Christian Roos

Christian Roos
German Primate Center | DPZ · Primate Genetics Unit

About

653
Publications
128,672
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9,721
Citations
Citations since 2016
194 Research Items
6431 Citations
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201620172018201920202021202202004006008001,000
201620172018201920202021202202004006008001,000
Additional affiliations
January 2000 - present
Deutsches Primatenzentrum

Publications

Publications (653)
Article
Full-text available
Owl monkeys (genus Aotus), or “night monkeys” are platyrrhine primates in the Aotidae family. Early taxonomy only recognized one species, Aotus trivirgatus, until 1983, when Hershkovitz proposed nine unique species designations, classified into red-necked and gray-necked species groups based predominately on pelage coloration. Recent studies questi...
Preprint
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Marmosets, especially Callithrix jacchus, are becoming valuable, high-demand biomed-ical models but their supply outside of their native Brazil is limited. Thus, uncovering the ancestry and biogeographic origins of captive marmosets is an essential task to optimize their biomedical use. Such information facilitates assessing standing levels of capt...
Article
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In 2020, a new subspecies was described in the Cercopithecus mitis complex, the Manyara monkey C. m. manyaraensis, Butynski & De Jong, 2020. The internal taxonomy of this species complex is still debated, and the phylogenetic relationships among the taxa are unclear. Here we provide the first mitochondrial sequence data for C. m. manyaraensis to de...
Article
Bald uakaris, genus Cacajao, are Amazonian primates currently classified as one species and four subspecies based on the patterns of pelage coloration. In this study, we test if their current taxonomy is represented by the phylogenetic relationship of the main lineages retrieved from molecular data. We included, for the first time, all bald uakari...
Technical Report
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"10 Must Knows from Biodiversity Science”, ranging from climate stress for forests to the corona virus that has jumped from animals to humans, are now published for the first time. More than 45 experts from the German Leibniz Research Network Biodiversity and colleagues have compiled this inventory on the preservation of nature as the basis of huma...
Article
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Capuchins are platyrrhines (monkeys found in the Americas) within the Cebidae family. For most of their taxonomic history, the two main morphological types of capuchins, gracile (untufted) and robust (tufted), were assigned to a single genus, Cebus. Further, all tufted capuchins were assigned to a single species, Cebus apella, despite broad geograp...
Article
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Mammalian captive dietary specialists like folivores are prone to gastrointestinal distress and primate dietary specialists suffer the greatest gut microbiome diversity losses in captivity compared to the wild. Marmosets represent another group of dietary specialists, exudivores that eat plant exudates, but whose microbiome remains relatively less...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Uns Autorinnen und Autoren geht es darum Wissen zu vermitteln. Wissen um Wandel, um politisches und gesellschaftliches Handeln für einen gesunden Planeten, den Erhalt und die nachhaltige Nutzung der Biodiversität zu unterstützen. Wissenschaft und Forschung zur Begleitung eines komplexen und systemaren Prozess wird angeboten. For us as contributors...
Chapter
The Colobines are a group of Afroeurasian monkeys that exhibit extraordinary behavioural and ecological diversity. With long tails and diverse colourations, they are medium-sized primates, mostly arboreal, that are found in many different habitats, from rain forests and mountain forests to mangroves and savannah. Over the last two decades, our unde...
Article
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Swayne's hartebeest Alcelaphus buselaphus swaynei was once widely distributed in the Horn of Africa. By the early 20th century, however, it was extirpated across most of its range and is now limited to two relict populations in the Ethiopian Rift Valley and categorized as Endangered on the IUCN Red List. In this study, we estimated the size and gen...
Article
Full-text available
Viruses can be transmitted from animals to humans (and vice versa) and across animal species. As such, host-virus interactions and transmission have attracted considerable attention. Non-human primates (NHPs), our closest evolutionary relatives, are susceptible to human viruses and certain pathogens are known to circulate between humans and NHPs. H...
