Christian Reynolds

Christian Reynolds
City, University of London · Centre for Food Policy

PhD Applied Mathematics, B IntStudies (Hons) B Eco

About

169
Publications
49,678
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Introduction
Dr Christian Reynolds is Senior Lecturer at the Centre for Food Policy, City University, London. Christian’s research examines the economic and environmental impacts of food consumption; with focus upon food waste, sustainable diets and cookery, and the political power of food in international relations.
Additional affiliations
August 2014 - present
University of Aberdeen
Position
  • Research Associate
March 2014 - present
University of South Australia
Position
  • Adjunt Research Fellow
November 2013 - March 2014
University of South Australia
Position
  • Research Assistant

Publications

Publications (169)
Article
Full-text available
This paper identifies and summarises food-waste prevention interventions at the consumption/consumer stage of the supply chain via a rapid review of academic literature from 2006-2017. We identify 17 applied interventions that claim to have achieved food waste reductions. Of these, 13 quantified food waste reductions. Interventions that changed the...
Article
Food is widely acknowledged as a significant contributor to climate change. Yet, estimates of food-related greenhouse gas emissions frequently consider supply chain stages only up to farm gate or regional distribution centres. Here, we estimate greenhouse gas emissions associated with different cooking methods and appliances in the UK. Data on curr...
Research
Full-text available
Citizen science and food is part of a new programme of work to explore how we can involve the communities we serve when building the evidence-base on which policy decisions are made. Citizen science is an approach that can provide high volumes of data with a wide geographic spread. It is relatively quick to deploy and allows access to evidence we...
Chapter
Full-text available
This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book demonstrates that the food waste problem affects all parts of the inhabited world. It describes concept of ‘vastogenesis’. Far from being devoid of, or separate from, regimes of value, ‘food/waste is both supportive of and necessar...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we discuss the use of natural language processing (NLP) and artificial intelligence (AI) to analyse nutritional and sustainability aspects of recipes and food. We present the state of the art and some use cases, followed by a discussion of challenges. Our perspective on addressing these is that while they typically have a technical n...
Presentation
Full-text available
Food waste management apps are designed to be food manager software, combined with a versatile shopping and cooking planner that helps citizens avoid food waste by tracking what they have and when it expires. In 2021 a team of researchers trialled the Gub Gub food waste management app at the University of Sheffield. This summary report provides...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Reducing both food waste and food plastic packaging waste in the household has major environmental and economic benefits. However, due to the high cost and resources required, limited empirical research has been conducted on this topic. This paper provides 2 a new modelling strategy for incorporating complicated household behaviours to answer trade...
Presentation
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About Dr Reynolds session - why should Dietitians attend? Global food production is the single largest driver of environmental degradation, climate instability and the transgression of planetary boundaries. To reduce the environmental impacts associated with food, we need to change dietary patterns. The EAT-Lancet commission proposed a global refer...
Presentation
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Introduction FoodEx2 consists of a vocabulary of foods with assigned codes, allowing the classification and description of foods reported in different types of data (food consumption, composition, or production method) [1]. At least 56 food consumption databases have been coded with FoodEx2 [2]. The linkage of greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) databa...
Technical Report
Full-text available
We commissioned the Centre for Food Policy at City, University of London and collaborative partners to carry out a Rapid Evidence Assessment (REA) on UK citizen perceptions of food sustainability. Overview The main research question addressed is: What does sustainability mean to UK citizens when it comes to food and diet? The report addresses the...
Article
Full-text available
Aimed at improving the quality of school meals, the Sustainable School Program (SSP) implemented low-carbon meals, twice a week, in 155 schools of 4 municipalities, reaching more than 32,000 students. This study evaluated the environmental impact and nutritional viability of this intervention for this population. The 15 most repeated meals from the...
Presentation
Full-text available
This contribution examines selected historic and contemporary “sustainable” and vegetarian recipes and cookbooks over time. Specifically, it investigates how the ingredients, methods, and environmental impacts of the food have been changing, and what this means for the future. We will first provide a literature review of the development of Europea...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
POLICIES FOR ACHIEVING HEALTHY SUSTAINABLE DIETS 1. EU Green Deal, alternative proteins and dietary shift - Dr Cindy Schoumacher– EU policy officer 2. Where are we now? Sustainability gaps in the UK & EU - Dr Rosemary Green, Associate Professor in Sustainability, UK MOVING FROM POLICIES TO PRACTICE 3. Persuasion and nudging towards healthier diet...
Poster
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The calculation of environmental impacts from recipes remains a barrier to effective uptake of sustainable diets. In our project, we use pilot digital humanities methods to explore digitised recipe texts from websites in English, Dutch and German. Using the natural language processing toolkit GATE [1], we have developed customised tools to automati...
