Christine Susan B Grimmond

Christine Susan B Grimmond
University of Reading · Department of Meteorology

BSc (Hons), MSc, PhD

About

499
Publications
156,727
Reads
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24,668
Citations
Citations since 2016
162 Research Items
13470 Citations
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Introduction
- Urban meteorology, - Micrometeorology, - Boundary Layer Meteorology - Hydroclimatology Google scholar: -------------- Previously --- - King's College London - Indiana University -------------------------------------------------- Academic training: - University of Otago - University of British Columbia
Additional affiliations
August 2013 - present
University of Reading
Position
  • Professor (Full)
January 2012 - present
University of Gothenburg
Position
  • Göteborgs universitet
January 2006 - July 2013
King's College London
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Education
September 1981 - November 1988
February 1977 - November 1980
University of Otago
Field of study

Publications

Publications (499)
Article
Full-text available
A total of 20 urban neighbourhood-scale eddy covariance flux tower datasets are made openly available after being harmonized to create a 50 site–year collection with broad diversity in climate and urban surface characteristics. Variables needed as inputs for land surface models (incoming radiation, temperature, humidity, air pressure, wind and prec...
Article
Full-text available
The heterogenous structure of urban environments impacts interactions with radiation, and the intensity of urban-atmosphere exchanges. Numerical weather prediction (NWP) often characterizes the urban structure with an infinite street canyon, which does not capture the three-dimensional urban morphology realistically. Here, the SPARTACUS (Speedy Alg...
Article
Full-text available
During March–June 2017 emissions of nitrogen oxides were measured via eddy covariance at the British Telecom Tower in central London, UK. Through the use of a footprint model the expected emissions were simulated from the spatially resolved National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory for 2017 and compared with the measured emissions. These simulated e...
Preprint
Full-text available
Twenty urban neighbourhood-scale eddy covariance flux tower datasets have been harmonized and quality controlled, producing a 50 site-year collection with broad diversity in climate and urban surface characteristics. Observations are gap-filled and prepended with 10 years of reanalysis-derived local data to enable use as spin up and forcing for lan...
Article
Full-text available
Pollutant dispersion by a tall-building cluster within a low-rise neighbourhood of Beijing is investigated using both full-scale Large-Eddy Simulation and water flume experiments at 1:2400 model-to-full scale with Particle Image Velocimetry and Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence. The Large-Eddy Simulation and flume results of this realistic test cas...
Article
Given extensive and rapid urbanization globally, assessing regional urban thermal effects (UTE) in both canopy and boundary layers under extreme weather/climate conditions is of significant interest. Rapid population and economic growth in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) have made it one of the largest city clusters in China. Here, we explore the thr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Informal settlements host around a quarter of the global population according to UN-Habitat. They exist in urban contexts all over the world, in various forms and typologies, dimensions, locations and by a range of names (squatter settlements, favelas, poblaciones, shacks, barrios bajos, bidonvilles, slums). While urban informality is more present...
Article
Full-text available
Buildings are a major source of anthropogenic heat emissions, impacting energy use and human health in cities. The difference in magnitude and time lag between building energy consumption and building anthropogenic heat emission is poorly quantified. Energy consumption (QEC) is a widely used proxy for the anthropogenic heat flux from buildings (QF,...
Article
Full-text available
To compare the impact of surface-atmosphere exchanges from rural and urban areas, fully vegetated areas (e.g. deciduous trees, evergreen trees and grass) commonly found adjacent to cities need to be modelled. Here we provide a general workflow to derive parameters for SUEWS (Surface Urban Energy and Water Balance Scheme), including those associated...
Article
Full-text available
Can we improve the modeling of urban land surface processes with machine learning (ML)? A prior comparison of urban land surface models (ULSMs) found that no single model is “best” at predicting all common surface fluxes. Here, we develop an urban neural network (UNN) trained on the mean predicted fluxes from 22 ULSMs at one site. The UNN emulates...
Article
Urban heat island (UHI) and sea–land-breeze systems are well-known and important characteristics of the climate of coastal cities. To model these, the accurate estimation of the surface energy balance (SEB) is a key factor needed to improve local-scale simulations of thermodynamic and dynamic boundary circulations. The Weather Research and Forecast...
