Christoph Gengnagel

Christoph Gengnagel
Universität der Künste Berlin | UdK · Structural Design and Engineering

Dr.-Ing.

About

96
Publications
71,148
Reads
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624
Citations
Introduction
Professor at the University of the Arts Berlin, Department for Structural Design and Engineering, Director of the Hybrid Plattform Berlin, Partner at Bollinger+Grohmann Ingenieure
Additional affiliations
February 2013 - January 2015
October 2006 - present
Universität der Künste Berlin
Position
  • Professor (Full)
October 2006 - present
Universität der Künste Berlin
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Education
October 1993 - June 2001
Technische Universität München
Field of study
  • Architecture
October 1987 - September 1992
Bauhaus-Universität Weimar
Field of study
  • Civil Engineering

Publications

Publications (96)
Article
Das Gesamtprojekt kann als ein richtungsweisendes Beispiel für ein ressourcenschonendes Bauen im Bestand angesehen werden. So wurden durch die weitgehende Nutzung der Bestandsstruktur ein CO2‐Äquivalent von fast 8500 t gegenüber einem vergleichbaren Neubauvolumen eingespart und knappe Materialressourcen wie Kiese und Sande geschont. Gleichzeitig en...
Article
Full-text available
Digitale Lebenszyklusanlysen sind ein wichtiges Werkzeug, um bereits in frühen Entwurfsphasen die Ökobilanz von Projekten zu optimieren. Bollinger+Grohmann haben damit bereits erste Erfahrungen gesammelt und geben einen Einblick in den Stand der Technik sowie dessen Entwicklungspotenziale.
Article
Polymerbeton gleicht in seiner Zusammensetzung herkömmlichem Zementbeton. Jedoch wird der üblicherweise als Bindemittel verwendete Zementleim durch ein polymeres Reaktionsharz substituiert. Verglichen mit Zementbeton zeichnet sich Polymerbeton durch seine hohen Festigkeiten, eine gute chemische Beständigkeit sowie durch seine kurze Erhärtungszeit a...
Conference Paper
This paper explores a generative design, simulation, and optimization workflow for the integration of acoustical diffuser and/or absorber geometry with embedded coupled Helmholtz-resonators for full scale 3D printed building components. Large-scale additive manufacturing in conjunction with algorithmic CAD design tools enables a vast amount of cont...
Conference Paper
This paper explores a generative design, simulation, and optimization workflow for full-scale 3D printed building components using an array of different mixtures. Large-scale additive manufacturing in conjunction with algorithmic CAD design tools enables a vast amount of control when creating geometry. This can also be advantageous regarding the in...
Article
The PyroForCE research project investigated the extent to which the fire behaviour of façade timbers can be changed by the creation of a surface pyrolysis layer alone in such a way that the requirements for classification as a flame-retardant building material are permanently fulfilled. For this purpose, a continuously operating wood pyrolysis syst...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper investigates a performative design approach for the fabrication of three-dimensional concrete printed (3DCP) floor slab systems on a one-to-one scale. 3DCP holds the potential to relinquish the necessity of additional formwork or support structure during the fabrication process and this paper proposes a specific strategy and methodology...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper explores intuitive human-machine-interfaces, utilizing Arduino (open-source electronic prototyping platform) for real-time responsive architecture applications on a one-to-one scale. First, a modular building kit has been developed of 12 identical modules that can be freely arranged, divided into smaller arrays, or be used individually....
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents an approach for implementing life-cycle assessment (LCA) in the early design stages of a building project based on the new plugins for Rhino and Grasshopper of One Click LCA, which aims to contribute to fight climate change from within the construction industry. These new tools developed by Bollinger + Grohmann in collaboration...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Background / Scope Wood has been used as a sustainable material for facade cladding for centuries. The classification as ‘normally flammable building material’, according to German building code, only allows the use of wood as facade material for buildings up to and including building class three of the code. With surface pyrolysis, a method is sh...
Chapter
Full-text available
Many of the sensory experiences of space, which were rather assigned to the realm of the visual, originate in other modes of perception and are integrated into the human understanding of its surroundings. Computer Aided Architectural Design tools meanwhile focus on a design work only under visual terms. With the help of Virtual Reality, among other...
Chapter
Full-text available
Due to developments and progress in the realms of digital design processes and automated manufacturing techniques, the complexity of structures has been increasing. The ability to easily generate variants and integrate optimisation processes is an important aspect of such complex systems, particularly in the early project stages. For the purpose of...
Book
Full-text available
This book reflects and expands on the current trend in the building industry to understand, simulate and ultimately design buildings by taking into consideration the interlinked elements and forces that act on them. Shifting away from the traditional focus, which was exclusively on building tasks, this approach presents new challenges in all areas...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Many of the sensory experiences of space, which were rather assigned to the realm of the visual , originate in other modes of perception and are integrated into the human understanding of its surroundings. Computer Aided Architectural Design tools meanwhile focus on a design work only under visual terms. With the help of Virtual Reality, among othe...
Article
Full-text available
de Entscheidend für die Tragfähigkeit, Wirtschaftlichkeit und die Gestaltung von schlanken Konstruktionen aus Holz‐ oder Faserverbundkunststoffen (FVK) sind i. d. R. die Verbindungen. In diesem Beitrag wird ein neuartiges Verbindungskonzept für Stabwerkskonstruktionen aus Holz‐ oder FVK vorgestellt. Eine wichtige Eigenschaft dabei ist eine reversib...
Article
