Christian M. Ringle

Christian M. Ringle
Technische Universität Hamburg | TUHH · School of Management Sciences and Technology

Habilitation and Venia Legendi (University of Hamburg) - Dr. rer. pol. (University of Hamburg) - MBA (University of Kansas)
Data and Business Analytics, Multivariate Analysis Methods, Machine Learning, Structural Equation Modeling

About

234
Publications
761,151
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91,045
Citations
Introduction
Christian M. Ringle is a Professor of Management and the Director of the Institute of Human Resource Management and Organizations (HRMO) in the Department of Management Sciences and Technology at the Hamburg University of Technology (TUHH), Germany, and an Adjunct Professor of the Waikato Management School, New Zealand. He holds a PhD from the University of Hamburg, Faculty of Business and Economics. His research addresses strategic management, organizations, marketing, human resource management, and quantitative methods for business and market research. He is a co-founder of SmartPLS (www.smartpls.com) and regularly teaches doctoral seminars on multivariate statistics and on partial least squares SEM. More information on Dr. Ringle: https://www.tuhh.de/hrmo/team/prof-dr-c-m-ringle.html
Additional affiliations
December 2018 - November 2021
The University of Waikato
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
January 2011 - December 2018
University of Newcastle
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
August 2010 - August 2020
Technische Universität Hamburg
Position
  • Head of Department
Description
  • www.tuhh.de/hrmo

Publications

Publications (234)
Article
Purpose Partial least squares (PLS) has been introduced as a “causal-predictive” approach to structural equation modeling (SEM), designed to overcome the apparent dichotomy between explanation and prediction. However, while researchers using PLS-SEM routinely stress the predictive nature of their analyses, model evaluation assessment relies exclusi...
Article
Full-text available
Management researchers often develop theories and policies that are forward-looking. The prospective outlook of predictive modeling, where a model predicts unseen or new data, can complement the retrospective nature of causal-explanatory modeling that dominates the field. Partial least squares (PLS) path modeling is an excellent tool for building t...
Article
Full-text available
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11747-021-00805-y Marketing researchers are increasingly taking advantage of the instrumental variable (IV)-free Gaussian copula approach. They use this method to identify and correct endogeneity when estimating regression models with non-experimental data. The Gaussian copula approach’s original presenta...
Article
Full-text available
Evermann and Rönkkö (2021) review recent developments in partial least squares (PLS) with the aim of providing guidance to researchers. Indeed, the explosion of methodological advances in PLS in the last decade necessitates such overview articles. In so far as the goal is to provide an objective assessment of the technique, such articles are most w...
Article
Researchers often stress the predictive goals of their partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) analyses. However, the method has long lacked a statistical test to compare different models in terms of their predictive accuracy and to establish whether a proposed model offers a significantly better out-of-sample predictive accura...
Article
Full-text available
Structural equation modeling (SEM) has remained two mutually exclusive domains, factor-based vs. component-based, depending on whether a construct is modeled by either a factor or a compo-nent (i.e., weighted composite of indicators). Research in international management (IM) and inter-national business (IB), however, needs to accommodate a more ge...
Book
Full-text available
In 2021, the third edition of our introductory book A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) was published (Hair, Hult, Ringle, & Sarstedt, 2022). The book covers the latest developments in the ield, including recent advances in model evaluation (e.g., inference testing in discriminant validity assessment, predictive...
Article
Full-text available
Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) is an essential element of marketing researchers’ methodological toolbox. During the last decade, the PLS-SEM field has undergone massive developments, and raising the question of whether the method’s users are following the most recent best practice guidelines. This paper extends Hair et...
Article
Generalized structured component analysis (GSCA) is used for specifying and testing the relationships between observed variables and components. GSCA can perform model selection by comparing theoretically established models. In practice, however, theories may not always completely and unambigu-ously specify the relationships between variables in th...
Article
In 2011, the Journal of Marketing Theory & Practice published “PLS-SEM: Indeed a silver bullet,” which became a cornerstone contribution in marketing. Critical reflection of research work is a fundamental building block of science, including one’s own writing. In this spirit, we offer a review of our own 2011 paper, assuming we were reviewers with...
