Christof Koch

Christof Koch
Allen Institute for Brain Science · Chief Scientific Officer

PhD

About

932
Publications
237,123
Reads
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102,007
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 1986 - March 2013
California Institute of Technology
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (932)
Article
Full-text available
Which cell types constitute brain circuits is a fundamental question, but establishing the correspondence across cellular data modalities is challenging. Bio-realistic models allow probing cause-and-effect and linking seemingly disparate modalities. Here, we introduce a computational optimization workflow to generate 9,200 single-neuron models with...
Preprint
This essay addresses the implications of integrated information theory (IIT) for free will. IIT is a theory of what consciousness is and what it takes to have it. According to IIT, the presence of consciousness is accounted for by a maximum of cause-effect power in the brain. Moreover, the way specific experiences feel is accounted for by how that...
Preprint
Full-text available
BigNeuron is an open community bench-testing platform combining the expertise of neuroscientists and computer scientists toward the goal of setting open standards for accurate and fast automatic neuron reconstruction. The project gathered a diverse set of image volumes across several species representative of the data obtained in most neuroscience...
Article
Full-text available
The target article misrepresents the foundations of integrated information theory (IIT) and ignores many essential publications. It, thus, falls to this lead commentary to outline the axioms and postulates of IIT and correct major misconceptions. The commentary also explains why IIT starts from phenomenology and why it predicts that only select phy...
Article
We present a unique, extensive, and open synaptic physiology analysis platform and dataset. Through its application, we reveal principles that relate cell type to synaptic properties and intralaminar circuit organization in the mouse and human cortex. The dynamics of excitatory synapses align with the postsynaptic cell subclass, whereas inhibitory...
Preprint
Local field potential (LFP) recordings reflect the dynamics of the current source density (CSD) in brain tissue. The synaptic, cellular and circuit contributions to current sinks and sources are ill-understood. We investigated these in mouse primary visual cortex using public Neuropixels recordings and a detailed circuit model based on simulating t...
Preprint
The claustrum is a small subcortical structure with widespread connections with disparate regions of the cortex. These far-reaching projections have led to many hypotheses concerning its function. However, we know little about how claustrum input affects neural activity in cortex, particularly beyond frontal areas. Here, using optogenetics and mult...
Article
The visual cortex is hierarchically organized, yet the presence of extensive recurrent and parallel pathways make it challenging to decipher how signals flow between neuronal populations. Here, we tracked the flow of spiking activity recorded from six interconnected levels of the mouse visual hierarchy. By analyzing leading and lagging spike-timing...
Preprint
Neurophysiological differentiation (ND), a metric that quantifies the number of distinct activity states that the brain or its part visits over a period of time, has been used as a correlate of meaningfulness or subjective perception of visual stimuli. ND has largely been studied in non-invasive human whole-brain recordings where spatial resolution...
Article
Despite significant progress in understanding neural coding, it remains unclear how the coordinated activity of large populations of neurons relates to what an observer actually perceives. Since neurophysiological differences must underlie differences among percepts, differentiation analysis-quantifying distinct patterns of neurophysiological activ...
Article
Full-text available
Progress in many scientific disciplines is hindered by the presence of independent noise. Technologies for measuring neural activity (calcium imaging, extracellular electrophysiology and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)) operate in domains in which independent noise (shot noise and/or thermal noise) can overwhelm physiological signals....
Preprint
Full-text available
Visual masking is used extensively to infer the timescale of conscious perception in humans; yet the underlying circuit mechanisms are not understood. We describe a robust backward masking paradigm in mice, in which the location of a briefly flashed grating is effectively masked within a 50 ms window after stimulus onset. Optogenetic silencing of v...
Article
Full-text available
The maintenance of short-term memories is critical for survival in a dynamically changing world. Previous studies suggest that this memory can be stored in the form of persistent neural activity or using a synaptic mechanism, such as with short-term plasticity. Here, we compare the predictions of these two mechanisms to neural and behavioral measur...
