Christoph Breuer

Christoph Breuer
Deutsche Sporthochschule Köln | DSHS · Institut für Sportökonomie und Sportmanagement

Prof. Dr.

About

800
Publications
289,465
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5,882
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Introduction
Dr. Christoph Breuer is a full professor (W3 level) at the German Sport University Cologne (Institute of Sport Economics and Sport Management). From 2006 to 2011 he was simultaneously a research professor at the German Institute of Economic Research (DIW Berlin). In addition, he has been Vice President of the German Sport University since 2014, currently responsible for development, resources and appointments. Dr. Breuer is a founding member of the European Sports Economics Association (ESEA).

Publications

Publications (800)
Article
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Although enormous sums are spent on sport sponsorships, knowledge of sponsorship information processing is still limited. For a continuing growth of sponsorship as a field significant improvements in our understanding of sponsoring effectiveness are required. Whereas the direct effect of sponsor signage exposure on sponsor recall has been identifie...
Article
Full-text available
Although the competition for sports viewers’ attention has become a growing issue in sponsorship-linked marketing, sport management research has not yet investigated how to create eye-catching information in cluttered sport surroundings without reducing the viewers’ utility of watching sports. While most studies in the field of marketing do not tak...
Article
Profound knowledge of the behavioral response to sponsorship messages is sparse. In an effort to provide a better understanding of the relationship between sponsorship investments and the consumer’s brand choice, an online experiment was conducted focusing on the role of the sponsorship portfolio size. In the context of sponsorship activities in th...
Article
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Live sport broadcasts can evoke emotions in consumers and allow companies to reach their audience in environments that allow for automatic processing of brand messages. However, only few studies have applied psychophysiological methodologies to assess how the live nature of a competition and viewers' emotions affect the processing of sponsor messag...
Article
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The digitization of sports content and technological innovations in sports media offer disruptive new ways to adapt sponsor messages to real-time events during live broadcasts. To date, sponsorship management mostly ignores the run-of-play and viewers’ team affiliation. This paper seeks to demonstrate how a dynamic management approach can contribut...
Article
This study investigates match-fixing employing a 2-player contest in an experimental setting. Subjects compete in a real-effort task and are bribed onetime to self-sabotage. Based on Becker’s (1968) deterrence hypothesis, the effectiveness of deterrent factors is analyzed via different treatments applying an expected utility framework. Results show...
Article
This study investigates the impact of restricted crowds caused by the COVID-19 pandemic on the margin of victory of games in the NBA. Using 12,500 game-level observations from 11 NBA seasons from 2010/11 to 2020/21 the study first shows that during the COVID-19 season of 2020/21 games had a greater average margin of victory than any of the prior se...
Book
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In view of the historically poor performance of Germany as a sporting nation at the 2021 Summer Olympics in Tokyo, the question arises as to how top-level sport in Germany can be put back on the road to success. A necessary first step in this direction is likely to be a systematic analysis of the causes. For this reason, the German Sports Aid Found...
Book
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Mit der jetzt vorliegenden achten Welle des Sportentwicklungsberichts für Deutschland (SEB) liegt die zweite Erhebung im Rahmen des „SEB 3.0“ vor. Der vorliegende Länderbericht für Thüringen beinhaltet sowohl Auswertungen der Organisationsbefragung, d.h. der Sportvereine in Thüringen, als auch eine Auswahl an Auswertungen der Mitgliederbefragung.
Book
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Mit der jetzt vorliegenden achten Welle des Sportentwicklungsberichts für Deutschland (SEB) liegt die zweite Erhebung im Rahmen des „SEB 3.0“ vor. Der vorliegende Länderbericht für Bremen beinhaltet sowohl Auswertungen der Organisationsbefragung, d.h. der Sportvereine in Bremen, als auch eine Auswahl an Auswertungen der Mitgliederbefragung.
Book
Full-text available
Mit der jetzt vorliegenden achten Welle des Sportentwicklungsberichts für Deutschland (SEB) liegt die zweite Erhebung im Rahmen des „SEB 3.0“ vor. Der vorliegende Länderbericht für das Saarland beinhaltet sowohl Auswertungen der Organisationsbefragung, d.h. der Sportvereine im Saarland, als auch eine Auswahl an Auswertungen der Mitgliederbefragung.
Book
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Mit der jetzt vorliegenden achten Welle des Sportentwicklungsberichts für Deutschland (SEB) liegt die zweite Erhebung im Rahmen des „SEB 3.0“ vor. Der vorliegende Länderbericht für Bayern beinhaltet sowohl Auswertungen der Organisationsbefragung, d.h. der Sportvereine in Bayern, als auch eine Auswahl an Auswertungen der Mitgliederbefragung.
