Christian Wolkersdorfer

Christian Wolkersdorfer
Tshwane University of Technology | tut · Department of Environmental Water and Earth Science

Prof. Dr. rer. nat. habil. Dipl.-Geol.

About

244
Publications
72,594
Reads
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1,729
Citations
Additional affiliations
June 2014 - December 2018
Lappeenranta – Lahti University of Technology LUT
Position
  • Professor
January 2014 - present
Tshwane University of Technology
Position
  • Chair
September 2008 - February 2012
Cape Breton University
Position
  • Industrial Research Chair for Mine Water Management

Publications

Publications (244)
Article
Full-text available
Water treatment plants need to stock chemicals and have enough energy as well as human resources to operate reliably. To avoid a process interruption, proper planning of these resources is imperative. Therefore, a scientifically based, practical tool to predict and forecast relevant water parameters will help plant operators to know in advance whic...
Article
Full-text available
Mining activities within the Witwatersrand Basin, South Africa, have led to many studies, particularly focusing on the generation of acid mine drainage (AMD) in the basin and the associated environmental effects. This study assesses whether gypsum in the Whitehill Formation is connected to acid rock drainage (ARD) resulting from reactions between t...
Preprint
This study demonstrates the importance of using a holistic, multidisciplinary approach involving remote sensing, structural field studies and vertical electrical soundings for the identification and hydrogeological characterization of lineaments in a Pan-African orogenic belt exemplified by the Akak peri-urban area, in the North-East of Yaoundé in...
Article
Full-text available
To assess the potential risk of Mining Influenced Water (MIW) contaminating the “Cradle of Humankind” Unesco World Heritage site (“Fossil Hominid Sites of South Africa”), flow measurements were conducted in the Tweelopiespruit, a stream influenced by treated mine water from abandoned gold mines in the Witwatersrand gold fields (South Africa). A pos...
Article
Layering of water bodies with different physico-chemical properties is called stratification. This physical effect is known from lakes or oceans but also occurs in flooded underground mines and has been studied in the past. This review gives a summary of the investigation methods, flow dynamics, stratification development and breakdown. Furthermore...
Article
Full-text available
Study region This article contributes to understanding processes occurring in long-time abandoned, shallow and unremediated mining lakes exemplified by the Colorful Lakes near Wieściszowice, Southwest Poland. Study focus Temporal and spatial water chemistry variation and stable isotopic composition has been investigated in two sampling campaigns i...
Method
Full-text available
There is limited research on the application of digital technologies at mine sites for treating and managing mine water. Christian Wolkersdorfer and Kagiso Samuel More – part of the South African Research Chair Initiative (SARChI) for mine water management at Tshwane University of Technology (TUT) – have identified theories and frameworks that can...
Article
There is limited research on the application of digital technologies at mine sites for treating and managing mine water. Christian Wolkersdorfer and Kagiso More – part of the South African Research Chair Initiative (SARChI) for mine water management at Tshwane University of Technology (TUT) – have identified theories and frameworks that can ‘smartl...
Book
Full-text available
Diese Broschüre will Ihnen auf wenigen Seiten Einblicke in die wichtigsten Aspekte zum Thema Grubenwasser und Grubenflutung geben. Sie leitet Ihre Aufmerksamkeit auf verschiedene Sachverhalte, die Sie aus unterschiedlichen Blickwinkeln betrachten können. Jeder Abschnitt ist unabhängig von den anderen lesbar. Mit der Broschüre wollen wir ein Verstän...
Chapter
Full-text available
Mining activities require the management of water resources in the surface and underground watersheds. Mining is the extraction of raw materials from the earth’s crust by construction of surface openings (open pits, shafts, adits, inclines), the extraction of raw materials from the host rock by means of treatment plants, the dumping of residues in...
Chapter
Was Sie tun können, wenn Sie Ihr Grubenwasser eines Tages ausreichend gereinigt haben oder was, wenn Ihr Bergwerk saniert ist, beschreibt Kap. 7. Am Ende bleiben Ihnen das ehemalige Bergwerksgelände und die Abfallstoffe einer Grubenwasserreinigung. Welche Optionen Sie haben, Ihr Bergwerk oder das Bergwerksgelände einer Nachnutzung zuzuführen ist Ke...
Chapter
Kapitel 4 stellt Ihnen acht bekannte passive Methoden vor, mit denen Sie Grubenwasser reinigen können. Sie erfahren, worum es sich bei passiver Grubenwasserreinigung handelt. Zudem finden Sie ein Ablaufschema, mit dem Sie entscheiden können, welche passive Grubenwasserreinigung für ein bestimmtes Grubenwasser geeignet sein könnte. Anhand zahlreiche...