Article
Full-text available
Abundant evidence supports the presence of at least three distinct types of thalamocortical (TC) neurons in the primate dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) of the thalamus, the brain region that conveys visual information from the retina to the primary visual cortex (V1). Different types of TC neurons in mice, humans, and macaques have distinc...
Article
In the neocortex, subcerebral axonal projections originate largely from layer 5 (L5) extratelencephalic-projecting (ET) neurons. The unique morpho-electric properties of these neurons have been mainly described in rodents, where retrograde tracers or transgenic lines can label them. Similar labeling strategies are infeasible in the human neocortex,...
Article
Full-text available
Extracellular electrophysiology and two-photon calcium imaging are widely used methods for measuring physiological activity with single-cell resolution across large populations of cortical neurons. While each of these two modalities has distinct advantages and disadvantages, neither provides complete, unbiased information about the underlying neura...
Article
Much research on the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) has focused on two evoked potentials, the P3b and the visual or auditory awareness negativity (VAN, AAN). Surveying a broad range of recent experimental evidence, we find that repeated failures to observe the P3b during conscious perception eliminate it as a putative NCC. Neither the VAN...
Article
Full-text available
The anatomy of the mammalian visual system, from the retina to the neocortex, is organized hierarchically¹. However, direct observation of cellular-level functional interactions across this hierarchy is lacking due to the challenge of simultaneously recording activity across numerous regions. Here we describe a large, open dataset—part of the Allen...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present a unique, extensive, public synaptic physiology dataset. The dataset contains over 20,000 neuron pairs probed with multipatch using standardized protocols to capture short-term dynamics. Recordings were made in the human temporal cortex and the adult mouse visual cortex. Our main purpose is to offer data and analyses that provide a more...
Preprint
Full-text available
The claustrum is uniquely positioned to communicate with almost all higher-order cortical areas through widespread and reciprocal anatomical projections, yet the in vivo functional properties of claustrum neurons are not well understood. Here we use microendoscope imaging in mice to measure activity in populations of genetically-labelled Gnb4+ clau...
Article
Full-text available
Fluorescent calcium indicators are often used to investigate neural dynamics, but the relationship between fluorescence and action potentials (APs) remains unclear. Most APs can be detected when the soma almost fills the microscope's field of view, but calcium indicators are often used to image populations of neurons, necessitating a large field of...
Article
Full-text available
Experimental studies in neuroscience are producing data at a rapidly increasing rate, providing exciting opportunities and formidable challenges to existing theoretical and modeling approaches. To turn massive datasets into predictive quantitative frameworks, the field needs software solutions for systematic integration of data into realistic, mult...
Preprint
Full-text available
Despite significant progress in understanding neural coding, it remains unclear how the coordinated activity of large populations of neurons relates to what an observer actually perceives. Since neurophysiological differences must underlie differences among percepts, differentiation analysis —quantifying distinct patterns of neurophysiological acti...
Article
Neurons are frequently classified into distinct types on the basis of structural, physiological, or genetic attributes. To better constrain the definition of neuronal cell types, we characterized the transcriptomes and intrinsic physiological properties of over 4,200 mouse visual cortical GABAergic interneurons and reconstructed the local morpholog...
Preprint
Abundant anatomical and physiological evidence supports the presence of at least three distinct types of relay glutamatergic neurons in the primate dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) of the thalamus, the brain region that conveys visual information from the retina to the primary visual cortex. Relay neuron diversity has also been described in...
Preprint
Full-text available
In the neocortex, subcerebral axonal projections originate largely from layer 5 (L5) extratelencephalic-projecting (ET) neurons. The highly distinctive morpho-electric properties of these neurons have mainly been described in rodents, where ET neurons can be labeled by retrograde tracers or transgenic lines. Similar labeling strategies are not poss...
Preprint
Progress in nearly every scientific discipline is hindered by the presence of independent noise in spatiotemporally structured datasets. Three widespread technologies for measuring neural activity—calcium imaging, extracellular electrophysiology, and fMRI—all operate in domains in which shot noise and/or thermal noise deteriorate the quality of mea...