Book
Full-text available
Mit der jetzt vorliegenden achten Welle des Sportentwicklungsberichts für Deutschland (SEB) liegt die zweite Erhebung im Rahmen des „SEB 3.0“ vor. Der vorliegende Länderbericht für Sachsen-Anhalt beinhaltet sowohl Auswertungen der Organisationsbefragung, d.h. der Sportvereine in Sachsen-Anhalt, als auch eine Auswahl an Auswertungen der Mitgliederbe...
Book
Full-text available
Mit der jetzt vorliegenden achten Welle des Sportentwicklungsberichts für Deutschland (SEB) liegt die zweite Erhebung im Rahmen des „SEB 3.0“ vor. Der vorliegende Länderbericht für Baden-Württemberg beinhaltet sowohl Auswertungen der Organisationsbefragung, d.h. der Sportvereine in Baden-Württemberg, als auch eine Auswahl an Auswertungen der Mitgli...
Book
Full-text available
Mit der jetzt vorliegenden achten Welle des Sportentwicklungsberichts für Deutschland (SEB) liegt die zweite Erhebung im Rahmen des „SEB 3.0“ vor. Der vorliegende Länderbericht für Schleswig-Holstein beinhaltet sowohl Auswertungen der Organisationsbefragung, d.h. der Sportvereine in Schleswig-Holstein, als auch eine Auswahl an Auswertungen der Mitg...
Book
Full-text available
Mit der jetzt vorliegenden achten Welle des Sportentwicklungsberichts für Deutschland (SEB) liegt die zweite Erhebung im Rahmen des „SEB 3.0“ vor. Der vorliegende Länderbericht für Rheinland-Pfalz beinhaltet sowohl Auswertungen der Organisationsbefragung, d.h. der Sportvereine in Rheinland-Pfalz, als auch eine Auswahl an Auswertungen der Mitglieder...
Book
Full-text available
Mit der jetzt vorliegenden achten Welle des Sportentwicklungsberichts für Deutschland (SEB) liegt die zweite Erhebung im Rahmen des „SEB 3.0“ vor. Der vorliegende Länderbericht für Hamburg beinhaltet sowohl Auswertungen der Organisationsbefragung, d.h. der Sportvereine in Hamburg, als auch eine Auswahl an Auswertungen der Mitgliederbefragung.
Book
Full-text available
Mit der jetzt vorliegenden achten Welle des Sportentwicklungsberichts für Deutschland (SEB) liegt die zweite Erhebung im Rahmen des „SEB 3.0“ vor. Der „SEB 3.0“ umfasst die Durchführung der siebten bis neunten Welle der Sportentwicklungsberichte. Wie in den ersten sechs Erhebungswellen liegt der methodische Kernge- danke in der Weiterentwicklung ei...
Article
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Research question: This study examines the effect of board gender diversity and a critical mass of women on the board on organizational problems of non-profit sport clubs. It relies on theories from social categorization and information/decision-making perspectives and on critical mass theory. Research methods: Four waves of data from a German spo...
Article
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Coaches play a vital role in providing sports programs. Investing in formal coach education can serve to increase coaches’ human capital, which in turn, has a positive effect on their coaching practice. The present study investigates factors influencing coaches’ intention to get training for their coaching activity on an individual and organization...
Article
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The physical health of individuals is degenerating worldwide. The decrease in sporting activities among young people appears critical, as most life habits evolve during childhood. Among others, the rising share of media consumption among children is thought to be a primary determinant of the decline in demand for sports participation. Consequently,...
Article
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Even though voluntary sports clubs are expected to play an important role in accomplishing the political goal to deliver 'sport for all' , a number of population groups remain underrepresented in organised sport. Considering this, the aim of this article is to identify organisational characteristics of sports clubs that work strategically to integr...
Chapter
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For-profit organizations have entered markets which have traditionally been served by non-profits, thus increasing the competitive pressure on nonprofit organizations. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects that competition from for-profits has on the organizational structures of nonprofit organizations, more explicitly on their...
Preprint
Full-text available
Die Sportentwicklungsberichte haben zum Ziel, die EntscheidungsträgerInnen im organisierten Sport sowie in der Sportpolitik und -verwaltung mit politikfeld- und managementrelevanten Informationen zu versorgen. Dazu wurden in der 8. Welle neben den Vereinen auch Schieds- und KampfrichterInnen sowie Mitglieder befragt. An der aktuellen Befragung habe...