Chapter
Kapitel 5 beschreibt unterschiedliche Methoden, die nicht generell als aktiv oder passiv bezeichnet werden können. Sie lassen sich vor allem dann anwenden, wenn ganz spezielle Verhältnisse vorliegen oder wenn schon vor dem Anlegen eines neuen Bergwerks an dessen Ende gedacht wird. Drei Methoden werden vorgestellt: natürliche Selbstreinigung, Änderu...
Chapter
Eine Reise endet hier – vorerst! Ergebnis der Recherchen ist, dass Grubenwasser weltweit gesehen einen der volumenmäßig größten Schadstoffströme darstellt, aber nicht in jedem Fall kontaminiert ist. Tausende Kilometer an Gewässern, ausgedehnte Flächen in Naturschutzgebieten und unzählige Grundwasserleiter sind durch saures oder (halb-)metallhaltige...
Chapter
Im Kap. 2 erfahren Sie, welche Untersuchungen erforderlich sind, um die physiko-chemischen Verhältnisse Ihres Grubenwassers zu verstehen. Dies beginnt bei der Probenahme von Grubenwasser und leitet über zu den wichtigen Parametern, mit denen Sie Ihre Wasserqualität beurteilen können. Es schließt mit einigen Möglichkeiten, Ihre Erkenntnisse aus den...
Chapter
Zwölf aktive Methoden zur Reinigung von Grubenwasser bilden den Kern des Kap. 3. Sie folgen keiner speziellen Ordnung, außer das am Anfang das derzeit häufigste Verfahren steht, gleich danach das, was künftig hoffentlich häufiger zu sehen sein wird und am Ende die meines Erachtens interessanteste Methode. Ich habe bei jeder Methode möglichst viel z...
Chapter
Im sechsten Kapitel des Buchs werden in-situ und vor-Ort-Methoden zur Behandlung von Grubenwasser dargelegt. Es ist eine Sammlung verschiedenster Verfahren, die sich nicht als klassische End-of-the-pipe-Methoden bezeichnen lassen, sondern die direkt am Grubenwasser selbst ansetzen oder noch bevor kontaminiertes Grubenwasser entsteht. Schwerpunkt bi...
Book
Dieses Buch begleitet Sie auf einer Reise, die bei den Grundlagen von Grubenwasser beginnt und Sie weiter über die korrekte Probenahme für eine Planung bis hin zu den aktiven und passiven Reinigungssystemen führt. In den jeweiligen Kapiteln erfahren Sie die wichtigsten Techniken über die zu messenden Parameter (z.B. Vor-Ort-Parameter, Durchfluss),...
Chapter
This section illustrates mining influenced water and its interaction with lakes, waterways and the ground water. It describes the evolution of mine water, its precipitation and the measures taken to purify polluted mine water by means of active or passive treatment as well as natural attenuation. One part of this section focuses on several mine typ...
Chapter
This chapter describes case studies about pollution sources, tailings dam failures and potential remediation options in rivers/streams. These case studies are supported with images of mining influenced water courses. All the sites described in the case studies are in mining areas of outstanding importance to human's mining history or point to minin...
Article
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung Zum Ende des Jahres 2018 wurde in Deutschland der Steinkohlenbergbau eingestellt. Damit beginnt auch in den bis zuletzt aktiven Revieren die Phase des Nachbergbaus inklusive einer dauerhaften Wasserhaltung. Diese beinhaltet typischerweise eine teilweise Grubenflutung und die Ableitung von Grubenwasser in nahegelegene Vorfluter. Im B...
Article
Numerous travellers and scientists since the 1st Century B.C. unsuccessfully searched for the hot and cold springs of Troia (Troy)/Turkey mentioned in Homer’s epic poem Iliad. It was therefore suggested that over time, the hot spring might have disappeared after an earthquake. This investigation uses geological, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical...
Book
Recent developments have provided the opportunity to recover valuable materials from AMD treatment; this is a sustainable approach that allows to reduce waste while generating incomes that balance the cost of the treatment. This books provide insights to innovative and affordable routes for AMD valorisation that can certainly motivate the mining in...
Article
Full-text available
There is limited research on the application of digital technologies at mine sites for treating and managing polluted mine water. This review will identify underlying models, theories and frameworks applied to the mines, and used to “smartly” treat and manage mine water. The aim is to provide informed details about these technologies in order to mo...
Article
Full-text available
"Long-term groundwater level analysis, which is usually based on traditionally defined hydrological years is essential in an era of global warming and other climatic and environmental changes, especially in urban areas. A complex interplay of multiple factors influencing the groundwater level makes the investigation of their interdependencies a cha...