Article
Full-text available
Sensors that measure the attenuated backscatter coefficient (e.g. automatic lidars and ceilometers, ALC) provide information on aerosols which can impact urban climate and citizen health. To design an observational network of ALC sensors for supporting data assimilation, and improve prediction of urban weather and air quality, a methodology is need...
Preprint
Full-text available
Measurements of radiative and turbulent heat fluxes for 16 months in suburban Miyun with a mix of buildings and agriculture allows the changing role of these fluxes to be assessed. Daytime turbulent latent heat fluxes (QE) are largest in summer and smaller in winter, consistent with the net all wave radiation (Q*). Whereas, the daytime sensible hea...
Preprint
Full-text available
During March–June 2017 emissions of nitrogen oxides were measured via eddy covariance at the British Telecom Tower in central London, UK. Through the use of a footprint model the expected emissions were simulated from the spatially resolved National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory for 2017, and compared with the measured emissions. These simulated...
Preprint
Full-text available
Can we improve the modeling of urban land surface processes with machine learning (ML)? A prior comparison of urban land surface models (ULSMs) found that no single model is 'best' at predicting all common surface fluxes. Here, we develop an urban neural network (UNN) trained on the mean predicted fluxes from 22 ULSMs at one site. The UNN emulates...
Article
Full-text available
Cities are key to climate change mitigation and adaptation in an increasingly urbanized world. As climate, socio-economic, and physical compositions of cities are constantly changing, these need to be considered in their urban climate adaptation. To identify these changes, urban systems can be characterized by physical, functional, and social indic...
Article
Full-text available
Cities are a source of complex land--atmosphere interactions. Spatial differences in the energy balance and enhanced surface roughness interact with the atmosphere to alter clouds and precipitation. Here, we explore how London (UK) alters cloud formation during the spring and summer. The Met Office's high-resolution operational forecasts predict en...
Preprint
Full-text available
Buildings are a major source of anthropogenic heat emissions, impacting energy use and human health in cities. The difference between building energy consumption and building anthropogenic heat emission magnitudes and time lag and are poorly quantified. Energy consumption (QEC) is a widely used proxy for the anthropogenic heat flux from buildings (...
Article
Despite inter-building longwave radiative exchanges playing an important role in determining building energy and environmental performance, simulation tools (e.g. EnergyPlus) simplify this by assuming the surface temperature of surrounding buildings to be equal to the air temperature, and therefore cause bias. Here we propose a ‘spin-up’ approach t...
Article
Full-text available
Information on the spatiotemporal characteristics of Beijing's urban–rural near-surface air temperature difference, known as the canopy layer urban heat island (UHI), is important for future urban climate management strategies. This paper investigates the variation of near-surface air temperatures within Beijing at a neighbourhood-scale resolution...
Article
Full-text available
A recently developed, height‐distributed urban drag parameterization is tested with the London Model, a sub‐kilometre resolution version of the Met Office Unified Model over Greater London. The distributed drag parameterization requires vertical morphology profiles in form of height‐distributed frontal area functions, which capture the full extent...
Article
Despite building energy use being one of the largest global energy consumers, building energy simulations rarely take the actual local neighbourhood scale climate into account. A new globally applicable approach is proposed to support buildings energy design. ERA5 (European Centre Reanalysis version 5) data are used with SUEWS (Surface Urban Energy...
Poster
Full-text available
The presence of tall buildings in cities affects momentum and scalar exchange within and above the urban canopy. As wake effects can be important over large distances, they are crucial for urban flow and dispersion modelling on and across different spatial scales. Building-wake models used in air quality and pollutant dispersion models are based on...
Article
Quantitative knowledge of the water and energy exchanges in agroecosystems is vital for irrigation management and modeling crop production. In this study, the seasonal and annual variabilities of evapotranspiration ( ET ) and energy exchanges were investigated under two different crop environments – flooded and aerobic soil conditions – using three...
Article
Full-text available
Isoprene is the most important biogenic volatile organic compound in the atmosphere. Its calculated impact on ozone (O3) is critically dependent on the model isoprene oxidation chemical scheme, in particular the way the isoprene-derived organic nitrates (IN) are treated. By combining gas chromatography with mass spectrometry, we have developed a sy...
Article
Full-text available
Beijing has been suffering from frequent severe air pollution events, with concentrations affected significantly by the mixed-layer height. Major efforts have been made to study the physico-chemical properties, compositions, and sources of aerosol particles at ground level. However, little is known about the morphology, elemental composition, and m...
