Christoph Flückiger

Christoph Flückiger
Universität Kassel · Institut für Psychologie

PhD
Professor; Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, Reproducibility Science; Editor "Psychotherapy Research" (IF: 4.12)

About

230
Publications
133,287
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Introduction
Christoph is Professor at the Department of Psychology at the University of Kassel. Christoph does research in Clinical Psychology (transdiagnostic worry), Psychotherapy (integrative CBT) and Quantitative Psychology (meta-analytic methods; longitudinal analyses). He is licensed psychotherapist and licensed CBT-supervisor. He is Co-Editor-In-Chief of the journal "Psychotherapy Research" (Term 2019 - 2024). www.sorgenkette.ch
Additional affiliations
January 2019 - December 2023
University of Zürich
Position
  • Editor
August 2016 - present
University of Zurich
Position
  • Professor
Description
  • Chair of division "Psychological Interventions and Psychotherapy", chair of psychotherapy laboratory, associate editor of Psychotherapy Research and APA-Journal of Psychotherapy Integration
October 2011 - March 2015
Universität Zürich
Position
  • Head of psychotherapy laboratory

Publications

Publications (230)
Article
Full-text available
The Bern Post Session Report 2000, Patient and Therapist Versions: Measuring Psychotherapeutic Processes Abstract. Theoretical background: Monitoring the quality of psychotherapy on a regular basis is crucial for adaptive indications and for maintaining high standards. This can be accomplished using measures that address central aspects of the ther...
Preprint
Full-text available
Open access: http://psycnet.apa.org/fulltext/2018-23951-001.pdf Abstract: The alliance continues to be one of the most investigated variables related to success in psychotherapy irrespective of theoretical orientation. We define and illustrate the alliance (also conceptualized as therapeutic alliance, helping alliance or working alliance) and then...
Article
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Objective: Even though the early alliance has been shown to robustly predict posttreatment outcomes, the question whether alliance leads to symptom reduction or symptom reduction leads to a better alliance remains unresolved. To better understand the relation between alliance and symptoms early in therapy, we meta-analyzed the lagged session-by-se...
Article
Objective: There is little evidence-based knowledge of how psychotherapists should handle both sudden gains and more gradual session-by-session changes, either in general or in individuals suffering from generalized anxiety disorder. Methods: Using an ABAB crossed-therapist randomized clinical implementation trial design (N = 80 patients and 20...
Article
The working alliance (WA) has been widely identified as the key concept for psychotherapy and allied health care services. The WA, measured at different phases of diverse kinds of therapies, has been shown to robustly predict posttreatment outcomes. But the way the clients' conceptualization of the alliance evolves overtime, and the relation betwee...
Article
Angst ist ein zentraler Bestandteil des menschlichen Erlebens und Verhaltens. Überzogene, klinische relevante Ängste sind nicht ausschließlich phobischer, situationsgebundener Natur, sondern sie können sich auch auf emotive Erwartungen, Grundannahmen und Verhaltenstendenzen beziehen. Der vorliegende Beitrag bietet einen Überblick über aktuelle Mode...
Article
Although cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), GAD often shows a chronic clinical course and common deterioration after treatment. Many trials have examined the efficacy of treatments in GAD, but little is known about intake predictors of long-term treatment outcomes. This study examine...
Article
Objectives: This paper presents a randomized controlled trial on assimilative integration, which is aimed at integrating elements from other orientations within one approach to enrich its conceptual and practical repertoire. Elements from Emotion-Focused Therapy (EFT) were integrated into a form of cognitive behavior therapy: Psychological Therapy...
Article
Objective Intervention integrity is the degree to which the study intervention is delivered as intended. This article presents the RIPI-f checklist (Reporting Integrity of Psychological Interventions delivered face-to-face) and summarizes its development methods. RIPI-f proposes guidance for reporting intervention integrity in evaluative studies of...
Preprint
Recent intervention research has shown that personality traits can be modified through psychological interventions. However, it is unclear whether reported effects represent changes in the trait domain or only some facets or items. Using data (N = 1,523) from a recent intervention trial (Stieger et al., 2021) the present study examined the effects...
Article
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Background Recent findings indicated that mental disorders are associated with both an up-regulation of negative affect and a down-regulation of positive affect (PA) as distinct processes. Established treatment approaches focus on the modification of problems and negative affect only. Experimental paradigms in healthy samples and research on streng...
Article
Objectives: There is limited information on how a change in patients' expectations over time results in symptom change in psychotherapy. This study aimed to investigate the changes in patients' expectations and symptoms during treatment and across follow-up as well as to determine the within- and between-patient relationships between two types of...
Article
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Background Although worry is well-known to share a robust relationship with psychopathology, whether this association is higher in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) versus other anxiety disorders and depressive disorder, and clinical versus nonclinical populations is unclear.Methods We conducted a meta-analysis in which the association between wor...