Article
Full-text available
Coal mine drainage (CMD) negatively affects aquatic ecosystems around the world. This article presents the current state of regulatory guidelines and discharge limits established for selected parameters of concern in CMD: specific conductance (SC), SO42−, and Mn. Though not exhaustive, this review provides a representative snapshot of the existing...
Book
Full-text available
Anlass dieser Zusammenstellung von Reinigungsverfahren für Grubenwasser war das Deutsch-Tschechische Gemeinschaftsprojekt VODAMIN. Dieses hatte sich zum Ziel gesetzt, die Auswirkungen der Bergbauaktivitäten auf die Wasserqualität von Grund- und Oberflächenwässern zu untersuchen. Innerhalb des Arbeitspaketes 4 sollten Reinigungsverfahren für Grubenw...
Article
Full-text available
This paper summarizes international state-of-the-art applications and opportunities for employing and deploying hydrological, geochemical, and isotopic tools in an integrated manner for investigations of mining operations. It is intended to aid formulation of more integrated approaches for evaluating the overall sustainability of mining projects. T...
Article
Full-text available
This paper summarizes international state-of-the-art applications and opportunities for employing and deploying hydrological , geochemical, and isotopic tools in an integrated manner for investigations of mining operations. It is intended to aid formulation of more integrated approaches for evaluating the overall sustainability of mining projects....
Article
Full-text available
Nitrate reduction was optimized in water from the Siilinjärvi mine site with iron powder and iron nanoparticles. Iron waste from a mold machining industry was then tested as a potential alternative. Complete reduction of nitrate from the mine water was achieved with the iron powder and nanoparticles at pH 2. The iron waste, though less efficient, s...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
South African mine water might contain several harmful contaminants such as, but not limited to vanadium. therefore, this study described the development and application of a newly developed banana peel nano-adsorbent (BPN) for the removal of vanadium from synthetic water. e adsorbent was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Four...
Article
Full-text available
This study describes the preparation, characterisation and application of pelletised immobilised alginate/montmorillonite/banana peels nanocomposite (BPNC) in a fixed-bed column for continuous adsorption of rare earth elements and radioactive minerals from water. The materials was characterised by Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction and s...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper outlines the development of a mine water management system using "smart" technology. It will provide the mining industry with many advantages in mine water treatment and management, as it integrates the fourth industrial revolution in its system, such as nano-electric sensors being installed almost everywhere in the mine to monitor real...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Water bodies can differentiate based on their physicochemical properties resulting in stratification. Where stratification occurs, water with better quality is usually closer to the surface than higher mineralized water of worse quality. The authors investigate if stratification in flooded underground mines can be used as a passive in-situ remediat...
Article
Full-text available
The Fernpass rockslide occurred about 4100 years ago and is one of the largest rock slope failures in the Alps, the run-out area being characterized by a hummocky surface with Toma Hills that were formed after the rockslide event. These hills, characterized by a cone-like shape with a flattened top, are typical for many rockslides, and the name “To...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The flooding of underground mines is a process which has been known for many years and has been investigated since mines reached a certain depth. Stratification in a flooded mine is the formation of layered water bodies with different physicochemical properties and is a natural phenomenon described by several authors. Focusing on underground mines,...
Chapter
Acid rock drainage (ARD) is a sustainability problem in the mining industry, which requires considerable efforts for its management. This paper addresses the environmental, social and economic issues associated with ARD prevention and assessment. Although hydrological and mineralogical tools have been generally used in these two managerial parts of...
Article
Sulfate removal from mine or process water is a key issue in the mining industry. In this paper, precipitation with lime (calcium oxide) was integrated with electrocoagulation for sulfate removal from Pyhäsalmi/Finland mine water. Sulfate precipitation with calcium oxide decreased the sulfate concentration from 13,000 mg/L to 1600 mg/L. Various cur...
Technical Report
Final Report prepared for International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Technical Meeting (TM) on the Development of Guidelines for the Integrated Use of Hydrological, Geophysical and Isotope Tools in Mining Operations (Vienna, Austria, 25 - 28 June 2018). 61pp.
Book
Full-text available
Im vorliegende Glossar werden 473 Begriffe aus dem weiten Feld der bergmännischen Wasserwirtschaft behandelt. Darin werden im Wesentlichen die folgenden Aspekte beleuchtet: Hydrogeologische Grundbegriffe, Hydrogeochemische Grundbegriffe Bergbauliche Grundbegriffe Rechtliche Begrifflichkeit Grubenwasserhydraulik Pumpentechnik Wasserhaltung Grubenwas...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Die hier vorgestellte Studie befasst sich mit der analogen Modellierung von Tomahügeln des Fernpassbergsturzes im Labormaßstab. Tomahügel sind charakteristische Landschaftsformen bei zahlreichen Felsstürzen, und bislang wurden im Wesentlichen vier Hypothesen für die Entstehung von Tomahügeln vorgeschlagen: • Transport von Bergsturzmaterial auf eine...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Mit Schließung der letzten beiden Zechen im Dezember 2018 endet der jahrhundertlange Steinkohlenbergbau in Deutschland vorerst. Es ist geplant, den Grubenwasserspiegel im untertägigen Grubengebäude großflächig im Ruhrgebiet, in Ibbenbüren und an der Saar ansteigen zu lassen. In zahlreichen stillgelegten Bergbaurevieren in Deutschland und Europa ist...
