Christine King

Christine King
Anima Vet

DVM equivalent

About

37
Publications
9,137
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
388
Citations
Introduction
I'm a veterinarian and medical writer. Throughout my career, my main focus has been equine medicine, but I have a deep love for all animals and an abiding interest in all aspects of veterinary medicine and animal science. For the past 20 years, I've been integrating holistic principles into my practice and writing. / I love animals, I love science, and I love to write, so I combine the three. I run a mobile equine practice (Anima Vet - holistic veterinary care) in southeast Queensland, Australia, and I continue to do some medical writing and editing. I aim to bridge the gap between research and practice - and between science and holism, because there shouldn't be a gap when both are done right!
Additional affiliations
July 1993 - June 1994
North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine
Position
  • Resident, Large Animal Internal Medicine
Description
  • The emphasis of this residency was equine colic, other medical emergencies, lameness, and neonatal medicine.
June 1991 - June 1993
The University of Sydney
Position
  • Resident, Equine Medicine & Surgery
Description
  • The emphasis of this residency was equine internal medicine and equine sports medicine
Education
June 1991 - July 1991
Australian College of Veterinary Scientists
Field of study
  • Equine Medicine
June 1991 - June 1993
The University of Sydney
Field of study
  • Equine Exercise Physiology
January 1981 - December 1985
The University of Queensland
Field of study
  • Veterinary Science

