Christian Schubert

Christian Schubert
Medizinische Universität Innsbruck · Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy

MD PhD

About

75
Publications
17,096
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1,903
Citations
Introduction
Skills and Expertise
Additional affiliations
January 1995 - May 2016
Medizinische Universität Innsbruck
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (75)
Article
Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) is an area of interdisciplinary research exploring the complex interactions within the immuno-neuro-endocrine system in response to psychosocial influences. Such influences can trigger neurological changes, leading to immunological effects related to the emergence and course of various diseases. This concise clinical rev...
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In a previous integrative single-case study, we collected biological, psychological and social time-series data on a 25-year-old healthy woman over the course of 126 12-h intervals (63 days) and used urinary neopterin as an indicator of cellular immune activity [Schubert et al. 2012 (1)]. The present re-evaluation introduced Dynamic Complexity (DC)...
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Background: Little is known about the real-time cause-effect relations between IL-6 concentrations and SLE symptoms. Methods: A 52-year-old woman with mild SLE activity collected her entire urine for the determination of IL-6/creatinine and protein/creatinine levels (ELISA, HPLC) for a period of 56 days in 12 h intervals (total: 112 measurements...
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Background: This study investigated the influence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) techniques (i.e., Jin Shin Jyutsu, music, physiotherapy, Tai Chi, and energy healing) on urinary interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels and fatigue in a 49-year-old breast cancer survivor suffering from cancer-related fatigue and depression. Data were sampled und...
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Background This study on a breast cancer survivor investigated how episodic practice of various complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) techniques affected the dynamics of emotional states and urinary neopterin—an inflammation marker. Methods The 49-year-old female patient (diagnosis: ductal breast carcinoma 5 years before study start, suffer...
Article
Die Forschung rund um Klangschaleninterventionen hat in den letzten 10 Jahren deutlichen Zulauf bekommen. Um die Wirksamkeit dieses Mind-Body-Verfahrens im klinischen Kontext zu erörtern, inkludiert das vorliegende narrative Review kontrollierte Prä-Post-Studien mit und ohne Randomisierung, sowie nicht kontrollierte Studien. Die Recherche der deuts...
Chapter
Autoimmunkrankheiten (AIK) sind chronische Entzündungserkrankungen, bei denen zelluläre Bestandteile (autoreaktive T-Zellen) oder Produkte (Autoantikörper) des Immunsystems gegen körpereigene Antigene (Autoantigene) reagieren, was lebensbedrohliche Folgen haben kann (z.B. Schäden der Nieren, des Herzens oder des Zentralnervensystems) (Jose et al. 2...
Article
Die Psychoneuroimmunologie zeigt, dass Berührungs- und Bindungserfahrungen pränatal und in der frühen Kindheit unser Stresserleben und ‑verhalten bis ins hohe Alter „programmieren“. Infolgedessen leiden körperlich und seelisch traumatisierte Kinder später öfters unter entzündungsassoziierten Krankheiten und chronischen Schmerzen. Die Forschung bele...
Chapter
Dargestellt werden die Möglichkeiten der Arbeit mit dem autogenen Training nach I. H. Schultz, einem physiologisch und tiefenpsychologisch fundierten Verfahren, das eine eigene Form der Psychotherapie darstellt. Hypnose wird in der Medizin als Ergänzung zu traditionellen Therapien (Unterstützung der Abwehr, Aktivierung der eigenen Ressourcen) und z...
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This “integrative single-case study” investigated the bidirectional cause and effect relations between various emotional states (i.e., mood, irritation, mental activity) and urinary IL-6 levels in a 49-year-old female breast cancer survivor (woman) under conditions of “life as it is lived.” During a period of 28 days, the patient collected her enti...
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This study on a breast cancer survivor suffering from cancer-related fatigue (CaRF) and depression investigated the bidirectional relationship between cellular immune activity and subjective sleep. The 49-year-old patient (breast cancer diagnosis 5 years before the study, currently in remission) collected her full urine output for 28 days in 12-h i...
Article
Zusammenfassung Die Psychoneuroimmunologie (PNI) befasst sich mit dem Einfluss psychischer Faktoren auf das Immunsystem und die körperliche Gesundheit, wobei neuroendokrine netzwerkartige Verbindungen als vermittelnd gelten. Die Autoimmunerkrankungen (AIK) gehören zu jenen Krankheiten, bei der psychoneuroimmunologische Untersuchungen klare Zusammen...
Article
Die Psychoneuroimmunologie (PNI) untersucht die Wechselwirkungen zwischen Psyche, neuroendokrinem und Immunsystem. Sie trägt damit zur empirischen Fundierung der bio-psycho-sozialen Modellkonzeption George Engels entscheidend bei. Krankheit wird in diesem Modell als Folge eines komplexen, wechselseitigen Zusammenspiels biologischer, psychologischer...
Article
Die Psychoneuroimmunologie beschaftigt sich mit der Wechselwirkung von Psyche, Nerven- und Immunsystem.Ergebnisse der psychoneuroimmunologischen Forschung weisen auf konkrete Zusammenhange von Stress und der Entstehung sowie dem Verlauf von Autoimmunerkrankungen hin. Wahrend klassische Studiendesigns teilweise widerspruchliche Resultate zutage ford...
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Background: This integrative single-case study investigated the 12 h-to-12 h cause-effect relations between 55 kD soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor type 1 (sTNF-R55) and specific and unspecific symptoms in a 52-year-old Caucasian woman with mild systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) disease activity. Methods: The patient collected her entire u...