Article
Endorsement research has focused primarily on determining the effectiveness of single endorsers, whereas marketing practice shows that companies usually engage multiple endorsers to promote their brands and products. As academic evidence for multiple endorsers is limited and extant findings are ambiguous, the purpose of this study is to determine t...
Book
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Die Sportentwicklungsberichte haben zum Ziel, die Entscheidungsträger im organisierten Sport zeitnah mit politikfeld- und managementrelevanten Informationen zu versorgen. An der achten Welle der bundesweiten Online-Erhebung 2020 haben sich n=4.156 Fußballvereine von N=24.481 (7.169.327 Mitgliedschaften; Stichtag 01.01.2020; DOSB, 2020) beteiligt. D...
Book
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Im Rahmen des vom Bundesinstitut für Sportwissenschaft geförderten und von der Stiftung Deutsche Sporthilfe unterstützten Projekts wurde im März und April 2021 eine Online-Befragung von deutschen Nachwuchsleistungs- und Spitzensportler:innen durchgeführt. Ziel dieser Befragung war die Erfassung der ökonomischen Auswirkungen der COVID-19-Pandemie. I...
Book
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This report is based on the supplementary survey of sports clubs on the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic as part of the 8th wave of the Sport Development Report. This survey was conducted in spring 2021 among clubs that had signalled their participation in the overall survey of the 8th wave in autumn 2020. A total of 3,895 clubs participated in bot...
Book
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Der vorliegende Bericht basiert auf der Zusatzbefragung der Sportvereine zu den Auswirkungen der COVID-19-Pandemie im Rahmen der 8. Welle des Sportentwicklungsberichts. Diese Befragung wurde im Frühjahr 2021 unter Vereinen durchgeführt, die ihre Beteiligung in der Gesamtbefragung der 8. Welle im Herbst 2020 signalisiert hatten. Insgesamt haben sich...
Article
The purpose of this study was the segmentation of women’s football spectators based on their hierarchical involvement. Furthermore, distinct consumer profiles were derived by enriching the segments with socio-economic, behavioural, and psychological variables. Using a survey, data were collected during a German women’s national football match (n =...
Article
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To counteract the COVIC-19 pandemic, many governments have introduced social dis-tancing measures. While these restrictions helped contain the virus, it had adverse effects on indi-viduals' mental and physical health-especially children. The aim of the present study is to review the evidence on the effects of COVID-19 restrictions on children's phy...
Article
Athletes face intrapersonal, interpersonal and structural constraints when pursuing high-performance sport and a professional career (education and vocation). The ‘EU Guidelines on Dual Career’ were developed to guide, structure, and foster the athlete’s dual careers in the European Union countries. Thus, this study investigates the effective imple...
Article
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Purpose Technological innovations could allow for real-time control of sponsor exposure during sport broadcasts to increase the capacity of sponsor messages to attract attention. While such an approach requires knowledge on the interplay between in-game events and viewers' attention to sponsor signage previous studies have disregarded factors perta...
Article
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This paper presents data for the estimation of TV viewers’ response to sponsor messages embedded in live sports broadcasts. The data were obtained from 11 participants who each watched a full live broadcast of a 2018 soccer World Cup group stage match in a laboratory. Viewer-related data include participants’ heart rate, galvanic skin response, and...
Article
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Research question: Many elite athletes pursue higher education or professional employment alongside their sport career. Formal mentoring relationships help athletes to balance the demands of a dual career. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate the interrelationship between mentoring, values conveyed in mentoring, and the satisfaction w...
Article
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Research question: Despite the importance of referees for competitive sports and their decreasing numbers in various countries across sports leading to organisational problems, little is known about their job satisfaction and its determinants, although it substantially contributes to their intention to continue. To overcome this research gap, this...
Article
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Zusammenfassung Spielmanipulation stellt heutzutage eine der größten Bedrohungen für die Integrität des Sports dar, da sie zu einem Vertrauensverlust in die Fairness des Wettbewerbs führt. Als Reaktion auf Vorfälle in der Vergangenheit kommen im deutschen Sport deshalb zunehmend Bemühungen auf, Präventionsmaßnahmen zu entwickeln und durchzuführen....
Article
Research question: This study examines gender differences in human capital, performance characteristics, and earnings among elite athletes in semi-professional sports in Germany. Research methods: In 2018, a nationwide online survey of elite athletes supported by the German Sports Aid Foundation was conducted where they were asked about their life...
Article
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(1) Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has forced non-profit sports clubs to shut their doors. As a consequence, neither sports activities nor social gatherings could take place for an indefinite period. This situation poses potential risks to sports clubs as clubs could lose members, volunteers, and revenue. The purpose of this study is to investig...
