Christian Schader

Christian Schader
Forschungsinstitut für biologischen Landbau | FiBL · Socioeconomics

PhD

About

122
Publications
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Publications

Publications (122)
Article
Downstream companies in chocolate supply chains are increasingly engaged in improving the sustainability of cocoa production, which requires a multidimensional understanding of cocoa farms' sustainability performance. However, prior research has insufficiently addressed the multiple sustainability dimensions of cocoa production or the interrelation...
Article
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Agriculture’s primary function is the production of food, feed, fibre and fuel for the fast-growing world population. However, it also affects human health and ecosystem integrity. Policymakers make policies in order to avoid harmful impacts. How to assess such policies is a challenge. In this paper, we propose a conceptual framework to help evalua...
Article
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Background National food-based dietary guidelines (FBDGs) are generally designed from a human health perspective and often disregard sustainability aspects. Circular food production systems are a promising solution to achieve sustainable healthy diets. In such systems, closing nutrient cycles where possible and minimising external inputs contribute...
Article
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The introduction of organic farm management practices in sub-Saharan Africa could act as a lever for supporting regional sustainable development. In this study, we sought to assess the sustainability performance of organic (certified and non-certified) and non-organic farms in the dry Kajiado County and the wet Murang’a County in Kenya, based on fo...
Article
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CONTEXT Eco-efficiency offers a promising approach for the sustainable intensification of production systems in Sub-Saharan Africa. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), which is widely used for eco-efficiency analyses, is however sensitive to outliers and the analysis of the influence of external factors in the second stage requires the separability as...
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Background To improve the sustainability performance of food systems, consumption- as well as production-side changes are needed. Objective To this end, we assessed multiple sustainability impacts of six consumer strategies for Switzerland. Design Two strategies encompassed dietary changes: following a pescetarian diet and adhering to the nationa...
Article
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Combinations of national and international, hard and soft powers, known as Smart Mixes, have been proposed as a way for governments in consumer countries to influence the behaviour of supply chain actors who operate outside their jurisdiction. However, the Smart Mix concept has not yet been precisely defined, which has hindered its operationalizati...
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The potential of organic agriculture and agroecological approaches for improving food security in Africa is a controversial topic in global discussions. While there is a number of meta-analyses on the environmental, agronomic and financial performance of organic farming, most of the underlying data stems from on-station field trials from temperate...
Article
The potential of organic agriculture to contribute to sustainable development in Ghana is unclear. This article assesses the sustainability performance of organic and conventional cocoa farming systems in Ghana. Data was collected from 398 organic and conventional cocoa farmers using the SMART-Farm tool. Compared to conventional cocoa farming syste...
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While the production of food causes major environmental impacts and poses social risks, consumption of healthy and nutritious food is essential for human wellbeing. Against this background, action to make current diets more sustainable is needed, which in turn requires knowledge on possibilities for improvement. In this study, we investigated how s...
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The alignment of the environmental, economic and social sustainability of farms is necessary for enhancing the provision of public goods in farming. This study combines the use of three tools for the assessment of farm sustainability. It provides first insights into the sustainability performance of farms at different stages of agro-ecological tran...
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The agricultural sector faces serious environmental, social and economic challenges. In response, there has been a proliferation of labels and certifications aiming to ensure minimum farm sustainability performance. Organic agriculture (OA) a prominent example, having received substantial research attention relating to agronomic and environmental p...
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Grazing systems emit greenhouse gases, which can, under specific agro-ecological conditions, be partly or entirely offset by soil carbon sequestration. However, any sequestration is time-limited, reversible, and at a global level outweighed by emissions from grazing systems. Thus, grazing systems are globally a net contributor to climate change and...
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Crop diversification represents a key lever to support the development of sustainable agri-food systems. Knowledge on trade-offs and carry over effects from different crop diversification strategies is essential to inform agricultural stakeholders of potential costs and benefits. This knowledge is limited by existing data and performance measures p...
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Increasing consumer awareness on sustainability issues has led to the growing adoption of voluntary sustainability standards in agriculture. This study assesses the sustainability performance of typical conventional and certified coffee production systems in Brazil and Ethiopia based on expert judgements. We apply the SMART-Farm Tool, which represe...
Article