Article
Full-text available
Measurements of OH, HO2, complex RO2 (alkene- and aromatic-related RO2) and total RO2 radicals taken during the integrated Study of AIR Pollution PROcesses in Beijing (AIRPRO) campaign in central Beijing in the summer of 2017, alongside observations of OH reactivity, are presented. The concentrations of radicals were elevated, with OH reaching up t...
Article
Full-text available
Measurements of OH, HO2, complex RO2 (alkene- and aromatic-related RO2) and total RO2 radicals taken during the integrated Study of AIR Pollution PROcesses in Beijing (AIRPRO) campaign in central Beijing in the summer of 2017, alongside observations of OH reactivity, are presented. The concentrations of radicals were elevated, with OH reaching up t...
Article
Full-text available
Ensemble runs of high‐resolution (~10 km; N1280) global climate simulations (2005–2010) with the Met Office HadGEM3 model are analysed over large urban areas in the south‐east UK (London) and south‐east China (Shanghai, Hangzhou, Nanjing region). With a focus on urban areas, we compare meteorological observations to study the response of modelled s...
Article
The formation of isoprene nitrates (IsN) can lead to significant secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production and they can act as reservoirs of atmospheric nitrogen oxides. In this work, we estimate the rate of production of IsN from the reactions of isoprene with OH and NO3 radicals during the summertime in Beijing. While OH dominates the loss of is...
Article
Full-text available
Black carbon (BC) forms an important component of particulate matter globally, due to its impact on climate, the environment and human health. Identifying and quantifying its emission sources are critical for effective policymaking and achieving the desired reduction in air pollution. In this study, we present the first direct measurements of urban...
Article
Full-text available
Ground based thermal cameras are used to observe urban surface temperatures (Ts) with an unprecedented combination of: temporal and spatial resolution (5 min and ~ 0.5 m → 2.5 m), spatial extent (3.9 ha), instrument number (6 static cameras) and surface heterogeneity (mixed high rise and vegetation). Unsupervised classification of images by geometr...
Chapter
This chapter describes a new World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) approach to the provision of science-based services to assist the planning of safe, healthy, resilient and climate-friendly cities. The approach is outlined in full in the WMO Guidance on Integrated Urban Hydrometeorological, Climate and Environmental Services. Volume I, Concepts...
Article
The formation of isoprene nitrates (IsN) can lead to significant secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production and they can act as reservoirs of atmospheric nitrogen oxides. In this work, we estimate the rate of production of IsN from the reactions of isoprene with OH and NO3 radicals during the summertime in Beijing. While OH dominates the loss of is...
Preprint
Full-text available
Beijing has been suffering from frequent severe air pollution events, with concentrations affected significantly by the mixed layer height. Major efforts have been made to study the physico-chemical properties, composition, and sources of aerosol particles at ground level. However, little is known on morphology, elemental composition, and mixing st...
Article
Full-text available
Focusing on commercial office real estate as both a manifestation of and a conduit of cross-border capital flows, this paper refers to the concepts of topology and topography in a theoretical and empirical exploration of contemporary ‘network economy’ spatial implications for the ‘polycentric urban region’ (PUR). A body of research has cast doubt on...
Preprint
Full-text available
Information on the spatiotemporal characteristics of Beijing's urban-rural near-surface air temperature difference, known as the canopy layer urban heat island (UHI), is important for future urban climate management strategies. This paper investigates the variation of near-surface air temperatures within Beijing at a neighbourhood-scale resolution...
Article
Full-text available
Thermal emissions – or anthropogenic heat fluxes (QF) – from human activities impact urban climates at a local and larger scale. DASH considers both urban form and function in simulating QF through the use of an agent-based structure that includes behavioural characteristics of urban residents. This allows human activities to drive the calculation...
Article
Full-text available
A detailed understanding of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) processes is key to improve forecasting of pollution dispersion and cloud dynamics in the context of future climate scenarios. International networks of automatic lidars and ceilometers (ALC) are gathering valuable data that allow for the height of the ABL and its sublayers to be derived...
Article
Full-text available
Two urban schemes within the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) are evaluated offline against multi-year flux observations in the densely built-up city centre of London and in suburban Swindon (UK): (i) the 1-tile slab model, used in climate simulations; (ii) the 2-tile canopy model MORUSES (Met Office–Reading Urban Surface Exchange Scheme...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Sri Lanka experiences severe overheating risk that affect the health of its population. The risk of overheating is the outcome of inappropriate urban and building design and can be further exacerbated by heatwaves. Some South-Asian countries have implemented national management action plans for heatwaves. However, such resilient warning systems for...