Article
Companies use product endorsements in overstimulated markets as a marketing tactic to gain consumers attention and increase their product sales. Extant studies have indicated that a sports celebritys endorsement can have an overall positive influence on advertising outcomes like purchase intentions. However, research lacks a holistic perspective, s...
Preprint
Full-text available
Der Sportentwicklungsbericht Pferdesport hat zum Ziel, die Entscheidungsträger im organisierten Pferdesport zeitnah mit politikfeld- und managementrelevanten Informa- tionen zu versorgen. An der bundesweiten Online-Befragung 2020 haben sich n=1.428 Pferdesportvereine und n=599 Pferdebetriebe beteiligt. Neben den üblichen Kernbe- reichen wurde in de...
Article
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In-stadium spectators affect the emotional value and atmosphere of sport live broadcasts. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, in Europe, the presence of in-stadium spectators, however, was suspended until further notice. Conceptualizing professional clubs as economic platforms, network effects due to the lack of in-stadium spectators may affect stakehold...
Article
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Introduction: Up to now, there is limited clarity on factors that determine the effectiveness of childhood obesity interventions. Objective: This study intends to uncover individual- and program-level predictors of BMI-SDS and fitness to achieve significant, sustainable health improvements. Methods: Data of 249 children with obesity or overweight...
Article
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Bis vor Kurzem galt die Fußball­Bundesliga noch als ökonomisches Vorzeigemodell mit Wachstumsgaran­ tie. Mit den Auswirkungen der Covid­19 ­Pandemie geraten nun aber auch ihre strukturellen Risiken in den Blickpunkt. Sie erschweren nachhaltiges Wirtschaften der Liga. Drei strukturelle Risiken gilt es zu unterschei­den, die (1) auf der Ebene der Lig...
Chapter
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Leistung ist eine zentrale immanente Komponente des Kinder- und Jugendsports. So sind Leistungsverbesserung und Leistungsvergleich für Kinder und Jugendliche selbstverständliche und attraktive Bestandteile des Sporttreibens. Ohne Wettbewerb, Regeln, sportartspezifische Fertigkeiten und Siegesorientierung verliert der Sport seine Existenzberechtigun...
Book
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In Ergänzung zum ersten Teil des Sportentwicklungsberichts 2017/2018 (Sportvereine in Deutschland: Organisationen und Personen, Breuer & Feiler, 2019) werden in diesem zweiten Band die Ergebnisse der Stakeholderbefragung zur Situation der TrainerInnen und ÜbungsleiterInnen in den Sportvereinen in Deutschland vorgestellt. Dabei orientiert sich die A...
Chapter
Fitness has significantly grown in popularity over the last decades in Germany. Private operators, responsible for the majority of offerings, have reported a constant increase of memberships accompanied by an ongoing growth of revenues and a number of fitness facilities. Over this time the market has changed considerably. On the demand side, health...
Preprint
Full-text available
People’s physical healthiness is degenerating worldwide. Especially, the decrease in sporting activities among young people appears to be critical, as most life habits evolve during childhood. Among others, the rising share of media consumption among children is thought to be the main determinant of the incline in the demand for sports participatio...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the study was to investigate if non-profit sports clubs are affected by the growth of the commercial market and, if so, which clubs are affected and why. The authors employed a mixed-method design, collecting quantitative data from a sample of 4456 non- profit sports clubs in Germany and then conducting a follow-up qualitative study...
Article
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The main aim of the present paper is to investigate to what extent European sports clubs suffer from problems related to the recruitment/retention of members, volunteers (at board levels) and coaches, finances and facilities, and how these perceptions of problems depend on country contexts and organizational capacities. Data stem from a cross-natio...
Chapter
In Germany, about 90,000 sports clubs exist which allow a wide range of different population groups taking part in affordable sports offers. As such, German sports clubs can be regarded as the foundation for various sports-related areas, including mass sports and recreational sports, health sports, and competitive as well as elite sports. By provid...
Article
Elite sports are associated with values such as fair competition, striving to become better and challenging oneself. These are considered as social benefits. However, integrity issues relating to misuse of doping or corruption challenge this. This paper examines the determinants of public perception of elite sport by means of a survey. Logistic reg...
Article
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As the superiority of sports celebrities’ endorsements has been questioned, the purpose of this study is to identify various types of endorsers’ direct and indirect effects on consumers’ purchase intentions. Empirical data were collected from 240 useful responses to an online experiment, and research hypotheses were tested using (moderated) serial...