de Polymerbeton stellt, analog zum klassischen zementgebundenen Beton, ein heterogenes Gemisch aus Zuschlag und Bindemittel dar. Eine Substitution des Zements durch Epoxidharz hat tiefgreifende Auswirkungen auf die mechanischen und chemischen Eigenschaften sowie auf Herstellungsprozesse. Aufgrund seiner hohen Druck‐ und Zugfestigkeit, guten chemisc...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Steglitzer Kreisel is an office building complex located in Berlin which has undergone a refurbishment project. The main element of this complex is a 30-story high-rise building that stands 120 meters above the ground and is currently the third tallest building in Berlin. The transfer floor consists of 4.8-meter-high built-up steel beams, which...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this paper we present a computerized design method which could ultimately serve to greatly simplify the production of free form reinforced concrete components. Using any desired doubly-curved shape as a starting point, we developed a digital workflow in which the spatial information of the shape is processed in such a way that it can be represen...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Active-bending was established as a new Study Group within the IASS Working Group 15, "Structural Morphology Group" (SMG) in 2012 at the IASS conference in Seoul. Starting point was the publishing of a review paper [1] to establish common terminologies and references. In this paper many important historical examples of active-bending were gathered,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Emerging directly from a masterclass held by the authors at IASS 2017, this paper presents a quantitative and qualitative benchmark comparison between three distinct software environments, namely SOFiSTiK, Kangaroo and Kiwi3d, framed specifically within the context of designing and simulating bending-active structures. The three environments differ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents Virtual Reality Structures (StructVR), an immersive virtual environment designed to engage, educate and entertain users via virtual physical interaction with digital structural systems which display immediate visual feedback on structural deformations, internal forces and reactions. Interaction with pre-set demos as well as a cr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The paper presents the idea that multiple layers of auxetic structures can be combined to achieve synergetic effects relating to aesthetic and/or structural performance. We describe a novel approach of using auxetic structures to produce a wide range of doubly-curved target shapes with full control over the porosity, shape and distribution of the r...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Digital design methods impact architectural structures. To contribute new impulses to Computational Design, we are focusing on a central obstacle in current digital design for architects and structural engineers , namely the suboptimal transformation of embodied three-dimensional imagination and knowledge of the designer into the digital work envir...
Preprint
Polymer concretes employ a polymeric binder to replace typical lime-based cements. Thanks to their high compressive and tensile strength, chemical resistance and fast curing time, their application vastly ranges from repair to precast components and structural elements for aggressive environments. In the current paper, ongoing research on the mecha...
Article
Form-finding processes are an integral part of structural design. Because of their limitations, the classic approaches to finding a form – such as hanging models and the soap-film analogy – play only a minor role. The various possibilities of digital experimentation in the context of structural optimisation create new options for the designer gener...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The contribution illustrating some of the actual structural engineering challenges encountered in the planning and construction process of the new Merck Innovation Center in Darmstadt, Germany. The project features large areas of exposed concrete, including free-form curved concrete stairs, as well as a large span two-way composite floor system. Th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The contribution focuses on some of the structural engineering challenges encountered in the planning and construction process of the new Merck Innovation Center in Darmstadt, Germany. The project features large areas of exposed concrete, including free-form curved concrete stairs, as well as a large span two-way composite floor system. The focus i...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents a prototypical tool structural systems such as portal frames) which are visually augmented by means of projected images of a synchronous simulation of the same system. The visual augmentation provides the user with immediate insight into the systems' structural performance by displaying internal forces (bending moments, axial fo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The current paper discusses the role of multi-scale modelling within the context of design and structural analysis. Depending on the level of detail, a design model may retain, lose or enhance key information. The term multi-scale refers to the breakdown of a design and analysis task into multiple levels of detail and the transfer of this informati...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Polymer concretes employ a polymeric binder to replace typical lime-based cements. Due to their high compressive and tensile strength, chemical resistance and fast curing time, their application vastly ranges from repair to precast components and structural elements for aggressive environments. In the current paper, ongoing research on the mechanic...
Book
Full-text available
This book aims at finding some answers to the questions: What is the influence of humans in controlling CAD and how much is human in control of its surroundings? How far does our reach as humans really go? Do the complex algorithms that we use for city planning nowadays live up to their expectations and do they offer enough quality? How much data d...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper will discuss the role of simulation in extended architectural design modelling. As a framing paper, the aim is to present and discuss the role of integrated design simulation and feedback between design and simulation in a series of projects under the Complex Modelling framework. Complex Modelling examining how methods from the parallel...
Article
Full-text available
Knitted fabrics have unique characteristics compared to conventional architectural membranes. Conventional architectural membranes are composite materials consisting of woven or non-woven textiles and layers of coating. Characteristics of membrane behaviour are a high tensile strength, no bending resistance and a certain shear stiffness. Their resi...
Chapter
The scientists and academics in the transdisciplinary project called “Rethinking Prototyping” have not only been working on concrete hybrid prototyping approaches in their research, but also on a joint understanding and a general concept of prototyping as well. A differentiated analysis of the terms used in contexts connected with prototyping led t...
Conference Paper