Publications

Publications (37)
Data
Raw data (XL spreadsheet) supporting the paper, 'Toe length and plantar angle in the hind feet are associated with gluteal pain in adult horses'.
Preprint
Full-text available
PURPOSE: In an earlier study, we documented an association between long toes in the hind feet and pain on palpation of the gluteal region. In the present study, we retrospectively examined associations between gluteal pain and the breakover distance (BD, a measure of toe length) and plantar angle (PA) of the third phalanx in the hind feet of 144 ad...
Presentation
PowerPoint slide show on using serology to document proof of immunity rather than relying exclusively on proof of vaccination against Hendra virus in horses. Available on SlideShare: https://www.slideshare.net/DrChrisKing/hendra-antibody-tests-245246520
Preprint
Full-text available
The other evening I was called out to yet another horse with colic whose primary veterinarian had refused to attend because the horse was not currently vaccinated against Hendra virus (HeV). To be considered current in the manufacturer’s Hendra vaccination registry, annual boosters are mandated, even though the one study published to date with rele...
Preprint
Full-text available
This update on managing serious wound infections in horses comprises a series of 4 articles: 1. Wounds involving joints and other synovial structures (part A). 2. Wounds involving joints and other synovial structures (part B). 3. Wounds involving bone. 4. Wounds involving soft tissues. Wound infections that involve a joint, tendon sheath, or bursa...
Preprint
Full-text available
The first two articles in this 4-part series explored the question, Why do some infections persist and progress despite seemingly appropriate treatment?, as it pertains to wounds involving joints and other synovial structures. 1,2 Of the many possible reasons, most serious wound infections involve at least one, and usually a combination, of these f...
Preprint
Full-text available
Despite how far we’ve come with laminitis research, there are still some gaps in our understanding of this destructive disease. Supporting limb laminitis (SLL) is a veritable dark corner when it comes to our goal of fully elucidating the pathogenesis and thus the prevention of all forms and presentations of laminitis. We do know that SLL occurs in...
Preprint
Full-text available
The first article of this series began an exploration of the reasons why some wound infections persist and progress despite seemingly appropriate treatment.1 Examined in that article were the impacts of extensive contamination, bacterial refugia, immunocompromise (intrinsically and extrinsically imposed), and poor perfusion. This article continues...
Preprint
Full-text available
It seems odd that this topic has been discussed so little in the veterinary literature when at any given time most of us have at least one chronic laminitis case under our care that is being managed at home by the owner. Almost all of our knowledge on this aspect of laminitis treatment has been gleaned through experience, by wrestling individually...
Preprint
Full-text available
Systems theory is a way of describing complex and dynamic relationships. I applied systems theory to the structure and function of the equine foot in an effort to better understand laminitis and, in so doing, reconcile the various theories of its etiopathogenesis and find more universally effective preventive and therapeutic strategies. The foot is...
Preprint
Full-text available
This fourth and final article of the series continues the discussion of advances in the management of serious wound infections in horses, this time with the focus on wounds involving soft tissues. The preceding articles focused on wounds involving joints and other synovial structures 1,2 and wounds involving bone. 3 Wound infections can be a consi...
Preprint
Full-text available
The following terms are used to describe the position of individual body parts in relation to each other or to a body plane or axis. These terms are also used to describe the direction of movement or the perspective, particularly in diagnostic imaging (radiography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, etc.). As all of t...
Article
Full-text available
OBJECTIVE: To investigate a combination of apocynin and paeonol (APPA) as an alternative to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for the management of osteoarthritis (OA) in dogs. / METHODS: Sixty client-owned dogs with OA (n=20 per group) were randomised to receive oral meloxicam (0.1 mg/kg q24h), APPA (40 mg/kg q12h), or placebo for 4 we...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Acute, severe asthma exacerbations can be difficult to predict and thus prevent. Patients who have frequent exacerbations are of particular concern. Practical exacerbation predictors are needed for these patients in the primary-care setting. Patients and methods: Medical records of 130,547 asthma patients aged 12-80 years from the UK Op...
Article
Full-text available
Randomized controlled trials indicate that addition of a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) such as tiotropium may improve asthma control and reduce exacerbation risk in patients with poorly controlled asthma, but broader clinical studies are needed to investigate the effectiveness of LAMA in real-life asthma care. Medical records of adults w...
Article
Full-text available
To investigate the clinical and cost effectiveness of switching real-life asthma patients from other types of inhalers to the Easyhaler(®) (EH) for the administration of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). Historical, matched-cohort study of 1,958 asthma patients (children and adults) treated in UK primary-care practices, using data obtained from the Op...
Data
Potential confounders examined in the initial analysis. Notes: aThe equations of Roberts et al1 were used for patients >18 years of age and the equations of Rosenthal et al2 were used for patients 6–18 years of age; bas described by Aylin et al.3
Article
Full-text available
Background: Efficacy trials suggest that extra-fine particle beclometasone dipropionate-formoterol (efBDP-FOR) is comparable to fluticasone propionate-salmeterol (FP-SAL) in preventing asthma exacerbations at a clinically equivalent dosage. However, switching from FP-SAL to efBDP-FOR has not been evaluated in real-world asthma patients. Aims: The...
Article
Efficacy trials suggest that extra-fine particle beclometasone dipropionate-formoterol (efBDP-FOR) is comparable to fluticasone propionate-salmeterol (FP-SAL) in preventing asthma exacerbations at a clinically equivalent dosage. However, switching from FP-SAL to efBDP-FOR has not been evaluated in real-world asthma patients. The REACH (Real-world E...
Preprint
Full-text available
Last November, the 7th International Equine Conference on Laminitis and Diseases of the Foot was held in West Palm Beach, Florida. Veterinarians from many different countries convened once again with farriers and horse owners to discuss the latest research and on-going challenges in the treatment and prevention of laminitis. (For those who missed t...
Article
We examined 106 Thoroughbred (TB) and 51 Standardbred (SB) racehorses that were presented because of poor performance. All horses were in training and had raced within 2 weeks of presentation. Horses were acclimatised (2–4 runs) and tested on a treadmill set at a 10% slope. The exercise test consisted of 3 min at 4 m/s, 2 min at 6 m/s, then 1 min s...
Article
Full-text available
Acclimation to treadmill exercise and to a respiratory gas collection mask were studied in 3 groups of Thoroughbred or Standardbred horses. Heart rate and plasma lactate concentration were measured at rest and at the completion of each speed increment during a series of acclimating runs at 4, 6 and 8 m/s on a treadmill inclined at a 10% slope. No s...
Article
Although diet is only one of many factors that cause or contribute to the development of laminitis in horses, it is by far the most important overall. Thus, implementing the dietary strategies outlined in this paper can substantially decrease a horse’s laminitis risk. These strategies can be distilled into one simple phrase: less calories, more exe...
Article
Full-text available
Two groups of cattle were used in this study comparing injection site reactions caused by two commercial multivalent clostridial vaccines: product A (Bar-Vac 7; Anchor Laboratories) and product B (Vision 7 with Spur; Bayer Corporation). Injection procedure, bodyweight, injection reaction, and subcutaneous depth were considered. Significant differen...
Article
Full-text available
Rectal administration may be a very useful route for a variety of drugs in horses that are unwilling or unable to be medicated orally or parenterally. Metoclopramide and cisapride are both well absorbed rectally, and this may be used to advantage in cases of post-operative ileus and anterior enteritis. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are varia...
Article
Full-text available
In summary, the FE of electrolytes and minerals is a practical, inexpensive and useful diagnostic tool that may enable recognition of renal and metabofic problems before they progress to an extreme, severely debilitating degree. Published normal values vary widely, but several studies have demonstrated the clinical relevance of FE measurement in re...
Article
Full-text available
Various cardiorespiratory and metabolic indices were assessed during treadmill exercise in Thoroughbred and Standardbred racehorses with T wave changes in 4 or more leads on the electrocardiogram or second-degree atrio-ventricular (AV) block, and in horses that had no abnormalities on clinical examination, resting electrocardiography or upper respi...
Article
Full-text available
This paper is written as a review of, and guide to, the management of some emergency situations in an equine field service. It includes sections on group emergencies (community emergency preparedness, herd emergencies), trauma emergencies and procedures (sudden death, fracture first aid, splinting techniques, emergency kit, catheterization), medica...
Article
A standardised incremental exercise test was performed by 9 racehorses with idiopathic laryngeal hemiplegia (ILH), 1 horse with maxillary sinus cysts, 1 horse with epiglottic entrapment, 1 horse with a lesion on the vocal folds, and 1 horse with pharyngitis. Two of the horses with ILH were retested after laryngoplasty and ventriculectomy. The findi...
Article
Full-text available
In the main article on equine metabolic syndrome (aka insulin resistance), I mentioned in passing that sometimes thyroid hormone supplementation is used to assist in weight reduction with these overweight, laminitis-prone horses. In this article I thought I'd discuss that in a bit more detail. The thyroid gland First, a brief description of the thy...