Article
Given the increasing importance of athlete well-being in the sport policy debate, this study investigated the effects of socioeconomic factors on elite athletes’ well-being in less commercialized sports and provides comparisons with residents of similar age (18–30 years). This study used survey data from athletes who are supported by the German Spo...
Article
Abstract: Objectives: Facing an epidemic of childhood obesity and budget constraints, public health administrations are showing an urgent interest in interventions that are both health- and cost-effective. Thus, this study intends to analyze the return on investment of these existing programs. Study design: All analyses are based on a comprehensive...
Book
Full-text available
Mit der siebten Welle der Sportentwicklungs- berichte für Deutschland liegen nun erstmals auch systematische Informationen zu Positio- nen und Rollen und damit auch zu Personen in den Sportvereinen in Deutschland vor. War der Sportentwicklungsbericht bis einschließlich der sechsten Welle eine reine Organisationsbefragung, so stellt er mittlerweile...
Article
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In einem Gastbeitrag für die FAZ werden vier Systemrisiken für die finanziellen Strukturprobleme der Fußball-Bundesliga mitverantwortlich gemacht: (1) Der Zielkonflikt zwischen sportlichem und wirtschaftlichem Erfolg, (2) die Logik des Machterhalts, (3) der Hyperwettbewerb, (4) die Globalität des fußballspezifischen Arbeitsmarkts. Effektive Problem...
Book
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With this seventh wave, the Sport Development Report for Germany enters a new phase. The “Sport Development Report 3.0 (SDR 3.0)” covers the implementation of the seventh to ninth waves of Sport Development Reports. The methodical core concept of the Sport Development Reports is still the development of a panel design. From the seventh wave onwards...
Book
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The sports club landscape in Germany has a broad base, with approximately 90,000 sports clubs. A total of about 27 million club memberships are recorded, which corresponds to about one third of the German population1. This report provides an overview of the key results of the seventh wave of the Sport Development Report (SDR) 2017/20182 as well as...
Book
Full-text available
Die Sportvereinslandschaft in Deutschland ist mit ca. 90.000 Sport- vereinen breit aufgestellt. Insgesamt lassen sich etwa 27 Millionen Vereinsmitgliedschaften verzeichnen, was rund einem Drittel der deutschen Bevölkerung entspricht. Der vorliegende Bericht liefert einen Überblick über die wichtigsten Ergebnisse der siebten Erhebungswelle des Sport...
Book
Full-text available
For the first time, this seventh wave of Sport Development Reports for Germany provides systematic information on positions and roles and thus the individuals in sports clubs in Germany. While the Sport Development Report up to and including the sixth wave was a purely organisational survey, it now represents a combined organisational and personal...
Book
Full-text available
For the first time, this seventh wave of the Sport Development Report for Germany provides systematic information on positions and roles and thus the individuals in sports clubs in Germany. While the Sport Development Report up to and including the sixth wave was a purely organisational survey, it now represents a combined organisational and person...
Article
The purpose of this research was to identify important functions of a mentoring programme in Germany targeted at elite athletes and how they facilitate the transition phase from sporting career to professional career. We adapted the Mentor Role Instrument by Ragins and McFarlin (1990) to sport. The newly created scale was assessed by means of princ...
Article
Full-text available
Competitive sports require a regulating body of referees to enforce the rules for the effective operation of the game. However, the number of referees is generally decreasing, leading to organisational problems at the amateur level. The purpose of this research is to identify the factors that determine the intention to continue voluntary refereeing...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the present study is to build and test a simulation model for the prediction of gaze hits in the context of dynamic marketing stimuli. Forecasting the attentional effect of dynamic stimuli is of particular interest when it comes to indirect forms of marketing communication such as sponsorship, product placement, or in-game-advertisin...
Article
Background: Increasing health care costs represent an economic burden placed on individuals across many European countries. Against this backdrop, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between participation in physical activity and out-of-pocket health care costs in Europe. Methods: Individual data from the cross-national Survey...
Article
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This study examines how brand attitude formation with respect to sport event sponsors is affected by feelings related to the sponsor brand, the sponsored event, and concurrent sponsors. Using systematically manipulated press releases, 216 sport-interested participants were presented with different sponsorships of a major sport event. Sponsor inform...
Article
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Glücksspiel und Sport sind eng miteinander verbunden. So stellen sportliche Wettkämpfe die Basis für Sportwetten dar. In der europäischen Wirtschaftsstatistik werden Sportwetten demzufolge auch als sogenannter „downstream sector“ in der Betrachtung der Sportwirtschaft eingestuft: Sie benötigen den Sport als wirtschaftliche Grundlage, sind aber zu d...