Christina Bax

Christina Bax
University of Pennsylvania | UP · Department of Medicine

Doctor of Medicine

About

43
Publications
274,903
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2,122
Citations

Publications

Publications (43)
Article
Full-text available
Speech droplets generated by asymptomatic carriers of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are increasingly considered to be a likely mode of disease transmission. Highly sensitive laser light scattering observations have revealed that loud speech can emit thousands of oral fluid droplets per second. In a closed, stagnant ai...
Preprint
Full-text available
The science around the use of masks by the general public to impede COVID-19 transmission is advancing rapidly. Policymakers need guidance on how masks should be used by the general population to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we synthesize the relevant literature to inform multiple areas: 1) transmission characteristics of COVID-19, 2) filter...
Article
Full-text available
Background Lenabasum is a cannabinoid type 2 receptor (CB2R) reverse agonist that demonstrates anti-inflammatory effects in vivo and in vitro in dermatomyositis (DM) and is currently being investigated for therapeutic potential. The purpose of our study is to investigate CB2R distribution as well as the effects of lenabasum in DM. Methods Immunohi...
Article
Pemphigus vulgaris is an autoimmune blistering disease characterized by autoantibodies that target desmoglein adhesion proteins. Rituximab and corticosteroids are FDA-approved therapies for pemphigus vulgaris. As newer treatments for pemphigus enter clinical trials, analysis of clinical and serologic outcomes after rituximab therapy as a function o...
Article
Disseminated Lyme disease requires treatment to prevent severe sequelae, particularly neurologic. We report here a case of disseminated Lyme disease in a patient with skin of color. Pediatric dermatologists must maintain a high clinical suspicion for Lyme disease and be aware of how typical cutaneous findings may appear differently in skin of color...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid bilayer membrane vesicles that are present in various bodily fluids and have been implicated in autoimmune disease pathogenesis. Type I interferons (IFN), specifically IFN-β, are uniquely elevated in dermatomyositis (DM). The stimulator of interferon genes (STING) works as a critical nucleic acid s...
Article
The use of herbal supplements that promise to improve immune health has gained popularity among dermatology patients. However, there is little to no evidence that herbal supplements improve dermatological conditions. Several in vitro and in vivo studes have shown that Spirulina platensis, Aphanizomenon flos-aqua, Chlorella, Echinacea, and alfalfa a...
Article
Dermatomyositis (DM) is an autoimmune disease that affects the skin, lungs, and muscle. Although the pathogenesis of DM is not completely understood, several environmental triggers have been linked to DM onset or flare. This article specifically examines the effects of herbal supplements, drugs, infections, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and environme...
Article
Dermatomyositis (DM) is a rare, systemic autoimmune disease that most frequently affects the skin, muscles, and lungs. The inflammatory infiltrate in skin has not been fully characterized and in this study we took an single cell, unbiased approach by using Imaging mass cytometry (IMC). Substantial monocyte-macrophage diversity was observed with the...
Article
Full-text available
The science around the use of masks by the public to impede COVID-19 transmission is advancing rapidly. In this narrative review, we develop an analytical framework to examine mask usage, synthesizing the relevant literature to inform multiple areas: population impact, transmission characteristics, source control, wearer protection, sociological co...
Article
Background/Objectives Head and neck dermatitis after dupilumab therapy for atopic dermatitis has been frequently reported in adults and only rarely in adolescents. No cases detailing disease course and treatment response have previously been described in adolescents. Methods/Results This case series presents five adolescent patients who developed...
Article
A 57‐year‐old African American woman presented to dermatology following a two‐year history of a pruritic rash initially involving the face which later progressed to her forearms, back, ears, dorsal hands, and abdomen. Physical exam revealed erythematous papules overlying the metacarpal and interphalangeal joints, periungual telangiectasias, periorb...
Article
Pemphigus is a rare and severe autoimmune bullous disease. To evaluate treatment regimens across multiple centers, an objective and universal disease severity index is necessary.¹ The Pemphigus Disease Area Index (PDAI) is considered gold‐standard for clinical trials;1‐3 however, there are conflicting recommendations regarding cut‐off values for mi...
Preprint
Full-text available
The science around the use of masks by the general public to impede COVID-19 transmission is advancing rapidly. Policymakers need guidance on how masks should be used by the general population to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. In this narrative review, we develop an analytical framework to examine mask usage, considering and synthesizing the relevan...
Article
Full-text available
SESSION INFORMATION Background/Purpose: Dermatomyositis (DM) is an acquired in ammatory myopathy characterized by chronic skin in ammation. The pathogenesis of DM is still unclear. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid bilayer membrane vesicles existing in various bodily uids and implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. As type I int...
Article
With the increase in pemphigus vulgaris (PV) clinical trials and treatments, it is imperative to establish validated outcome measures. Although prior studies have shown that quality of life (QoL) improves when disease severity decreases, it is unknown whether partial clearance (e.g. in dermatomyositis or systemic lupus erythematosus) or complete cl...
Article
Today, parents are warned to protect their children from the sun's ultraviolet (UV) rays, the most preventable and leading cause of skin cancer. Yet, during the first half of the 20th century, the medical community widely extolled the health benefits of daily sunbaths for babies and children. What initially had begun as evidence-based medical thera...
Preprint
Full-text available
The science around the use of masks by the general public to impede COVID-19 transmission is advancing rapidly. Policymakers need guidance on how masks should be used by the general population to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. In this narrative review, we develop an analytical framework to examine mask usage, considering and synthesizing the relevan...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Dermatomyositis (DM) is an acquired inflammatory myopathy characterized by chronic skin inflammation. The pathogenesis of DM is still unclear. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid bilayer membrane vesicles existing in various bodily fluids and implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. As type I interferons, specifically IFN-b, are un...
Preprint
Full-text available
The science around the use of masks by the general public to impede COVID-19 transmission is advancing rapidly. Policymakers need guidance on how masks should be used by the general population to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. Here,we develop an analytical framework to examine an overlooked aspect of mask usage: masks as source-control targeting egr...
Preprint
Full-text available
Speaking may be a primary mode of transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Considering that reports of asymptomatic transmission account for 50-80% of COVID-19 cases and that saliva has peak viral loads at time of patient presentation, droplet emission while speaking could be a significant factor driving transmission and warrants further study. We used a planar...
Article
Full-text available
To characterize factors associated with adverse neonatal outcomes in prenatally diagnosed omphalocele cases. Prenatally diagnosed omphalocele cases at a single referral center from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical variables and antenatal imaging measurements were collected. Associations between prenatal and...
Article
Every 2.5 seconds, somewhere in the world a Tupperware party is taking place; women meet in each other's houses to sell Tupperware, colorful plastic containers, to their friends. They are part of Tupperware's global sales force of almost two million in one hundred countries, generating sales of $2.2 billion in 2008. This is the legacy of Brownie Wi...

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