Christine Lynn Norton

Christine Lynn Norton
Texas State University | TxSt · Department of Social Work

PhD

About

44
Publications
27,793
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
695
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2008 - January 2015
Texas State University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (44)
Article
Full-text available
Background: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) now known as COVID-19 changed the world and the outdoor adventure and experiential education (OAEE) fields were not immune. These changes significantly impacted various OAEE programs in multiple ways and at different levels of intensity. Purpose: The purpose of this study...
Article
Full-text available
Involuntary youth transport (IYT) is a controversial practice used to admit adolescents into residential care. Critics point out that IYT is in need of regulation and is best used as a last resort. This article examines the risks and benefits of IYT, especially the longterm effects on the client, in order to ensure that all facets of a client’s tre...
Article
There is a dearth of research in the field of outdoor behavioral healthcare on the direct care staff at wilderness therapy programs, known as field staff. Some research has identified direct care staff as particularly susceptible to burnout and high levels of stress due to personal, organizational, and social factors. Recent research on burnout in...
Article
Objective This study investigates the association between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and mental health among a sample of college students. It also explores whether health behaviors and social support may help to explain the link between ACEs and mental health. Participants: Participants were students at a large public university in the So...
Article
Full-text available
• Studies demonstrate that preventive practices, including restorative practices and social and emotional learning, reduce the need for suspension. However, emerging findings suggest that preventive practices perpetuate the same rates of racial disproportionality in suspension as traditional disciplinary codes; evidence of persistent racial disprop...
Article
Full-text available
Child abuse is epidemic in the United States and has dire long-term consequences. Innovative interventions are needed to address the negative cognitive, affective and behavioral effects of child abuse. This mixed-method study examined if adventure therapy is 1) an effective mental health intervention for child and adolescent survivors of abuse and...
Article
Full-text available
Child abuse is epidemic in the United States and has dire long-term consequences. Innovative interventions are needed to address the negative cognitive, affective and behavioral effects of child abuse. This mixed-method study examined if adventure therapy is 1) an effective mental health intervention for child and adolescent survivors of abuse and...
Article
Rationale Social work has long supported activity-based group work for young people. One such approach includes outdoor behavioral healthcare (OBH), also known as wilderness therapy, which often employs nonclinical field staff to lead outdoor activities as part of the overall treatment model. Although men and women both serve as field guides, the c...
Chapter
Based on a narrative inquiry with women outdoor leaders, in this chapter, the authors discuss how women experience gender whilst becoming outdoor leaders, including gender socialization and the internal and external resources that facilitate the path to leadership. The chapter utilizes in-depth narrative inquiry to recognize barriers to participati...
Chapter
Communication in families is essential for healthy family functioning . However, when youth act out and exhibit high-risk behaviors, trust is broken and communication in families is negatively impacted. When this occurs, some families turn to therapeutic wilderness programs for help. One such program is Intercept, a program for struggling teens and...
Article
Full-text available
(Full text: http://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/KVwXn2js7xs95nIVQd6p/full) Adventure programming has seen considerable growth throughout the world. While newly established programs aim to meet the needs of their prospective clients, failing to account for cultural differences when con- ducting or designing programs may impede this goal. Non-western a...
Article
Nondeliberative group work allows group members to generate their own solutions and provides experiential opportunities to transfer learning to life outside of a therapeutic setting. Adventure therapy is explored as a tool for engaging groups in a nondeliberative manner. The theoretical underpinnings of adventure therapy are presented and contextua...
Article
Full-text available
Every year approximately 130 families participate in Intercept, a program for struggling teens and their families at the Voyageur Outward Bound School, because they are concerned about the loss of trust, poor communication, and/or other high-risk behaviors they are experiencing with their children. Though families hope for improvements in family fu...
Article
Full-text available
With roots in experiential education and Outward Bound, wilderness therapy (WT) is a growing field of mental health care for youth. WT uses outdoor modalities combined with therapeutic interventions to assist youth to promote clinical changes. Previous research has shown it to be effective in improving the mental health of clients; however, little...
Article
Full-text available
Background Considering the sensitive ethical issues related to involuntary treatment of adolescents, research investigating youth transport practices and treatment outcomes is clearly needed. Youth transport is common practice in many private pay programs, including wilderness therapy programs. Objective This study of 350 adolescents in wilderness...
Article
Full-text available
Emerging adults (18-25) aging out of foster care are more likely than their peers who did not age out to experience poor outcomes. Using content analytic procedures, this study analyzed semi-structured interviews (n = 134) and four focus groups with homeless emerging adults, including a subset that aged out of foster care. Findings indicate partici...
Book
Adventure Therapy around the Globe is an important, peer-reviewed collection of papers pulled from the from the 5th and 6th International Adventure Therapy Conference proceedings. These papers present international perspectives and diverse approaches to adventure therapy theory, practice and research. Adventure therapy program models and interventi...
Article
Full-text available
This mixed-methods study examines the relationship between adolescent identity complexity (Clin Social Work J 21(1):11–24 1991) and youth purpose related to participation in a wilderness experience program at an alternative, residential boarding school in Colorado. Students in this study (N = 55) completed an adapted version of the Self-Worth Index...