Article
Gehirn, Psyche und Immunsystem sind eng miteinander verknüpft, wie empirische Daten belegen. Langanhaltender Stress kann hormonelle und immunologische Veränderungen hervorrufen, die auf eine Unterfunktion des Stresssystems hinweisen und langfristig zu Entzündungserkrankungen führen. Hierbei spielen auch die biopsychosozialen Faktoren des jeweiligen...
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Studies have shown clearly that childhood mistreatment, abuse and neglect are associated with severe inflammatory disease in adulthood (e. g. cancer, heart disease, autoimmune disorder) and shortened life span. This review deals with the psychoneuroimmunological pathways of this connection. It shows that chronic stressors interfere very early in li...
Article
Die Psychoneuroimmunologie erforscht die Wechselwirkungen von Psyche, Nerven- und Immunsystem. Eindeutig belegt ist eine erhöhte Infektanfälligkeit bei körperlicher und psychischer Überforderung (‚Stress“). Der Artikel gibt einen Überblick über mögliche psychosomatische Belastungsfaktoren bei verschiedenen Viruserkrankungen. Die Erforschung solch k...
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This study of a breast cancer patient with cancer-related fatigue (CaRF) and depression investigated the bidirectional cause-effect relations between cellular immune activity, fatigue and mood during 'life as it is lived'. The 49-year-old patient (breast cancer diagnosis 5 years earlier, severe CaRF and increase in depressiveness since then) collec...
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Little is known about the dynamic characteristics of stress system activity during "life as it is lived". Using as representative a study design as possible, this investigation sought to gain insights into this area. A healthy 25-year-old woman collected her entire urine over a period of 63 days in 12-h intervals (126 measurements) to determine cor...
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Physical diseases that appear to be symbolic somatic representations of patients' personal meanings or individual 'stories' continue to be reported in the medical literature. The identification of a symbolic disease requires a clinical focus upon a patient's highly individual and nuanced meanings largely rendered invisible by the usual methodologie...
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In recent years, interest has been growing regarding the role of alcohol intake on systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) disease activity. This integrative single-case study investigated the dynamic interdependencies between alcohol consumption, various emotional states and cellular immune activity in SLE using time series analysis (i.e., ARIMA modeli...
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Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) is closely associated with the bidirectional pathways between mind/brain and the immune system. PNI research represents a rapidly growing area within psychosomatic research. Recent studies in PNI are based mainly on the immunological concepts of Th1/Th2 dichotomy and inflammation. This review covers human PNI studies dea...
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Zusammenfassung Forschung in der Psychoneuroimmunologie (PNI), die eng mit Erkenntnissen zur wechselseitigen Beeinflussung von Psyche/Gehirn und Immunsystem assoziiert ist, kommt eine zunehmende Bedeutung zu. Viele aktuelle PNI-Studien basieren auf den immunologischen Konzepten von Th1/Th2-Dichotomie und Entzundung. Es werden humane PNI-Studien ube...
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This study examined chronic and short-term stress effects on heart rate variability (HRV), comparing time, frequency and phase domain (complexity) measures in 50 healthy adults. The hassles frequency subscale of the combined hassles and uplifts scale (CHUS) was used to measure chronic stress. Short-term stressor reactivity was assessed with a speec...
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Neuropsychiatric symptoms like mood changes and depression are common in patients with chronic inflammatory disorders such as infections, autoimmune diseases or cancer. The pathogenesis of these symptoms is still unclear. Pro-inflammatory stimuli interfere not only with the neural circuits and neurotransmitters of the serotonergic, but also with th...
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This study on a patient with prior breast cancer investigated the cause-effect relations between immune system activation, fatigue and mood under real-life conditions. The 60-year old woman (primary diagnosis 5 years ago, relapse one year ago, currently no signs of recurrence) collected her entire urine for 31 days in 12 hour intervals for the dete...
Article
Increased cytokine and neopterin levels may be responsible for cancer-related fatigue, the most common complaint among cancer patients. We quantitatively reviewed empirical findings on this topic, focusing on studies not using immunotherapy. PubMed, PsychINFO and BIOSIS were searched for articles published until July 2006. Studies remained unweight...
Article
This study on a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) investigated the impact of positive emotionally pleasing incidents on hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and cellular immune system activity under complex everyday conditions. A 52 year-old woman collected her entire urine for 56 days in 12-h intervals for the determination of c...
Article
Hypertension is more frequent and more severe in older individuals and in African Americans. Differences in autonomic nervous system activity might contribute to these differences. Autonomic effects on the heart can be studied noninvasively through analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). We examined the effects of age and ethnicity on HRV. We stu...