Article
[Concluding observations] As evident from this brief overview of recent methodological developments in PLS-SEM and the application articles in this special issue, measuring and assessing issues in sports management is a thriving and ongoing effort among scholars in this discipline. At the same time, we cannot forget that the field of sports managem...
Article
Full-text available
Building on the corporate reputation model, this study investigates the drivers of customer-based corporate reputation. We consider two corporate reputation dimensions (i.e., the cognitive dimension competence and the affective dimension likeability, and their effects on customer satisfaction and loyalty). Adapting the model to the banking sector,...
Article
Generalized structured component analysis (GSCA) and partial least squares path modeling (PLSPM) are two key component-based approaches to structural equation modeling that facilitate the analysis of theoretically established models in terms of both explanation and prediction. This study is the first to offer a comparative evaluation of GSCA and PL...
Article
With the increasing prominence of partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) in business research, the use of latent class analyses for identifying and treating unobserved heterogeneity has also gained momentum. Researchers have introduced various latent class approaches in a PLS-SEM context, of which finite mixture PLS (FIMIX-PLS...
Book
Full-text available
Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) has become a standard approach for analyzing complex inter-relationships between observed and latent variables. Researchers appreciate the many advantages of PLS-SEM such as the possibility to estimate very complex models and the method’s flexibility in terms of data requirements and meas...
Article
Structural equation modeling (SEM) has become a quasi-standard tool for analyzing complex interrelationships between observed variables and theoretical constructs.
Chapter
Computational statistics is now an increasingly popular method of analysis for researchers that combines a vast array of algorithms, statistical methods, and the power of functional coding. The R programming language, in particular, has benefitted from this development alongside of traditional graphical user interface (GUI) software. Today, it has...
Chapter
Full-text available
Mediation occurs when a third variable, referred to as a mediator construct, intervenes between two other directly related constructs. More precisely, a change in the exogenous construct results in a change of the mediator construct, which in turn changes the endogenous construct. The mediator analysis evaluates the factors related to the cause–eff...
Chapter
Full-text available
Structural equation modeling is a multivariate data analysis method for analyzing complex relationships among constructs and indicators. To estimate structural equation models, researchers generally draw on two methods: covariance-based SEM (CB-SEM) and partial least squares SEM (PLS-SEM). Whereas CB-SEM is primarily used to confirm theories, PLS r...
Chapter
Full-text available
When moderation is present, the strength and even the direction of a relationship between two constructs depend on a third construct (i.e., the moderator). In other words, the strength of the relationship between two constructs changes as the levels of the moderator construct change. As an example, the relationship between customer satisfaction and...
Chapter
Full-text available
The goal of reflective measurement model assessment is to ensure the reliability and validity of the construct measures and therefore provides support for the suitability of their inclusion in the path model. This chapter introduces the key criteria that are relevant in reflective measurement model assessment: indicator reliability, internal consis...
Chapter
Structural model assessment in PLS-SEM focuses on evaluating the significance and relevance of path coefficients, followed by the model’s explanatory and predictive power. In this chapter, we discuss the key metrics relevant to structural model assessment in PLS-SEM. We also discuss model comparisons and introduce key criteria for assessing and sel...
Chapter
SEMinR is a software package developed for the R statistical environment (R Core Team, 2021). The package includes a user-friendly syntax for creating and estimating structural equation models using estimators such as partial least squares. In this chapter, we introduce the syntax to create, estimate, and report structural equation models using SEM...
Chapter
PLS-SEM is the preferred approach when formatively specified constructs are included in the PLS path model. In this chapter, we discuss the key steps for evaluating formative measurement models. These include the assessment of (1) convergent validity, (2) indicator collinearity, and (3) statistical significance and relevance of the indicator weight...
Book
Full-text available
Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) has become a standard approach for analyzing complex inter-relationships between observed and latent variables. Researchers appreciate the many advantages of PLS-SEM such as the possibility to estimate very complex models and the method’s flexibility in terms of data requirements and meas...
Article
While nonlinear relationships play an important role in explaining distinct family business behaviors and outcomes, researchers rarely consider them in their theoretical and statistical models. To address this concern, this article introduces partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) as a suitable means for estimating nonlinear e...