Article
Electrocoagulation was used for uranium removal from Pyhäsalmi, Finland mine water. The effect of the electrode type, current density and reaction time was investigated and the removal efficiency, isotherms and kinetic data were calculated. Finally, the process was optimized with the response surface methodology (RSM) and statistically significant...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study focuses on Toma Hills that were formed after the occurrence of the Fernpass rock slide in Tyrol, Austria. These Hills are typical for many rockslides and the name "Toma" is derived from the local dialects in Switzerland and Tyrol, Austria. So far, four hypotheses have been proposed for the formation of Toma Hills: • Transportation of ro...
Article
This study focuses on the performance of nanostructured banana peels in lanthanide-laden mine water treatment. Specifically, nanostructure formation via mechanical milling, characterization in detail and application of this sorbent media in rare earth elements (REEs) removal from synthetic and real mine water are thoroughly investigated. The sorben...
Article
Full-text available
Montmorillonite modified with hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide was used to remove vanadium (V) from synthetic and real mine water. Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterise the adsorbent before and after adsorption, while the amount of V adsorbed was determined by ICP-OES. Batch adso...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Acid mine drainage issues have been a cause for worldwide concern. This study assessed the potential of the Whitehill Formation as an analogue to the acid mine drainage issues in the Witwatersrand, South Africa. Evaluation of the Whitehill Formation suggests that the outcrop of gypsum in the formation is derived from reaction of pyrite-bearing shal...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In the case of the Metsämonttu Zn-Cu-Pb-Au-Ag-mine in Finland, which was closed in the 1970ies, the mine water chemistry, isotopes, flow and the stratification in the mine was measured for a duration of two years. Based on the results, a still ongoing tracer test was initiated. The reason for this investigation was to understand which hydrodynamic...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Tracer tests are deployed to determine the hydraulic connectivity of flow paths or connections from surface and underground mines. This paper describes a mine water tracer test in a flooded, South African underground lead mine. Sodium chloride was injected as a tracer into one shaft and the electrical conductivity was measured continuously. The EC...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The mine water table has been rising in many hard coal mining areas. Important insights have been gathered concerning the hydrodynamic, hydrochemical and geomechanical changes that accompany a mine water rebound. This contribution provides an overview of a current survey. This survey aims at developing a deeper understanding of the processes which...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes the first full scale, containerized VFR operating in Finland. Other than previous installations published, the VFR is sized such that all the mine water discharging from the abandoned Metsämonttu mine site can be treated. The design criteria allow treatment of 1 to 35 L/ min of circum-neutral mine water. During a 6 weeks small...
Article
Full-text available
This study evaluated the effectiveness of using barium bicarbonate to remove sulphate from neutralized AMD. The Ba(HCO3)2 was produced by dosing a BaCO3 solution with CO2 to form Ba(HCO3)2. This greatly increased the barium ion concentration, which rapidly removed sulphate linked to either calcium or magnesium. Following sulphate removal, the Ca(HC...
Article
Electrocoagulation was investigated for the removal of copper, silicon, manganese, aluminum, iron and zinc as well as sulfate from real mine water. Batch experiments with monopolar iron anode and stainless steel cathode as well as monopolar aluminum anode and stainless steel cathode were conducted separately to identify the best electrocoagulation...
Article
Transformation of agricultural waste such as banana peels into a valuable sorbent material has been proven effective and efficient in wastewater treatment. Further, transformation into nanosorbent to enhance the removal capacity of actinides (uranium and thorium) from synthetic and real mine water is extensively investigated in this study. The nano...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Acid mine drainage (AMD) from underground or open pit mines is considered one of the most problematic liquid pollutants in the mining environment. Therefore, it is crucial for mine operators to either prevent AMD or to purify the water once it emerges to surface water courses. Though a number of AMD prevention techniques exist, they are not as far...
Article
Full-text available
This study demonstrates substantial removal of iron (Fe) from acid mine drainage (pH ≈3) in a passive vertical flow reactor (VFR) with an equivalent footprint of 154 m(2) per L/s mine water and residence times of > 23 h. Average Fe removal rate was 67% with a high of 85% over the 10 month trial. The fraction of Fe passing a 0.22 µm filter (referred...