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Unhealthy diets are commonly associated with increased disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) from noncommunicable diseases. The association between DALYs and dietary patterns can be quantified with individual longitudinal data. This assessment, however, is often based on dietary data collected once at cohort entry, therefore reflecting the impact...
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Much scientific literature proposes reduction of animal-source foods to reduce environmental impacts of the food system. However, these dietary solutions differ regarding level and type of animal-source foods. We review this literature and our results show that these differences relate to differences in employed methodological approaches. Approache...
Article
Many farm sustainability assessments use multi-criteria methods for aggregating indicators based on performance scores and importance weights. One of these is the SMART-Farm Tool, which measures the degree of goal achievement of farms across 327 indicators nested within 4 sustainability dimensions, 21 themes and 58 sub-themes of the FAO-SAFA Guidel...
Article
Consumption of animal-source food is criticised, among other reasons, for its relatively high environmental impact. It is, however, increasingly acknowledged that livestock can contribute to nutrition security if they upcycle low-opportunity-cost feed (LCF) – food waste, food processing by-products and grass resources – into nutritious animal-sourc...
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From a public health perspective, determinants of diets are crucial to identify, but they remain unclear in Switzerland. Hence, we sought to define current dietary patterns and their sociodemographic and lifestyle determinants using the national nutrition survey menuCH (2014–2015, n = 2057). First, we applied multiple factorial analysis and hierarc...
Article
There are three methods available for evaluating sustainability at farm level that were developed in Switzerland: RISE, SMART und SALCAsustain. In this article, the three methods are compared by means of a list of criteria and several concrete examples with the aim of making it easier for readers to decide which tool is best suited for their own sp...
Article
The transition toward sustainable agricultural production can be supported with improved insight into the performance of existing farming systems. The Sustainability Assessments of Food and Agriculture Systems (SAFA) framework published by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) provides a comprehensive and harmonized framework to assess and co...
Article
Discrepancies in certification effects on smallholder incomes have been found in scientific literature. Unobserved farmer-group heterogeneity is a likely reason. For the long-standing Robusta coffee farmer-groups in Uganda, we find no significant effect of certification on net-farm income. But, we find 20 percentage point differences in net-farm income b...
Conference Paper
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Agricultural innovation is an essential component in achieving the SDG and accelerating the transition to more sustainable and resilient farming systems across the world. Innovations generally emerge from collective intelligence and action, which requires effective agricultural innovation systems (AIS). An AIS perspective has been widely adopted, b...
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The need for more sustainable production and consumption of animal‐source food is central to the achievement of the sustainable development goals: within this context, wise use of land is a core challenge and concern. A key question in feeding the future world is: how much animal‐source food should we eat? We demonstrate that livestock raised under...
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Urban agriculture is embedded in an urban food system, and its full potential can only be understood by looking into the dynamics of the system. Involving a variety of actors from civil society, policy, and the market, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of the food system of the city of Basel, Switzerland, including policy and actor analysis, an...
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Organic agriculture is proposed as a promising approach to achieving sustainable food systems, but its feasibility is also contested. We use a food systems model that addresses agronomic characteristics of organic agriculture to analyze the role that organic agriculture could play in sustainable food systems. Here we show that a 100% conversion to...
Book
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The report dissects claims made by different stakeholders in the debate about so called ‘grass-fed’ beef, the greenhouse gases the animals emit, and the possibility that, through their grazing actions, they can help remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. It evaluates these claims and counterclaims against the best available science, providing a...
Poster
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How can indicator weights for multi-criteria sustainability assessments be determined based on experts’ opinions? How do different opinions affect the results of sustainability assessments?
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Sustainability indicators are well recognized for their potential to assess and monitor sustainable development of agricultural systems. A large number of indicators are proposed in various sustainability assessment frameworks, which raises concerns regarding the validity of approaches, usefulness and trust in such frameworks. Selecting indicators...
Chapter
Ruminants play a key role in organic systems, due to their ability to use grassland resources, legumes from crop rotations and crop residues, and to supply manure for the soil. Grassland-based milk production therefore is likely to be the most sustainable system for dairy cattle in organic agriculture. However, digestion of fibre is a prominent sou...
Article
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A growing number of people live in cities. Urban food systems and their impacts on ecosystems and socio-economic conditions are becoming increasingly important. To address the challenge of making urban food systems more sustainable, a rising number of assessments of urban food systems have been published. Some used large quantitative datasets while...