Article
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Bitter taste receptors (Tas2Rs) serve as a vital component in the defense system against toxin intake by animals, and the family of genes encoding these receptors has been demonstrated, usually by family size variance, to correlate with dietary preference. However, few systematic studies of specific Tas2R to unveil their functional evolution have b...
Article
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Environmental conditions and human activity influence the selection of nest sites by chimpanzees and may have serious conservation implications. We examined the characteristics of nesting trees preferred by chimpanzees, investigated the effect of vegetation composition and topography on nest site locations and seasonality on nesting heights of chim...
Article
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Accurate information on name-bearing types, including corresponding type localities, is essential for proper taxonomy. However, such geographic information is often missing or unreliable. The localities of type specimens collected 100–200 years ago can be difficult to trace due to changes in local names or simple inaccuracies. Such a case can be fo...
Article
Full-text available
DNA studies of endangered or extinct species often rely on ancient or degraded remains. The majority of ancient DNA (aDNA) extraction protocols focus on skeletal elements, with skin and hair samples rarely explored. Similar to that found in bones and teeth, DNA extracted from historical or ancient skin and fur samples is also extremely fragmented w...
Preprint
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The Brazilian buffy-tufted-ear marmoset (Callithrix aurita), one of the world's most endangered primates, is threatened by anthropogenic hybridization with exotic, invasive marmoset species. As there are few genetic data available for C. aurita, we developed a PCR-free protocol with minimal technical requirements to rapidly generate genomic data wi...
Article
Full-text available
Background Callithrix marmosets are a relatively young primate radiation, whose phylogeny is not yet fully resolved. These primates are naturally para- and allopatric, but three species with highly invasive potential have been introduced into the southeastern Brazilian Atlantic Forest by the pet trade. There, these species hybridize with each other...
Article
The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, which in humans leads to the disease COVID-19, has caused global disruption and more than 2 million fatalities since it first emerged in late 2019. As we write, infection rates are at their highest point globally and are rising extremely rapidly in some areas due to more infectious variants. The primary target of S...
Preprint
Full-text available
The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, which in humans leads to the disease COVID-19, has caused global disruption and more than 1.5 million fatalities since it first emerged in late 2019. As we write, infection rates are currently at their highest point globally and are rising extremely rapidly in some areas due to more infectious variants. The primary...
Article
Between 1966 to 1969, Bernhard Grzimek (Frankfurt Zoological Society, FZS) introduced chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) previously held in European institutions to Rubondo Island in Lake Victoria in Tanzania. Earlier publications report various numbers of released animals and that all founders originated from West Africa. We revise these assumptions th...
Article
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Increased human activities such as commodity-led deforestation, extension of agriculture , urbanization, and wildfires are major drivers of forest loss worldwide. In Camer-oon, these activities cause a loss of suitable primate habitat and could ultimately threaten the survival of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). We derived independent estimates of th...
Article
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The research of phenotypic convergence is of increasing importance in adaptive evolution. Locomotory modes play important roles in the adaptive evolution of species in the Euarchontoglires, however, the investigation of convergent evolution of the locomotory modes across diverse Euarchontoglire orders is incomplete. We collected measurements of thr...
Article
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Microsatellite genotyping is an important genetic method for a number of research questions in biology. Given that the traditional fragment length analysis using polyacrylamide gel or capillary electrophoresis has several drawbacks, microsatellite genotyping‐by‐sequencing (GBS) has arisen as a promising alternative. Although GBS mitigates many of t...
Article
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The snub-nosed monkey genus ( Rhinopithecus ) comprises five closely related species ( R. avunculus, R. bieti, R. brelichi, R. roxellana , and R. strykeri ). All are among the world's rarest and most endangered primates. However, the genomic impact associated with their population decline remains unknown. We analyzed population genomic data of all...