Presentation
Full-text available
A barrier to the adoption of low carbon diets is the lack of quantification of embodied greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) at the level of a recipe and/or portion, rather than the ingredient per 100g. This lack of quantification is also a barrier to the deployment of carbon labels for the out of home/hospitality sector due to there being no quick meth...
Article
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Background The consumption of ultra-processed foods has increased worldwide and has been related to the occurrence of obesity and other non-communicable diseases. However, little is known about the environmental effects of ultra-processed foods. We aimed to assess the temporal trends in greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE), water footprint, and ecologic...
Article
Full-text available
To enhance sustainability, the food system requires shifts in production, processing and supply. Ideally, a sustainable food system should operate, not only to protect the biosphere, but also to provide nutritious, high-quality food, support social values, an equitable economy, and human and animal health. It should be governed responsibly within a...
Presentation
Full-text available
Of the 1.3 billion tonnes of global food loss and waste, meat waste is estimated to be 4%. This is equivalent to ~19% of global meat production, and is linked to much of the greenhouse gas emissions and other environmental impacts related to food loss and waste. One method to reduce the environmental impact of meat is to reduce global food loss and...
Article
The current pilot study explored food insecurity, food waste, food related behaviours and cooking confidence of UK consumers following the COVID-19 lockdown. Data were collected from 473 UK based consumers (63% female) from in March 2020. A cross-sectional online survey measured variables including, food insecurity prevalence, self-reported food wa...
Presentation
Full-text available
In the last decade, issues relating to food waste and loss and sustainable diets have rapidly risen up the social and political agenda. There is no doubt that they will feature heavily in the discussions at the UN Climate Change Conference (COP26) in Glasgow later this year. Indeed, the food system is estimated to contribute up to 37% of global gre...
Chapter
Full-text available
The food system is hugely complex, with different actors, different geographic areas and cultural contexts. The literature on ‘citizen science’ related to food, and food systems, is concentrated primarily in a few key areas of this complex system (i.e. health and food production); but citizen science has the potential to help address many grand cha...
Article
Full-text available
This paper draws upon the concept of recreancy to examine the mental well-being of university students during the Covid-19 pandemic. Briefly, recreancy is loss of societal trust that results when institutional actors can no longer be counted on to perform their responsibilities. Our study of mental well-being and recreancy focuses on the role of un...
Article
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Purpose The study aims to compare survey recruitment rates between Facebook, Twitter and Qualtrics and to assess the impact of recruitment method on estimates of energy content, food safety, carbon footprint and animal welfare across 29 foods. Design/methodology/approach Two versions of an online survey were developed on the citizen science platfo...
Article
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High levels of arsenic in drinking water and food materials continue to pose a global health challenge. Over 127 million people alone in Bangladesh (BD) and West Bengal (WB) state of India are exposed to elevated levels of arsenic in drinking water. Despite decades of research and outreach, arsenic awareness in communities continue to be low. Speci...
Article
Full-text available
Food systems are significant sources of global greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE). Since emission intensity varies greatly between different foods, changing food choices towards those with lower GHGE could make an important contribution to mitigating climate change. Public engagement events offer an opportunity to communicate these multifaceted issues...
Article
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Public sector catering outlets have been proposed as ideal places to try new, sustainable food choice interventions. We report on promotions conducted during 2019 as part of a "living lab" at the University of Sheffield Students' Union. Living labs involve staging interventions or experiments in a real-world setting that are carefully monitored and...
Article
Full-text available
With an increasing focus on the uptake of healthy and sustainable diets, a growing body of research has explored consumer perceptions and understanding of the environmental impacts and safety of foods. However, this body of research has used a wide range of methods to recruit participants, which can influence the results obtained. The current resea...
Presentation
Full-text available
Analysis of digitised or digital recipes is a new and upcoming field of research, with publications linked to nutritional and health studies, computational linguistics, computational gastronomy, online shopping recommendations, and the semantic web published over the last 3-5 years. However, contemporary recipe analysis is underdeveloped in terms o...
Presentation
Full-text available
Background: We aim to assess the trends in the consumption of unprocessed or minimally processed, processed, and ultra-processed animal products, and the environmental impacts associated with them. Methods: We have used data from five Brazilian Household Budget Surveys (1987, 1996, 2003, 2009, 2017). Animal products (beef, pork, poultry, eggs, fis...
Article
Full-text available
Food is widely acknowledged as a major contributor to climate change but estimates of food-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions frequently consider supply chain stages only up to the farm gate or regional distribution centres. Here we estimate GHG emissions associated with different cooking methods and appliances in the UK. Data on current cookin...