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Th1-type cytokine interferon-γ induces neopterin production in human monocyte-derived macrophages and it stimulates enzyme indoleamine (2,3)-dioxygenase (IDO) which converts tryptophan to kynurenine in various cells. In an integrative single-case study, a healthy, 27-year-old female had collected her entire urine in 12-hour (= 1 lag) intervals on 5...
Article
Ziel: Zeitreihenstatistische Analyse des Einflusses von emotional bedeutsamen Alltagsereignissen auf die Dynamik biochemischer Stres- und Krankheitsparameter bei Brustkrebs. Design: Eine 60-jahrige Patientin, die vor 5 Jahren an Brustkrebs und vor einem Jahr an einem Rezidiv erkrankte, sammelte zuhause 32 Tage lang in 12-Stunden-Abstanden ihren ges...
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Psychotherapy motivation (PTM) and therapeutic alliance ( TA) are factors known to have significant impact on psychotherapy outcome. This study investigates the change of PTM and TA as well as factors influencing these variables during a pretherapy diagnostic and motivation-enhancing phase in 107 psychotherapy outpatients. At the beginning (T1) and...
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This study investigated the complex biochemical responses to personally meaningful everyday stressors in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). For this purpose, a 52 year-old woman with SLE collected her entire urine for 56 days on a 12-h basis for the determination of cortisol as well as neopterin, a cellular immune parameter. Additio...
Article
Childhood abuse, stressful life events, and depression have been repeatedly reported to correlate with chronic pain, but little is known about the mutual relationships among these variables. Forty-three women with chronic pelvic pain (CPP), 40 female patients with chronic low-back pain (CLBP), and a female pain-free control group (n=22) were invest...
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Psychoneuroimmunological research investigates the influence of psychosocial factors on the immune systems. We reviewed clinical studies dealing with the following three topics: life events, psychological/psychopathological factors and social support, and their influence on cellular and humoral immune activity. There is strong evidence that stressf...
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Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by flare-ups, the cause of which is unknown. According to new stress concepts, two "integrative single-case studies" have been conducted in order to gather evidence about whether daily stressful incidents and associated emotions interfere with the dynamics of urine cor...
Article
To determine whether there is an association between history of sexual abuse and development of chronic pelvic pain. We studied 36 women with chronic pelvic pain, 23 with chronic low back pain, and 20 healthy women with reference to experience of sexual abuse, physical violence, and emotional neglect in childhood. Semistructured interviews were use...
Article
Mood disturbances and depression are supposed to have a negative impact on patients' outcome in malignant tumour disease. On the other hand, poor prognosis in cancer patients is associated with chronic immune challenge which is paralleled by enhanced degradation of the essential amino acid tryptophan and thus decreased plasma tryptophan concentrati...
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Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by flare-ups, the causes of which are not known. In accordance with new concepts in stress research, this study investigated whether daily psychosocial stressors interfere with immunological processes in SLE. Because such processes are unique to each individual, single...
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Inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) is discussed as a new approach for overcoming multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer chemotherapy. For evaluation of this concept we applied the bisindolylmaleimide GF 109203X, which shows a highly selective inhibition of PKC isozymes alpha, beta 1, beta 2, gamma, delta and epsilon in vitro. The efficacy of this c...
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Mitogenic signalling mechanisms emerged as novel targets for tumor chemotherapy. Current strategies for pharmacological interventions are briefly discussed. Phospholipid analogues are treated in greater detail. It is shown here that this new class of antitumor agents acts as inhibitors of mitogenic signal transduction. The common target of all phos...
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We have previously shown that neopterin enhances hydrogen peroxide and chloramine T activity in a luminol-dependent chemiluminescence assay and strengthens toxicity of these agents against bacteria at slightly alkaline pH (pH 7.5), while 7,8-dihydroneopterin was shown to be a scavenger independent of the pH value. Besides various oxidants, phenolic...
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The thioether phospholipid derivative ilmofosine (BM41440), a selective inhibitor of protein kinase C, is a new anticancer drug presently undergoing Phase II clinical trials. We have examined the influence of the compound on cell cycle progression. Ilmofosine was found to induce a dose-dependent accumulation of CA46 cells in G2-phase of the cell cy...
Article
HC-11 mouse mammary epithelial cells stably transfected with a glucocorticoid-inducible Ha-ras construct encoding a transforming (val12) p21Ha-ras were cotransfected with a c-fos-CAT construct containing the human c-fos promoter up to position -711 and the CAT reporter gene. Expression of Ha-ras by dexamethasone leads to a transcriptional activatio...

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