Article
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Objectives Incomplete and/or biased sampling either on a taxonomic or geographic level can lead to delusive phylogenetic and phylogeographic inferences. However, a complete taxonomic and geographical sampling is often and for various reasons impossible, particularly for widespread taxa such as baboons (Papio spp.). Previous studies on baboon phylog...
Article
Full-text available
In pair-living mammals, genetic monogamy is extremely rare. One possible reason is that in socially monogamous animals, mate choice can be severely constrained, increasing the risk of inbreeding or pairing with an incompatible or low-quality partner. To escape these constraints, individuals might engage in extra-pair copulations. Alternatively, inb...
Article
Full-text available
Trachypithecus, which currently contains 20 species divided into four groups, is the most speciose and geographically dispersed genus among Asian colobines. Despite several morphological and molecular studies, however, its evolutionary history and phylogeography remain poorly understood. Phayre's langur (Trachypithecus phayrei) is one of the most w...
Article
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Dusky langur, Trachypithecus obscurus, inhabits tropical rainforests in Peninsular Malaysia, Thailand, and Myanmar. Morphologically, five subspecies are distributed in Peninsular Malaysia, but few studies have used genetic data to verify the classification. It is difficult to differentiate subspecies based on morphological characteristics, so this...
Article
Recently, two mitochondrial haplotypes, H4 and H8, of Manis sp. were found in two seizures in Hong Kong that do not correspond to Manis javanica, Manis pentadactyla or Manis crassicaudata of Asian pangolin species or any African pangolin species. It was proposed that both haplotypes derived from Manis culionensis, an unknown lineage of M. javanica,...
Article
Full-text available
Guenons (tribe Cercopithecini) are the most widely distributed non-human primate in the tropical forest belt of Africa and show considerable phenotypic, taxonomic, and ecological diversity. However, genomic information for most species within this group is still lacking. Here, we present a high-quality de novo genome (total 2.90 Gb, contig N50 equa...
Article
Full-text available
The subspecific taxonomy and distribution of geladas (Theropithecus gelada Rüppell, 1835) remains uncertain. Recent molecular studies based on mitochondrial sequence data revealed a geographically structured, three‐deme population, suggesting that there are three evolutionary units of geladas. However, mitochondrial distributions do not always reco...
Article
Full-text available
Threats to biodiversity are well documented. However, to effectively conserve species and their habitats, we need to know which conservation interventions do (or do not) work. Evidence-based conservation evaluates interventions within a scientific framework. The Conservation Evidence project has summarized thousands of studies testing conservation...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Callithrix marmosets are a relatively young non-human primate radiation, whose phylogeny is not yet fulllly resolved. These primates are naturally para- and allopatric, but three species with highly invasive potential have been introduced into the southeastern Brazilian Atlantic Forest by the pet trade. There, these species hybridize wit...
Preprint
Full-text available
In pair-living mammals, genetic monogamy is extremely rare. One possible reason is that in socially monogamous animals, mate choice can be severely constrained, generating a risk of inbreeding or incompatibility between partners. To escape these constraints and minimize inbreeding, individuals might engage in extra-pair copulations. Alternatively,...
Article
Full-text available
Group‐living animals often maintain a few very close affiliative relationships – social bonds – that can buffer them against many of the inevitable costs of gregariousness. Kinship plays a central role in the development of such social bonds. The bulk of research on kin biases in sociality has focused on philopatric females, who typically live in d...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The first yaws eradication campaign reduced the prevalence of yaws by 95%. In recent years, however, yaws has reemerged and is currently subject to a second, ongoing eradication campaign. Yet, the epidemiological status of Tanzania and 75 other countries with a known history of human yaws is currently unknown. Contrary to the situation...
Chapter
Evolution, Ecology and Conservation of Lorises and Pottos - edited by K. A. I. Nekaris March 2020
Article
Forming strong social bonds can lead to higher reproductive success, increased longevity, and/or increased infant survival in several mammal species. Given these adaptive benefits, understanding what determines partner preferences in social bonding is important. Maternal relatedness strongly predicts partner preference across many mammalian taxa. T...
