entropy alloy was studied using in situ SEM microcompression. Electron back-scattered diffraction was used in conjunction with high-resolution scanning electron microscopy to identify the dominant slip system activated for accommodating pl...
Article
Compression of micropillars is routinely used to measure the material response under uniaxial load. In bi-crystalline pillars an S-shaped grain-boundary together with an S-shaped pillar is often observed after deformation raising the question of its origin and consequences for stress-strain materials data. In addition to dislocation and grain-bound...
Article
Full-text available
The mechanical behavior of several micron sized Cu bi-crystals with a single coherent twin boundary (TB) is studied by in situ Laue microdiffraction (μLaue) compression with the aim to unravel the slip transfer mechanisms through TBs. Single crystalline pillars (SCP) are additionally tested and used as reference samples. Engineering stress-strain c...
Chapter
Uchic and co-workers were the first ones who performed uniaxial compression tests on micron-sized samples and inspired scientists worldwide to perform similar microcompression, tension, or bending experiments. The straining device is able to perform compression, tensile, or bending experiments. Complementary fine energy scans can be performed by in...
Article
Miniaturized fracture beam experiments are often used to identify the fracture toughness of single phases and particular grain boundaries because large-scale experiments reveal only homogenized material properties. The evaluation of the microscale toughness is based on isotropic 2D models although the majority of materials are anisotropic. Moreover...
Article
The effect of film thickness as well as the influence of heat treatment on the deformation behavior of thin cobalt films (50–2000 nm) on polyimide substrates was investigated using various tensile tests. Straining under an optical light microscope provides information about the fracture strain and cracking behavior. The annealed films exhibit enhan...