This paper presents an enquiry into how to inform material systems that allow for a high degree of variation and gradation of their material composition. Presenting knit as a particular system of material fabrication, we discuss how new practices that integrate material design into the architectural design chain presents new opportunities and chall...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Virtual Reality (VR) has the potential to revolutionize the representation of digital design models. The highly immersive exploration of design variations in VR is a particularly powerful tool to improve decision-making processes, especially when architecture deviates from ordinary forms. This is the case in stadia design where geometric interdepen...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Generative design processes are characterized by modifications of a design model's parameters with the aim of improving its quality. The entirety of possible parameter combinations in a given design scenario is referred to as parameter space, in which each parameter represents a dimension. The efficacy of a design process could be measured by the q...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Membrane architecture uses currently off the shelf materials and produces the shapes and details through cutting and laborsome joining of textile patterns. This paper discusses investigations into an alternative material practice - knit - which engages bespoke membrane materials. A practice which allows for customised and graded material properties...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The central research question of this work asks “can pneumatic falsework be used to erect strained grid shells?” In order to begin to answer this question, a bespoke simulation method was developed in the Rhinoceros 3D / Grasshopper software environment making use of the Kangaroo2 Dynamic Relaxation solver alongside substantial customisations using...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Form-active hybrid structures (FAHS) couple two or more different structural elements of low self weight and low or negligible bending flexural stiffness (such as slender beams, cables and membranes) into one structural assembly of high global stiffness. They offer high load-bearing capacity at a fraction of the weight of traditional building eleme...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
As part of a joint research project between the Centre for Information Technology and Architecture (CITA) and te Department for Structural Design and Technology (KET), a one week student workshop was organised at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts (KADK) in Copenhagen. This paper outlines the teaching methods applied to reach maximum insight fro...
Article
The minimization of deflections is usually a fundamental goal in structural of elastic bending as a forming process (“active bending”) depends on the definition and control of very large deflections. Making use of elastic bending to form beam or surface elements is a well established construction method within vernacular architecture. The key motiv...
Chapter
Many social problems can only be solved taking into account different perspectives. Hence inter- and transdiciplinary cooperation is becoming increasingly more important. Designing these cooperations is a challenge for everyone involved, but the cooperations hold valuable potentials for prospective thinking. The article illustrates the challenge us...
Book
Full-text available
In this book, the authors describe the findings derived from interaction and cooperation between scientific actors employing diverse practices. They reflect on distinct prototyping concepts and examine the transformation of development culture in their fusion to hybrid approaches and solutions. The products of tomorrow are going to be multifunctio...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The practical benefits of strained (a.k.a. ‘elastic’) grid shells, such as low material usage and fabrication simplicity, are undermined by the methods typically used for their erection. Established erection methods for strained grid shells (‘lift up’, ‘push up’ & ‘ease down’) can be time-consuming, costly and can overstress the system locally 1,2....
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Recent advances in computation allow for the integration of design and simulation of highly interrelated systems, such as hybrids of structural membranes and bending active elements. The engaged complexities of forces and logistics can be mediated through the development of materials with project specific properties and detailing. CNC knitting with...
Book
Full-text available
This book reflects and expands on the current trend in the building industry to understand, simulate and ultimately design buildings by taking into consideration the interlinked elements and forces that act on them. This approach overcomes the traditional, exclusive focus on building tasks, while posing new challenges in all areas of the industry f...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The practical benefits of strained (a.k.a. ‘elastic’) grid shells, such as low material usage and fabrication simplicity, are undermined by the methods typically used for their erection. Established erection methods for strained grid shells (‘lift up’, ‘push up’ & ‘ease down’) can be time-consuming, costly and can overstress the system locally (Har...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents the research project Hybrid Tower, an interdisciplinary collaboration between CITA - Centre for IT and Architecture, KET - Department for Structural Design and Technology, Fibrenamics, Universidade do Minho Guimarães, AFF a. ferreira & filhos, sa, Caldas de Vizela, Portugal and Essener Labor für Leichte Flächentragwerke, Univers...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, a detailed comparison is carried out between established ('lift up', 'push up' and 'ease down') as well as novel ('inflate') erection methods for strained grid shells by means of FE simulations and a 3D-scanned scaled physical model in order to evaluate key performance criteria such as bending stresses during erection and the distanc...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The project is the result of an interdisciplinary research collaboration between CITA, KET and Fibrenamics exploring the design of integrated hybrid structures employing bending active elements and tensile membranes with bespoke material properties and detailing. Hybrid structures are defined here as combining two or more structural concepts and ma...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The evolution of elastic grid shells has observed significant progress in the fields of computational form-finding, structural analysis and to some extent buildability since their inception in the 1960s. While the engineering precision of built elastic grid shells has increased on the whole (most notably Chiddingstone Orangery & Savill Gardens), th...