Article
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Objective: The therapeutic alliance has been studied in group interventions, but its relationship to patient outcome is still controversial. This study systematically reviewed the association of both the member-leader and member-group alliance with patient outcomes, and assessed the effects of several theoretically informed moderators. Method: A...
Article
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Background: The working alliance refers to an important relationship quality between health professionals and clients that robustly links to treatment success. Recent research shows that clients can develop an affective bond with chatbots. However, few research studies have investigated whether this perceived relationship is affected by the social...
Article
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Objective: This study explores in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) to what degree therapists' perceptions of their patients as interpersonally challenging (IC) is explained by the therapist or patient effects, if baseline patients' characteristics predict IC, and if IC is related to outcome. Method: Eight...
Article
Objective: This meta-analysis examined the relative efficacy of bona fide psychotherapy conditions in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) from posttreatment to follow-up in adults. Methods: Omnibus tests of relative efficacy across bona fide psychotherapies for primary and secondary outcomes were conducted. Longitudinal multilevel subgroup analys...
Article
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Flirting situations are opportunities to behave in extraverted ways. However, it is not clear whether engaging in flirting behavior predicts extraversion. The current study explored whether extraversion increases following a 3‐h flirt training and compared two training routes to flirting. A two‐arm randomized pre‐post design with two active conditi...
Article
C&BP commemoranding Aaron T. Beck's work. The alliance highlights the qualities of coordination, sincerity, and trust that run through the various (CBT) interventions. Alliance emerges as one of the best-studied process characteristics in psychotherapy, with hundreds of studies on different orientations, treatment conditions, and mental health serv...
Article
A highly relevant but provocative research question is whether and how one can intentionally change personality traits through psychological interventions, given that traits are relatively stable by definition. Recently, research has begun to investigate personality change through intervention in nonclinical populations. One attractive and innovati...
Article
The assessment of safety data has become a standard across many clinical interventions. The aim of this systematic review is to investigate the extent to which harm is addressed within psychotherapy study protocols. The review includes study protocols of randomized controlled trials published between 2004 and 2017 investigating the effects of psych...
Article
Die neuropsychologische Behandlungsstrategie ist grundsätzlich ein sehr individuelles Vorgehen auf der Grundlage der diagnostischen Ergebnisse. Während der Therapie soll über gezielte Aktivierung der geschädigten neuronalen Netzwerke sowie Kompensation funktioneller Defizite durch die Nutzung intakter Fähigkeiten und das Erlernen neuer Fähigkeiten...
Article
Neuropsychologische Störungen bezeichnen u. a. Störungen der Aufmerksamkeit, des Gedächtnisses und der exekutiven Funktionen, sowie Verhaltensstörungen und emotional-affektive Störungen. Diese treten häufig in unterschiedlichen Konstellationen nach einer Erkrankung oder Verletzung des Gehirns auf. Neuropsychologische Diagnostik und Therapie dient d...
Article
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Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effects of changes in interpersonal cognitions on outcome during cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and how these effects are moderated by patients' interpersonal problems at intake. Method: A sample of 80 adult patients diagnosed with GAD who were undergoing C...
Article
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Worry is a central feature of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Although worry is related to anxiety and maintained by beliefs that worry is uncontrollable, there is scarce research on how individuals with GAD react to worry episodes in their daily life and how their positive experiences might impact reactions to worry episodes. The current study...
Article
Free access see above DOI: Estimating the reproducibility of psychotherapy effects is essential. This is particularly crucial for trials with large effects, as the inclusion of false-positive trials can lead to erroneous conclusions about treatment efficacy in research syntheses. We identified 184 papers, of which 30 referred to treatment outcomes...
Article
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The study aimed to: (1) Identify distinct trajectories of change in depressive symptoms by mid-treatment during psychotherapy for late-life depression with executive dysfunction; (2) examine if nonresponse by mid-treatment predicted poor response at treatment end; and (3) identify baseline characteristics predicting an early nonresponse trajectory...
Article
Positive patient-rated psychotherapy outcome expectation at pre- or early treatment is associated with posttreatment improvement. However, there is limited research on patients’ change in outcome expectation across therapy and participant factors that predict both pretreatment outcome expectation and expectation change. The present study aimed to e...
Article
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Open access: click DOI above to download the manuscript. Background: There is cumulating evidence that working memory (WM) processing is impaired in individuals suffering from a psychosomatic and a psychological disorder. However, it is unclear how repetitive negative thinking (RNT), depressive symptoms, and patient characteristics (i.e., age and i...
Article
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Due to their predictive abilities, therapist interpersonal behavior is of great relevance for psychotherapy. However, there is a lack of knowledge about its stability inside but also outside of the therapy room within and between therapists. The current study investigates interpersonal behavior of trainee therapists (N = 20) as perceived by 4 patie...