Preprint
Full-text available
Measurements of OH, HO2, RO2-complex (alkene and aromatic-related RO2) and total RO2 radicals taken during the AIRPRO campaign in central Beijing in the summer of 2017, alongside observations of OH reactivity are presented. The concentrations of radicals were elevated with OH reaching up to 2.8 × 107 molecule cm−3, HO2 peaked at 1 × 109 molecule cm...
Article
Full-text available
Air quality in cities is influenced not only by the emissions and chemical transformations but also by the physical state of the atmosphere which varies both temporally and spatially. Increasingly, tall buildings (TB) are common features of the urban landscape, yet their impact is not well understood on urban air flow and dispersion, and their effe...
Article
Full-text available
The single layer urban canopy model TEB (Town Energy Balance) is coupled to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model (WRF-TEB). The main conceptual, technical, and testing methodologies are discussed, and a Singularity image to achieve Practical Computational Reproducibility (PCR) on local, and high-performance computing (HPC) systems is pr...
Article
Full-text available
Urban canopy models (UCMs) are parametrization schemes which are used to improve weather forecast in urban areas. The performance of UCMs depends on understanding potential uncertainty sources that can generally originate from the: a) urban surface parameters, b) atmospheric forcing and c) physical description. Here, we investigate the relative imp...
Article
Full-text available
Direct measurements of NOx, CO and aromatic volatile organic compound (VOC) (benzene, toluene, C2-benzenes and C3-benzenes) flux were made for a central area of Beijing using the eddy-covariance technique. Measurements were made during two intensive field campaigns in central Beijing as part of the Air Pollution and Human Health (APHH) project, the...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper extends the applicability of the SUEWS (Surface [Urban] Energy and Water Balance Scheme) to extensive pervious areas (deciduous trees, evergreen trees, grass, croplands, soil and water) outside cities. It can be used either offline or online (i.e., coupled to weather/climate models). The required parameters to simulate the turbulent late...
Preprint
Full-text available
Black carbon (BC) forms an important component of particulate matter globally, due to its impact on climate, the environment, and human health. Identifying and quantifying its emission sources is critical for effective policymaking and achieving the desired reduction in air pollution. In this study, we present the first direct measurements of urban...
Article
Full-text available
The storage heat flux (ΔQS) is the net flow of heat stored within a volume that may include the air, trees, buildings and ground. Given the difficulty of measurement of this important and large flux in urban areas, we explore the use of Earth Observation (EO) data. EO surface temperatures are used with ground-based meteorological forcing, urban mor...
Article
Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of neutral flow over regular arrays of cuboids are conducted to explore connections between momentum (z0m) and scalar (z0s) roughness lengths in urban environments, and how they are influenced by surface geometry. As LES resolves the obstacles but not the micro‐scale boundary layers attached to them, the aforementioned...
Preprint
Full-text available
Abstract. Thermal emissions or anthropogenic heat fluxes ( Q <sub>F</sub>) from human activities impact the local and larger scales urban climate. DASH considers both urban form and function in simulating Q <sub>F</sub> by use of an agent-based structure that includes behavioural characteristics of city populations. This allows social practices to...
Article
Integrated Urban hydrometeorological, climate and environmental Services (IUS) is a WMO initiative to aid development of science-based services to support safe, healthy, resilient and climate friendly cities. Guidance for Integrated Urban Hydrometeorological, Climate and Environmental Services (Volume I) has been developed with the intent to provid...
Article
Full-text available
We examine the street-scale variation of NOx, NO2, O3 and PM2.5 concentrations in Beijing during the Atmospheric Pollution and Human Health in a Chinese Megacity (APHH-China) winter measurement campaign in November–December 2016. Simulations are performed using the urban air pollution dispersion and chemistry model ADMS-Urban and an explicit networ...
Article
Full-text available
Urban catchments are characterized by a wide variety of complex juxtapositions and surface compositions that are linked to multiple overland flow paths. Their extremely high spatial heterogeneity leads to great sensitivity of hydrologic simulation to the scale variation of calculation units. Although extensive efforts have been made for investigati...