Article
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Warum essen wir, was wir essen? Essen ist eine notwendige Voraussetzung unseres Lebens. Georg Simmel, ein deutscher Soziologe, be-zeichnete das «Essen und Trinken müssen» als kleins-ten gemeinsamen Nenner, den alle Menschen mit-einander teilen (1, 16). Menschen haben kaum In-stinkte, die biologisch vorgeben, welche Nahrung ge-gessen werden kann, wi...
Poster
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A sustainability assessment of a banana plantation in Costa Rica revealed some optimisation potential. Briefly after the assessment, the farm already started to implement measures to further optimise its sustainability performance.
Article
Many sustainability assessment frameworks have been developed in recent years, but translating them into practical tools to guide decision making remains challenging. By engaging coffee stakeholders in Uganda, we demonstrate a process of translating the widely-accepted framework for Sustainability Assessments of Food and Agriculture Systems (SAFA),...
Article
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When trying to optimize the sustainability performance of farms and farming systems, a consideration of trade-offs and synergies between different themes and dimensions is required. The aim of this paper is to perform a systematic analysis of trade-offs and synergies across all dimensions and themes. To achieve this aim we used the Sustainability M...
Article
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As so far no farm-level sustainability assessment tool has been adjusted to the Hungarian circumstances which measures all aspects of sustainability our aim was to develop a conceptual framework for adaptation process. Main steps were defined and literature review was conducted. As a result of this SMART was selected as the most suitable assessment...
Article
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Increasing efficiency in livestock production and reducing the share of animal products in human consumption are two strategies to curb the adverse environmental impacts of the livestock sector. Here, we explore the room for sustainable livestock production by modelling the impacts and constraints of a third strategy in which livestock feed compone...
Article
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Organic production and consumption provide a delineated food system that can be explored for its potential contribution to sustainable diets. While organic agriculture improves the sustainability performance on the production side, critical reflections are made on how organic consumption patterns, understood as the practice of people consuming sign...
Conference Paper
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Simplified modeling of fertilizer N emissions in inventories of agricultural products may lead to considerable deviations of N emissions from actual N surpluses present in farming system. We compared impacts for global warming, eutrophication, and acidification of four crops either produced in organic or integrated (IP) production using ecoinvent i...
Article
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With sustainability within food systems becoming an increasingly important issue, several approaches that claim to assess the sustainability of farms, farming systems, and supply chains have been developed. Looking more closely at these sustainability impact assessment approaches, we discerned considerable differences between them in terms of scope...
Article
Quantitative assessments of the effectiveness of GHG mitigation measures at farm level are scarce. Hence, the aim of this study was to quantify the GHG mitigation potential of selected measures on two typical organic farms in Switzerland. We built a single-farm model which enabled us to calculate the GHG emissions and energy consumption at farm lev...
Article
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The novel method developed for this study evaluates the impact of farming practices on farmland biodiversity, allowing for the assessment of the biodiversity potential of dairy farms at farm and product levels. We linked farming practices as pressure indicators to the species number and abundance of 11 indicator species groups (ISGs), evaluated sem...
Book
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Approximately one-third of all food produced for human consumption is lost or wasted. The economic costs of this food wastage are substantial and amount to about USD 1 trillion each year. However, the hidden costs of food wastage extend much further. Food that is produced, but never consumed, still causes environmental impacts to the atmosphere, wa...
Book
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In recent years, progress has been made globally in establishing sustainable food production systems aimed at improving food and nutrition security and the judicial use of natural resources. Yet, all of those efforts are in vain when the food produced in those systems is lost or wasted and never consumed. As food wastage increases in parallel with...
Article
Die Welternährungsorganisation FAO hat nun erstmals eine umfassende Definition von Nachhaltigkeit für den Lebensmittelsektor vorgelegt. Auf dieser Basis wurde mit SMART eine Methode entwickelt, anhand derer Unternehmen aus dem Lebensmittelbereich ihre Nachhaltigkeitsleistungen darstellen können.
Article
The economic efficiency of financial support of organic farming has been questioned by economists and policy makers. However, little empirical research has been done in order to evaluate the economic performance of these payments. Thus, the aim of this paper is to calculate the cost-effectiveness of organic farming support in achieving environmenta...
Chapter
During the last ten years the organic market has increased several fold and now exceeds 50 billion US$ (Willer and Kilcher, 2010). At the same time organic farming and food systems have shown a rapid development towards increasing global trade with organic products. The characteristic development has been the rise in demand and consumption in Europ...