Article
Objective: The relationship between the therapeutic alliance and outcome has been supported consistently over time. More recently, studies have examined therapist effects in the alliance-outcome relationship and came up with somewhat mixed findings. The purpose of this study was to replicate and extend previous meta-analytic work using a much larg...
Article
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Abstract: This paper describes an adaptation of the Centrality of Religiosity Scale to the Buddhist religious tradition (CBRS) and a validation in Vietnam. The sample included data from 421 Viet�namese Buddhists (300 females, 121 males), aged 17 to 71 years (M = 35.03, SD = 13.09). The results provided evidence for good psychometric properties of t...
Article
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Background Individuals suffering from an anxiety disorder are characterized by chronically low heart rate variability (HRV) compared to healthy individuals during resting state conditions. However, when examining HRV and HR in response to a stressor, mixed results have been obtained when comparing anxious and non-anxious groups. Methods The primar...
Article
Significance Personality traits have consequences and are malleable throughout the lifespan. However, it is unclear if and how personality traits can be changed in desired directions. A 3-mo digital personality change intervention was deployed, and a large-scale randomized controlled trial ( n = 1,523) was conducted to examine the effects of intend...
Preprint
Personality traits predict important life outcomes such as success in love and work life, wellbeing, health, and longevity. Given these positive relations to important outcomes, economists, policy-makers, and scientists have proposed intervening to change personality traits to promote positive life outcomes. However, non-clinical interventions to c...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes an adaptation of the Centrality of Religiosity Scale to the Buddhist religious tradition (CBRS) and a validation in Vietnam. The sample included data from 421 Vietnamese Buddhists (300 females, 121 males), aged 17 to 71 years (M=35.03, SD=13.09). The results provided evidence for good psychometric properties of the short, inter...
Article
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung. Theoretischer Hintergrund: Die Psychotherapieforschung zu therapeutischen Wirkfaktoren bei Kindern steckt in den Kinderschuhen. Mit dem Stundenbogen für Kinder und Jugendliche Patientenversion (SBKJ-P) wurde ein entsprechendes Messinstrument entwickelt. Die erfassten Wirkfaktoren sind Problemaktualisierung, Ressourcenaktivierung, P...
Article
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Zusammenfassung Der Beitrag gibt einen Überblick über verschiedene Ansätze, wie die Wirkungsweise von Psychotherapie erklärt werden kann. Basierend auf dem biopsychosozialen Rahmenmodell postuliert die evidenzbasierte Praxis einen Rahmen des professionellen psychotherapeutischen Handelns. Grundsätzlich haben alle an der Therapie beteiligten Persone...
Article
Abstract Objective: A meta-analysis revealed a positive correlation between patients’ optimistic baseline, or early treatment, outcome expectation (OE) and posttreatment improvement (Constantino, Vîslă, et al., [2018]. A meta-analysis of the association between patients’ early treatment outcome expectation and their posttreatment outcomes. Psychoth...
Article
In the present study, sessions prior to sudden gains, sudden losses, and neutral control sessions were examined regarding the processes of change resource activation, problem actuation and therapeutic alliance. With respect to these change processes, we examined whether pregain, preloss, and neutral sessions are distinguishable by particular patter...
Article
In the field of forgiveness interventions, little research has been done on the comparative effects of learning-oriented versus action-oriented routes in managing unresolved interpersonal transgressions. In this study, 73 older adults ( M = 68.8 years) were randomized to either a learning-oriented group intervention condition that emphasized learni...
Article
Full-text available
Open access: https://bmcpsychiatry.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12888-020-02694-x Background Previous research has suggested that worry is negatively associated with working memory performance. However, it is unclear whether these findings would replicate across different worry levels and in individuals with anxiety and depressive disorders...
Preprint
Desires to increase in extraversion and conscientiousness as well as to decrease in neuroticism are the three most prevalent personality change goals. This study describes characteristics of people who wanted to change one of these personality traits (total N = 1,196) with the help of a digital personality change intervention. The extent to which c...
Article
Therapist differences in psychotherapy outcomes have been consistently found. Therefore, therapists’ characteristics such as interpersonal skills are of particular interest. Two assessments of interpersonal skills for the selection of trainees have recently been developed. To extend current knowledge, this study will compare trainee therapist’s and...
Article
Desires to increase in extraversion and conscientiousness as well as to decrease in neuroticism are the three most prevalent personality change goals. This study describes characteristics of people who wanted to change one of these personality traits (total N = 1,196) with the help of a digital personality change intervention. The extent to which c...
Article
Full-text available
(Open access: https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/507793) Deciding on the number of psychotherapy sessions to satisfactorily treat a patient is a vital clinical as well as economic issue in most mental health systems worldwide. Based on a systematic review, we identified 20 naturalistic samples across 8 countries (published between 2015-2019)....