Article
Full-text available
The authors report quantitative findings from a meta-analysis of studies investigating the relationship between attachment style, grounded in theory developed by Bowlby and Ainsworth; and Snyder's theoretical model of hope (Ainsworth & Bowlby, 1991; Snyder, 1994). Statistically significant results provide support for further investigation of clinic...
Article
Full-text available
This state of knowledge article provides an overview of Adventure Therapy (AT) as it is practiced with adolescents in North America, presenting (a) current findings in AT research with adolescents, (b) critical issues in AT, (c) the need for training and professional development in AT, and (d) professionalization in AT. Implications of current find...
Conference Paper
Purpose: The unsatisfactory achievement of adult competency among emerging adults aging out of foster care is well documented. However few studies have examined how development within the child welfare system impacts the ability to achieve competence. In this study, homeless emerging adults who had not aged out of foster care were compared to pee...
Conference Paper
Purpose: When adolescents are resistant to treatment, families are faced with the challenge of how to engage them, sometimes against their will. This phenomenon has led to the use of youth transport practices by some residential programs. From a social work perspective there are ethical concerns related to the involuntary treatment of adolescents l...
Article
Full-text available
Young people today face a multitude of challenges, especially when growing up in an urban environment. Risk factors such as poverty, exposure to gangs, drugs, and community and family violence threaten healthy development. The positive youth development (PYD) approach attempts to combat these personal and environmental challenges by providing youth...
Article
Full-text available
Campus support programs for foster care alumni (FCA) have emerged in an attempt to improve higher education outcomes for former foster youth. However, these programs have little empirical or theoretical literature to guide their development. We present a case study of a newly developed campus support program for FCA which utilizes a strengths persp...
Article
Full-text available
Alternative high school students are at risk of negative social, emotional, and academic outcomes. School-based group counseling is often implemented by mental health professionals to address these risk factors. This study explores benefits of school-based group counseling utilizing mindfulness meditation to help students improve functioning. Parti...
Article
Full-text available
Adventure therapy, an experiential intervention that combines outdoor, adventure based activities and group process, is used in direct practice by clinical social workers; however, it is unclear to what extent clinical social workers are actually utilizing these techniques. This research project surveyed a random sample of clinical social workers a...
Article
Norton CL. Social work and the environment: An ecosocial approachThis article draws on insights from social work, ecopsychology and ecofeminism to inform an ecosocial approach honouring humans' interconnectedness with nature. It re‐examines social work's ecosystems perspective and redefines its central ‘person‐in‐environment’ configuration to embra...
Article
This paper examines the importance of the therapeutic relationship and the need for cultural competence in adventure therapy. Cultural differences between therapist and client can sometimes result in possible misinterpretation and conflict, which can lead to problems in the therapeutic relationship and negatively affect treatment outcomes. This pap...
Article
This article describes a feminist-informed reflective teaching project enacted by a group of social work faculty at Texas State University–San Marcos. Utilizing Schon's notion of reflection-in-action, faculty formed a participatory action research group to implement reflective techniques to further their professional development as new teachers and...
Article
Full-text available
Self-injury among female adolescents has become an important clinical issue in social work practice. Anxiety has been cited as one of the primary reasons that self-injury occurs in this population. This paper explores the role of empathy in mitigating anxiety and helping with emotional regulation and highlights the need to empathically monitor the...
Book
Innovative Interventions in Child and Adolescent Mental Health is a unique composite of the literature on various innovative interventions for children and adolescents, and provides a developmental and neurobiological rationale for utilizing innovative interventions with this population. Based on the latest research, this book emphasizes that child...
Article
Full-text available
Adolescent depression has become epidemic in the United States, with statistics showing that one in five adolescents may suffer from depression (Brent and Birmaher in N Engl J Med 347(9), 2002). This article examines adolescent depression from a psychodynamic perspective, and identifies the psychodynamics of adolescent depression as the affective c...
Article
Abstract: Training in groupwork in social work education is a critical aspect of promoting the continued use of groupwork in social work practice. Groupwork courses in social work education should integrate theory and practice; emphasize the processes that make groups effective; and train group leaders by providing experiential learning opportuniti...
Article
Training in groupwork in social work education is a critical aspect of promoting the continued use of groupwork in social work practice. Groupwork courses in social work education should integrate theory and practice; emphasize the processes that make groups effective; and train group leaders by providing experiential learning opportunities for how...
Article
Full-text available
Social work as a profession has a unique commitment in honoring the dignity and worth of human beings, and believing in the power of human relationships (NASW, 2008). In its approach to helping people, social work has distinguished itself through its dual focus on the person and the environment, a construct which has been widely identified as perso...
Article
Full-text available
Rates of adolescent depression in the United States have become alarmingly high, reemphasizing the need for holistic interventions for afflicted youth. This study examined the impact of wilderness therapy on youth with depression using a mixed methods research design. Data were collected via pre- and post-tests using the Reynolds Adolescent Depress...

Network

Cited By

Projects

Project (1)
Project
To identify what a restorative practices program means for teachers in terms of developing their emotional boundaries in the classroom, social and emotional skills, and willingness to be vulnerable in confronting prejudice and privilege.