Article
The use of partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) has been gaining momentum in family business research. Since the publication of a PLS-SEM guidelines article in the Journal of Family Business Strategy’s special issue on “Innovative and Established Research Methods in Family Business” in 2014, methodological research has devel...
Article
Full-text available
This study explores how environmental knowledge and risk perception influence individuals’ sustainable consumption behavior through the mediation of environmental concern and behavioral intention. The study combines constructs from earlier studies to form a novel theoretical model, which is tested and validated with an open data set from the Enviro...
Chapter
Full-text available
*** This is an updated version of the 2017 chapter in the same edited volume *** Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) has become a popular method for estimating path models with latent variables and their relationships. A common goal of PLS-SEM analyses is to identify key success factors and sources of competitive advantage...
Book
Este libro ha sido concebido como una ampliación del Manual de Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) (segunda edición) (2019). El manual está diseñado como un guía práctica de fácil manejo para abordar los siguientes contenidos avanzados de PLS-SEM: • Modelos de componentes jerárquicos o de orden superior • Modelización, esti...
Article
Appreciation is an ingredient that is essential for enhancing customers’ postconsumption service evaluations; nevertheless, few studies have explored its role in the context of ethnic restaurants. This article aims to examine appreciation’s effects on customers’ behavioral intention by first considering the cultural effects. This study develops and...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – This research proposes guidelines for the joint use of partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) and fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) to combine symmetric and asymmetric perspectives in model evaluation, in the hospitality and tourism field. Design/methodology/approach – Our study discusses PLS-SEM as...
Article
Full-text available
The relevance and prominence of the partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) method has recently increased in higher education research, especially in explanatory and predictive studies. We therefore first aim to assess previous PLS-SEM applications by providing a systematic review; second, we aim to highlight and summarize impo...
Article
Full-text available
Generalized structured component analysis (GSCA) is a technically well-established approach to component-based structural equation modeling that allows for specifying and examining the relationships between observed variables and components thereof. GSCA provides overall fit indexes for model evaluation, including the goodness-of-fit index (GFI) an...
Book
Questo manuale, versione italiana del bestseller A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling, presenta con un linguaggio accessibile e con un approccio orientato alla pratica il metodo noto come Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM), o modelli di equazioni strutturali basati sui minimi quadrati parziali. Qu...
Article
This research contributes to customer satisfaction knowledge with regard to accommodation in South Africa whose star grading differs. A multi-group analysis and an importance-performance map analysis by means of PLS-SEM allow us to differentiate between service quality performance scores and their influences on customer satisfaction across accommod...
Article
Purpose-Considering the scant scholarly research on elderly customers' behaviors, this study aims to investigate elderly customers' reactions to service failure. Additionally, it takes into account customers' emotions and abilities to cope with stressful situations and achieve successful problem-solving complaining. In particular, future time persp...
Article
Purpose: This research introduces the combined use of partial least squares–structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) and necessary condition analysis (NCA) that enables researchers to explore and validate hypotheses following a sufficiency logic, as well as hypotheses drawing on a necessity logic. The authors’ objective is to encourage the practice o...
Article
Full-text available
Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) has become a standard tool for analyzing complex interrelationships between observed and latent variables in tourism and numerous other fields of scientific inquiry. Along with the recent surge in the method's use, research has contributed several complementary methods for assessing the r...
Article
Full-text available
Examining the efficacy of composite-based structural equation modeling (SEM) features prominently in research. However, studies analyzing the efficacy of corresponding estimators usually rely on factor model data. Thereby, they assess and analyze their performance on erroneous grounds (i.e., factor model data instead of composite model data). A pot...
Article
Mediation and conditional process analyses have become popular approaches for examining the mechanisms by which effects operate and the factors that influence them. To estimate mediation models, researchers often augment their structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses with additional regression analyses using the PROCESS macro. This duality is su...
Book
This volume contains research contributions by an international group of authors addressing innovative and technology-based approaches for supply chain management. They present business models and investment options for enhanced strategic decision making as well as recent approaches for supply chain analytics and risk management. This volume, edite...