Article
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Objective: Several studies have reported significant within-patient effects of the therapeutic alliance on outcome. However, it remains uncertain whether there are specific patient groups for whom an improved alliance might be particularly beneficial. The relational nature of the alliance makes patients' interpersonal problems a promising candidat...
Chapter
The understanding of human health and how health can be influenced by health-professionals has dramatically changed over the past three hundred years within “westernized/industrialized” societies and maybe even faster across the world (e.g., Selin and Shapiro 2003; Wampold and Imel 2015; Wampold et al. 2018). This dramatic change resulted in the co...
Article
The alliance is widely recognized as a robust predictor of posttreatment outcomes. However, there is a debate regarding whether the alliance is an epiphenomenon of intake characteristics and/or treatment processes occurring over the course of treatment. This meta-analysis aimed to synthesize the evidence on this issue. We identified 125 effect size...
Book
Erfahrene Psychotherapeut/-innen berichten über ihre hilfreichen Modelle und Konzepte, die sie im Alltag anwenden: Praktische Essentials, wie sie aktuell zu wenig beachtet und so kaum in einem Lehrbuch erfasst wurden! Das Gesamtkonzept ist so einfach wie überzeugend: "Alte Häsinnen und Hasen" der Psychotherapie haben je ein Essay verfasst, in dem s...
Chapter
Humanistische und experientielle Psychotherapieverfahren umfassen verschiedene Therapieansätze, welche mit ihrer Anerkennung einer kongruenten, empathischen und wertschätzenden therapeutischen Beziehung als notwendige und hinreichende Voraussetzung für Veränderungen, ihrem Fokus auf die Erfahrung im therapeutischen Prozess und auf das persönlichem...
Chapter
Ressourcenorientierung ist ein genuin psychologisch-psychotherapeutisches Wirkprinzip. Ressourcen sind aus handlungstheoretischer Perspektive alle intra- und interpersonellen motivationalen Bereitschaften, Fähigkeiten und Fertigkeiten einer Patientin oder eines Patienten und deren sozialer Umgebung, die für den Veränderungsprozess einer Therapie zu...
Article
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A crucial component of successful counseling and psychotherapy is the dyadic emotion co-regulation process between patient and therapist which unfolds moment-to-moment during therapy sessions. The major reason for the disappointing progress in understanding this process is the lack of appropriate methods to assess subjectively experienced emotions...
Article
Das Thema therapeutische Kompetenz ist sehr komplex. Kompetenz umfasst u. a. schulen- und ausbildungsbezogene als auch kulturelle Aspekte, die jedoch oft wenig reflektiert werden. Wir möchten deshalb einmal direkt die zwei in unserem Sprachraum verbreiteten kulturellen Räume gegenüberstellen – in Form eines Dialogs. Orientiert haben wir uns an dem...
Article
Translation of 10.1159/000501565: Die Allianz als Prädiktor für den Therapieerfolg internetbasierter Interventionen bei psychischen Störungen: Eine korrelative Metaanalyse - Background: The alliance between therapists and patients is one of the most investigated factors of psychotherapy and a robust predictor of treatment outcome in face-to-face in...
Article
Objective: The investigation of session-to-session effects of working alliance on symptoms and coping experiences in patients diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder. In addition, investigating these effects dependent on whether therapists are primed to work with patients strength (resource priming) or to adhere to the treatment manual (adhere...
Article
Full-text available
There is a longstanding debate in the cognitive behavioral literature whether exposure-based methods produce more sustainable outcomes relative to cognitive methods or vice versa. This debate concerns particularly the time after treatment termination (at follow-up assessments), also referred to as the sleeper effect. Therefore, the aim of the curre...
Article
Hintergrund: Die therapeutische Beziehung zwischen Patient*in und Therapeut*in (Allianz) in herkömmlichen Face-to-Face-Interventionen ist einer der am meisten untersuchten Faktoren der Psychotherapie und ein robuster Prädiktor des Therapieerfolgs. Zahlreiche Forschungsergebnisse weisen bei internetbasierten Ansätzen, die einen Kontakt mit Fachleute...
Article
Objective: Background regarding a recent debate between Cuijpers et al. (2019a, b) and the authors (Munder et al. 2019) about the efficacy of psychotherapy for depression is given. Method: A main reason for the discrepancy in Cuijpers et al.'s and our conclusions is discussed. Results: In our view the discrepancy is due, among other things, to a bl...
Article
Zusammenfassung Ziele Das allianzfokussierte Training (AFT) 1 schult therapeutische Kompetenzen, die für den Umgang mit Spannungen und Krisen in der therapeutischen Beziehung hilfreich sind unter Einsatz von Videoaufzeichnungen und Rollenspielen. Ziel der von der Heigl-Stiftung geförderten Pilotstudie war es, erste klinische Erfahrungen und Ergebni...