Article
Full-text available
Knowledge of the physiological and morphological evolution and adaptation of non-human primates is critical to understand hominin origins, physiological ecology, morphological evolution and applications in biomedicine. Particularly, limestone langurs represent a direct example of adaptations to the challenges of exploiting a high calcium and harsh...
Article
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Following publication of the original article [1], we have been notified that some of the NCB accession numbers were incorrectly associated to their corresponding taxon in the Additional file 1.
Article
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The vaginal microbiota of nonhuman primates differs substantially from humans in terms of Lactobacillus abundance, overall taxonomic diversity, and vaginal pH. Given these differences, it remains unclear in what way the nonhuman primate genital microbiota protects against pathogens, in particular sexually transmitted infections. Considering the eff...
Article
Full-text available
Baboons, members of the genus Papio, comprise six closely related species distributed throughout sub-Saharan Africa and southwest Arabia. The species exhibit more ecological flexibility and a wider range of social systems than many other primates. This article summarizes our current knowledge of the natural history of baboons and highlights directi...
Article
Full-text available
Baboons, members of the genus Papio, comprise six closely related species distributed throughout sub-Saharan Africa and southwest Arabia. The species exhibit more ecological flexibility and a wider range of social systems than many other primates. This article summarizes our current knowledge of the natural history of baboons and highlights directi...
Article
Full-text available
Despite their ubiquity, in most cases little is known about the impact of eukaryotic parasites on their mammalian hosts. Comparative approaches provide a powerful method to investigate the impact of parasites on host ecology and evolution, though two issues are critical for such efforts: controlling for variation in methods of identifying parasites...
Article
Full-text available
Despite their ubiquity, in most cases little is known about the impact of eukaryotic parasites on their mammalian hosts. Comparative approaches provide a powerful method to investigate the impact of parasites on host ecology and evolution, though two issues are critical for such efforts: controlling for variation in methods of identifying parasites...
Article
Full-text available
In our most recent study, we found that in Tanzania infection with Treponema pallidum (TP) subsp. pertenue (TPE) is present in four different monkey species. In order to gain information on the diversity and epidemiological spread of the infection in Tanzanian nonhuman primates (NHP), we identified two suitable candidate genes for multi-locus seque...
Preprint
Full-text available
Forming strong social bonds leads to higher reproductive success, increased longevity and/or increased infant survival in several mammal species. Given these adaptive benefits, understanding what determines partner preferences in social bonding is important. Maternal relatedness strongly predicts partner preference across many mammalian taxa. Despi...
Preprint
Microbiome studies show that host taxon, diet, and environment influence gut bacteria. However, these factors are rarely studied in animal hybrids and exudivores (which nutritionally exploit indigestible oligosaccharides). To investigate the effects of host taxon, hybridization, and environment on gut microbiota, we conducted 16S V4 ribosomal seque...
Article
Fossil evidence indicates that numerous catarrhine clades of African origin expanded or shifted their ranges into Eurasia, among them macaques Macaca Lacépède, 1799. Macaques represent the sister taxon of African papionins and can thus be used as a model comparing an 'out-of-Africa' with an intra-African, e.g., baboons-Papio Erxleben, 1777 evolutio...
Article
Baboons (genus Papio) have been proposed as a possible analogous phylogeographic model for intra-African dispersal of hominins during the Pleistocene. Previous studies of the genus reveal complex evolutionary dynamics including introgressive hybridization and, as for hominins, it has been hypothesized that past climate change has been a major drive...
Article
During the late Pleistocene, isolated lineages of hominins exchanged genes thus influencing genomic variation in humans in both the past and present. However, the dynamics of this genetic exchange and associated phenotypic consequences through time remain poorly understood. Gene exchange across divergent lineages can result in myriad outcomes arisi...