Book
This volume contains research contributions by an international group of authors addressing innovative and technology-based approaches for logistics and sustainability. They present simulation studies, systems and models for optimizations and digitalized solutions with a focus on maritime as well port and city logistics. This volume, edited by Carl...
Article
Full-text available
Higher-order constructs, which facilitate modeling a construct on a more abstract higher-level dimension and its more concrete lower-order subdimensions, have become an increasingly visible trend in applications of partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Unfortunately, researchers frequently confuse the specification, estimati...
Article
Full-text available
Partial least squares path modeling (PLSPM) and generalized structural component analysis (GSCA) constitute composite-based structural equation modeling (SEM) methods, which have attracted considerable interest among methodological and applied researchers alike. Methodological extensions of PLSPM and GSCA have appeared at rapid pace, producing diff...
Article
Energy market transition, which is enabled by new affordable energy technologies and digitalization, opens novel opportunities for developing innovative energy solutions. These new technologies facilitate energy consumers to become local energy prosumers i.e. consumers and producers of energy using renewable energy sources. Hence, a central questio...
Article
Purpose Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) is an important statistical technique in the toolbox of methods that researchers in marketing and other social sciences disciplines frequently use in their empirical analyses. The purpose of this paper is to shed light on several misconceptions that have emerged as a result of the...
Chapter
What does it take to obtain 200,000 citations or more in the wider field of business administration? A Nobel Prize (or two) wouldn’t be amiss. Lacking such kudos, you need to be Joseph F. Hair, the author of the book on Multivariate Data Analysis, which has garnered 100,000+ citations since its publication in 1979 (Google Scholar, July 2018). A Pri...
Article
Prior research has validated the importance of consumer delight and satisfaction for explaining consumer loyalty. This study extends our existing knowledge of how delight and satisfaction affect (in a nonlinear way) consumer loyalty. It explains a negative quadratic relationship between satisfaction and loyalty intentions, as well as a negative cub...
Chapter
Die effektive Nutzung von Erfolgspotenzialen bestimmt die Wettbewerbsfähigkeit von Supply Chains und Unternehmen in der Logistikindustrie. Neben klassischen Erfolgsbereichen wie beispielsweise Kosten und Flexibilität (Kersten, von See, & Wichmann, 2015; Kersten & Singer, 2011), müssen Unternehmen – insbesondere mit Blick auf die Herausforderungen d...
Book
This volume contains research contributions by an international group of authors addressing innovative and technology-based approaches for logistics and sustainability. They present simulation studies, systems, and models for optimizations and digitalized solutions with a focus on maritime as well port and city logistics. This volume, edited by Car...
Book
This volume contains research contributions by an international group of authors addressing innovative and technology-based approaches for supply chain management. They present business models and investment options for enhanced strategic decision making as well as recent approaches for supply chain analytics and risk management. This volume, edite...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose This paper provides a comprehensive, yet concise, overview of the considerations and metrics required for PLS-SEM analysis and result reporting. Preliminary considerations are summarized first, including reasons for choosing PLS-SEM, recommended sample size in selected contexts, distributional assumptions, use of secondary data, statistica...
Article
Full-text available
Our study contributes by providing new insights into the relationship between the individual levels of the antecedents and how the intention of whistleblowing is moderated by perceived organizational support (POS), team norms (TNs), and perceived moral intensity (PMI). In this paper, we argue that the intention of both internal and external whistle...
Article
Full-text available
Commonly used discrete choice model analyses (e.g., probit, logit and multinomial logit models) draw on the estimation of importance weights that apply to different attribute levels. But directly estimating the importance weights of the attribute as a whole, rather than of distinct attribute levels, is challenging. This article substantiates the us...
Article
Purpose Grounded on substantial theories and service concept models, this paper aims at proposing a novel patient satisfaction index (PSI) model. This model allows for identifying the key sources of patient satisfaction and for comparing performance results across hospitals competing on the national and international health-care market. The PSI is...
Article
Regulators need a method that is versatile, is easy to use and can handle complex path models with latent (not directly observable) variables. In a first application of partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) in financial stress testing, we demonstrate how PLS-SEM can be used to explain the transmission of systemic risk. We mod...