Article
Full-text available
Food loss and food waste are urgent global problems relating to environmental and social challenges including biodiversity loss, climate change, health, and malnutrition. Reduction targets have been set, including Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 12.3, which aims to halve per capita food waste at retail and consumer levels globally by 2030, as we...
Presentation
Full-text available
Citizen science has been used for environmental and cosmology research for many years, but can it be applied to food. This presentation will explore the rapid developments in how we can use citizens and communities to research and educate about food.
Article
Purpose Participation in urban horticulture (UH) is increasing in popularity, and evidence is emerging about the wide range of social and environmental benefits “grow your own” can also provide. UH can increase mental and physical wellbeing, as well as improve nature connectedness, social capital and community cohesion. Approach This study focuses...
Article
Full-text available
Food waste is an issue of global importance. Households generate more food waste than any other source in high- and middle-income countries. There are many solutions to reduce household food waste, but measurement of the impact of each solution is costly, and therefore usually not undertaken. This is a major barrier to decision makers adopting the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background: Ultra-processed foods (UPF) have been associated with major diet-related public health issues that share underlying drivers with climate change. Both challenges require major changes to the food system and so the potential benefits to health and the environment present a double motivation for transformation. Our aim is to assess the imp...
Presentation
Full-text available
A set of slides for the Roundtable: Digitizing Food in the Book, at Food and the Book: 1300-1800. The slides describe the activities of the AHRC US-UK Food Digital Scholarship Network. This network was funded by the Arts & Humanities Research Council (Grant Reference: AH/S012591/1). https://www.newberry.org/10022020-food-and-book-1300-1800
Article
Recent high-level reports state the population should decrease meat consumption to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, as well as improve public health. This calls for new strategies to change dietary habits, especially as many consumers are reluctant to eat less meat. This study tests the effect of labelling a meat-based ready meal with differe...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The report focuses on the role that food loss and waste (FLW) could play in reducing the environmental footprint of food systems while attempting to meet the caloric and nutrient needs of a population expected to increase by 3 billion people in the next 30 years. The performance of the global food system over the last century has been extraordinary...
Presentation
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown has impacted UK (and global) food habits, influencing what and where consumers eat. This presentation will delve into the results of three pilot online surveys (n=473, 701, 1,234) run in March-April 2020. Each of the studies looked at aspects of UK citizen perception including food insecurity, food waste generatio...
Chapter
Full-text available
Unsustainable production and consumption of food constitutes one of the biggest environmental threats to our planet. Eliminating food loss and waste to the largest extent possible – at all stages from producer to final consumer – stands out as an urgent and indispensable step towards more sustainable food systems. In fact, recent research shows tha...
Article
The paper provides an economic model of food waste for consumers, intermediaries and farmers based on first principles. We distinguish between purchases and sales for each intermediary, purchases and consumption for consumers, and gross production versus sales for farmers. Because of waste at each stage of the supply chain, agents need higher sales...
Article
Full-text available
There is a food knowledge disconnect between the food research community, and the general population. Food experts know detailed information about foods, but there is a lack of understanding about what citizens know. Citizen science has been used successfully in various fields however, is virtually absent from food research. This pilot study explor...
Article
Full-text available
Consumption of rice and rice products can be a significant exposure pathway to inorganic arsenic (iAs), which is a group 1 carcinogen to humans. The UK follows the current European Commission regulations so that iAs concentrations must be < 0.20 mg kg⁻¹ in white (polished) rice and <0.25 mg kg⁻¹ in brown (unpolished) rice. However, iAs concentratio...
Poster
Full-text available
The cooking of food is a nexus point for multiple issues. Cooking is intertwined with dietary choices, affects the nutrient content and environmental impacts of food, and is linked to time use and gender roles in the home. Due to its intersectionality, changing cooking practices can potentially impact upon multiple Sustainable Development Goals. Ho...
Article
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted global food systems and consumer eating habits. The current study explores how country of origin and ethical status information impacts attitudes toward food. Methods: A within-subjects survey design explored how perceptions of food safety/risk, animal welfare, deliciousness, purchase intention, energy...
Preprint
FILES is a research collaboration involving a number of academics and student union officers from across England, Northern Ireland and the USA. The group's key objective is to research food insecurity and lived experiences of students in Higher Education. Food insecurity has been explored in other populations, but no evidence has been presented tha...
Article
Full-text available
Reduction in the amount of food loss and waste requires appropriate quantification method of the amount of food loss annually on the one hand and devising alternative use for foods that would otherwise end up as loss or waste. In this review, food loss and waste (FLW) were classified as avoidable, non-avoidable and possibly avoidable wastes based o...