Questions

Questions (3)
Question
Here's the problem: a recent study showed in vitro efficacy of ivermectin against several bovine respiratory viruses at a concentration of 5 uM. However, even knowing the molar mass of ivermectin, I seem to be out by a factor of 1,000 in my conversion to ng/ml, in my efforts to translate that in vitro concentration to what is achievable safely in vivo.
The molar mass of ivermectin is 875.1 g/mole.
So, 5 uM = 4,375.5 ug/L, does it not? (Here is where I think I'm getting messed up).
If so, that means the 5 uM concentration is equivalent to 4.38 ng/L, or 4.38 pg/ml.
Trouble is, the standard oral dose of ivermectin in horses, for example, yields a Cmax of around 20 ng/ml (range 8-40 ng/ml), which is about 4,500 times higher than what I've calculated from the 5 uM in vitro concentration.
(And yes, I am mathematically challenged :-)
Or is there really no correlation between in vitro and in vivo concentrations when discussing drug safety and efficacy?
If that's so, then where on earth do drug dosages come from?!
Thanks for any help you can provide.
Question
Just wondering whether topical spinosad would be effective for the control of sarcoptic mange in pet pigs.
Question
This morning (Monday, November 27, 2017) I was looking for papers on glyphosate and animal health. There were 1000+ publications listed for the search term "glyphosate" and 100+ listed when I added the search term "animal". I downloaded several papers, cut and copied several more abstracts, then I took a break. When I came back <2 hours later, there were 0 - i.e. ZERO! - publications listed for glyphosate. I checked my spelling (three times); I even closed ResearchGate and came back in and tried again. Still ZERO publications on glyphosate. What's going on?

Network

Cited By