Preprint
Full-text available
Ever since the seminal findings of Ramon y Cajal, dendritic and axonal morphology has been recognized as a defining feature of neuronal types. Yet our knowledge concerning the diversity of neuronal morphologies, in particular distal axonal projection patterns, is extremely limited. To systematically obtain single neuron full morphology on a brain-w...
Preprint
Full-text available
Extracellular electrophysiology and two-photon calcium imaging are widely used methods for measuring physiological activity with single cell resolution across large populations of neurons in the brain. While these two modalities have distinct advantages and disadvantages, neither provides complete, unbiased information about the underlying neural p...
Preprint
Full-text available
Experimental studies in neuroscience are producing data at a rapidly increasing rate, providing exciting opportunities and formidable challenges to existing theoretical and modeling approaches. To turn massive datasets into predictive quantitative frameworks, the field needs software solutions for systematic integration of data into realistic, mult...
Article
Recent large-scale collaborations are generating major surveys of cell types and connections in the mouse brain, collecting large amounts of data across modalities, spatial scales, and brain areas. Successful integration of these data requires a standard 3D reference atlas. Here, we present the Allen Mouse Brain Common Coordinate Framework (CCFv3)...
Article
Full-text available
Subicular regions play important roles in spatial processing and many cognitive functions, and these are mainly attributed to the subiculum (Sub) rather than the prosubiculum (PS). Using single-cell RNA sequencing, we identify 27 transcriptomic cell types residing in sub-domains of the Sub and PS. Based on in situ expression of reliable transcripto...
Preprint
Full-text available
Temporal lobe epilepsy is the fourth most common neurological disorder with about 40% of patients not responding to pharmacological treatment. Increased cellular loss in the hippocampus is linked to disease severity and pathological phenotypes such as heightened seizure propensity. While the hippocampus is the target of therapeutic interventions su...
Article
Full-text available
Temporal lobe epilepsy is the fourth most common neurological disorder with about 40% of patients not responding to pharmacological treatment. Increased cellular loss in the hippocampus is linked to disease severity and pathological phenotypes such as heightened seizure propensity. While the hippocampus is the target of therapeutic interventions su...
Preprint
Full-text available
Investigating how visual inputs are encoded in visual cortex is important for elucidating the roles of cell populations in circuit computations. We here use a recently developed, large-scale model of mouse primary visual cortex (V1) and perturb both single neurons as well as functional- and cell-type defined population of neurons to mimic equivalen...
Preprint
Full-text available
Identifying the cell types constituting brain circuits is a fundamental question in neuroscience and motivates the generation of taxonomies based on electrophysiological, morphological and molecular single cell properties. Establishing the correspondence across data modalities and understanding the underlying principles has proven challenging. Bio-...
Preprint
Full-text available
The primary motor cortex (M1) is essential for voluntary fine motor control and is functionally conserved across mammals. Using high-throughput transcriptomic and epigenomic profiling of over 450,000 single nuclei in human, marmoset monkey, and mouse, we demonstrate a broadly conserved cellular makeup of this region, whose similarity mirrors evolut...
Preprint
Full-text available
The maintenance of short-term memories is critical for survival in a dynamically changing world. Previous studies suggest that this memory can be stored in the form of persistent neural activity or using a synaptic mechanism, such as with short-term plasticity. Here, we compare the predictions of these two mechanisms to neural and behavioral measur...
Article
Structural rules underlying functional properties of cortical circuits are poorly understood. To explore these rules systematically, we integrated information from extensive literature curation and large-scale experimental surveys into a data-driven, biologically realistic simulation of the awake mouse primary visual cortex. The model was construct...
Article
Full-text available
von Economo neurons (VENs) are bipolar, spindle-shaped neurons restricted to layer 5 of human frontoinsula and anterior cingulate cortex that appear to be selectively vulnerable to neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases, although little is known about other VEN cellular phenotypes. Single nucleus RNA-sequencing of frontoinsula layer 5 iden...