Presentation
Full-text available
The 2019 Eat-Lancet report has proposed a global healthy sustainable diet, which would provide not only for human health but also sustain a healthy planet. The main recommendations are to increase consumption of healthy foods (such as vegetables, fruits, whole grains, legumes, and nuts), and a decrease in consumption of unhealthy foods (such as red...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The 2019 Eat-Lancet report has proposed a global healthy sustainable diet, which would provide not only for human health but also sustain a healthy planet. The main recommendations are to increase consumption of healthy foods (such as vegetables, fruits, whole grains, legumes, and nuts), and a decrease in consumption of unhealthy foods (such as red...
Preprint
Full-text available
We provide this response to highlight data collected through online survey research. Our most important finding is that UK citizens typically perceive individual items of food to be higher risk following the UK lockdown. By risk we mean increased likelihood that eating the food would damage their health due to risks of contamination, food poisoning...
Preprint
Full-text available
The COVID19 pandemic has led to major disruptions in the UK and global food systems. The response by the UK government has been uncoordinated and inadequate. Our research highlights the broad range of policy input needed for food governance (at least 16 departments, plus multiple public bodies and agencies). Our research also highlights that while...
Article
Full-text available
Food systems contribute to up to 37% of global greenhouse gas emissions, and emissions are increasing. Since the emissions vary greatly between different foods, citizens’ choices can make a big difference to climate change. Public engagement events are opportunities to communicate these complex issues: to raise awareness about the impact of citizen...
Presentation
Full-text available
So, you ditched plastic straws and stirrers, but you’re unclear how else you can get drastic with plastic. Are cans better than bottles, will your customers know what to do with compostable cups and, is it really possible to go clingfilm free in a commercial kitchen? Delve deeper into the impact of plastics and hear from those who’ve gone cold turk...
Preprint
Full-text available
Waste input-output (WIO) model is a suitable method to explore the nexus between economic activities and waste management. Contemporary research that typically explores this nexus follows two main aspects: either they consider Final demand as a whole, or they identify the nexus between households, with different types of socio-demographic indicator...
Article
Waste input-output (WIO) model is a suitable method to explore the nexus between economic activities and waste management. Contemporary research that typically explores this nexus follows two main aspects: either they consider Final demand as a whole, or they identify the nexus between households, with different types of socio-demographic indicator...
Presentation
Full-text available
Though a mainstay of nutritional and dietary research, dietary surveys have had limited use by the food history research community since the early 2000s. The exception to this is the recent publication by Trubek (2017) focusing on the evolution of US cookery habits , and Oddy's (2003) review of British Diet from the 1890s to the 1990s. This talk ex...
Preprint
Full-text available
Overwhelming evidence shows that overconsumption of meat is bad for human and environmental health and that moving towards a more plant-based diet is more sustainable. For instance, replacing beef with beans in the US could free up 42% of US cropland and reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 334 mmt, accomplishing 75% of the 2020 carbon reduction targ...
Article
Full-text available
Overwhelming evidence shows that overconsumption of meat is bad for human and environmental health and that moving towards a more plant-based diet is more sustainable. For instance, replacing beef with beans in the US could free up 42% of US cropland and reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 334 mmt, accomplishing 75% of the 2020 carbon reduction targ...
Chapter
The food waste reduction potential within the countries of the Middle East and Africa is large and understudied. Countries in the region are faced with food security and sovereignty issues, with over 50% of food imported in some countries. Due to the many differences in this region, this chapter highlights the state of food waste in two prominent c...
Chapter
Though there are great efforts to reduce and prevent food waste from occurring, some food waste is unavoidable. Due to the continued creation of unavoidable food waste, the proper disposal and treatment of food waste is an absolute priority. This chapter outlines the “lower” downstream recycling, recovery and disposal aspects of the food waste hier...
Chapter
The generation of food waste at both the supplier and the consumer levels stems from a complex set of interacting behaviours. Computational and mathematical models provide various methods to simulate, diagnose and predict different aspects within the complex system of food waste generation and prevention. This chapter outlines four different modell...
Chapter
This chapter reviews the existing food waste research in Australia and New Zealand. It then examines the history and development of food waste policy in Australia and New Zealand, the drivers and composition of food waste in New Zealand, along with the economic and social impacts and what potential interventions might be helpful. This includes high...
Article
Full-text available
Cooking practices play a pivotal role in a healthy diet and lifestyle. Cooking is intertwined with dietary choices. To achieve a sustainable food system, we need to change how we cook and prepare food, along with the time we use to prepare and cook food. Cooking practices involve a variety of parameters such as cooking times, method of cooking (e.g...