Preprint
Full-text available
Neurons are frequently classified into distinct groups or cell types on the basis of structural, physiological, or genetic attributes. To better constrain the definition of neuronal cell types, we characterized the transcriptomes and intrinsic physiological properties of over 3,700 GABAergic mouse visual cortical neurons and reconstructed the local...
Article
Full-text available
To understand how the brain processes sensory information to guide behavior, we must know how stimulus representations are transformed throughout the visual cortex. Here we report an open, large-scale physiological survey of activity in the awake mouse visual cortex: the Allen Brain Observatory Visual Coding dataset. This publicly available dataset...
Preprint
Full-text available
Subicular region plays important roles in spatial processing and many cognitive functions and these were mainly attributed to subiculum (Sub) rather than prosubiculum (PS). Using single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) technique we have identified up to 27 distinct transcriptomic clusters/cell types, which were registered to anatomical sub-domains i...
Article
Full-text available
The mammalian cortex is a laminar structure containing many areas and cell types that are densely interconnected in complex ways, and for which generalizable principles of organization remain mostly unknown. Here we describe a major expansion of the Allen Mouse Brain Connectivity Atlas resource¹, involving around a thousand new tracer experiments i...
Article
Full-text available
The readiness potential (RP)—a key ERP correlate of upcoming action—is known to precede subjects' reports of their decision to move. Some view this as evidence against a causal role for consciousness in human decision-making and thus against free-will. But previous work focused on arbitrary decisions—purposeless, unreasoned, and without consequence...
Preprint
Full-text available
A bstract Structural rules underlying functional properties of cortical circuits are poorly understood. To explore these rules systematically, we integrated information from extensive literature curation and large-scale experimental surveys into a data-driven, biologically realistic model of the mouse primary visual cortex. The model was constructe...
Preprint
Full-text available
The mammalian visual system, from retina to neocortex, has been extensively studied at both anatomical and functional levels. Anatomy indicates the corticothalamic system is hierarchical, but characterization of cellular-level functional interactions across multiple levels of this hierarchy is lacking, partially due to the challenge of simultaneous...
Preprint
Full-text available
Multiphoton calcium imaging is commonly used to monitor the spiking of large populations of neurons. Recovering action potentials from fluorescence necessitates calibration experiments, often with simultaneous imaging and cell-attached recording. Here we performed calibration for imaging conditions matching those of the Allen Brain Observatory. We...
Preprint
Two-photon calcium imaging is often used with genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs) to investigate neural dynamics, but the relationship between fluorescence and action potentials (spikes) remains unclear. Pioneering work linked electrophysiology and calcium imaging in vivo with viral GECI expression, albeit in a small number of cells. Her...
Article
Full-text available
Elucidating the cellular architecture of the human cerebral cortex is central to understanding our cognitive abilities and susceptibility to disease. Here we used single-nucleus RNA-sequencing analysis to perform a comprehensive study of cell types in the middle temporal gyrus of human cortex. We identified a highly diverse set of excitatory and in...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the diversity of cell types in the brain has been an enduring challenge and requires detailed characterization of individual neurons in multiple dimensions. To systematically profile morpho-electric properties of mammalian neurons, we established a single-cell characterization pipeline using standardized patch-clamp recordings in brai...
Preprint
Full-text available
Ever since the seminal findings of Ramon y Cajal, dendritic and axonal morphology has been recognized as a defining feature of neuronal types and their connectivity. Yet our knowledge about the diversity of neuronal morphology, in particular its distant axonal projections, is still extremely limited. To systematically obtain single neuron full morp...
Preprint
Full-text available
von Economo neurons (VENs) are bipolar, spindle-shaped neurons restricted to layer 5 of human frontoinsula and anterior cingulate cortex that appear to be selectively vulnerable to neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases, although little is known about other VEN cellular phenotypes. Single nucleus RNA-sequencing of frontoinsula layer 5 iden...
Article
Different neuron types serve distinct roles in neural processing. Extracellular electrical recordings are extensively used to study brain function but are typically blind to cell identity. Morphoelectrical properties of neurons measured on spatially dense electrode arrays have the potential to distinguish neuron types. We used high-density silicon...