Christian Montag

Christian Montag
Ulm University | UULM · Institute of Psychology and Education

Prof. Dr.
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About

490
Publications
198,458
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Introduction
Christian Montag is interested in the molecular genetics of personality and emotions. He combines molecular genetics with brain imaging techniques such as structural/functional MRI to better understand individual differences in human nature. Adding to this he conducts research in the fields of Neuroeconomics and addiction including new approaches from Psychoinformatics.
Additional affiliations
April 2016 - May 2022
University of Electronic Science and Technology of China
Position
  • Professor
September 2014 - present
Ulm University
Position
  • Head of Molecular Psychology
October 2006 - September 2014
University of Bonn
Position
  • Researcher / Lecturer

Publications

Publications (490)
Chapter
The aim of this chapter is to introduce and describe how digital technologies, in particular smartphones, can be used in research in two areas, namely (i) to conduct personality assessment and (ii) to assess and promote physical activity. This area of research is very timely, because it demonstrates how the ubiquitously available smartphone technol...
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Gambling Disorder (GD) is a prominent psychiatric disorder affecting individuals worldwide. Research suggests that key risk factors for GD include stressful life events (SLEs) and specific psychological factors, such as gambling-related cognitive distortions. The present study investigated the potential mediating role of specific psychological fact...
Article
Background Prevention in psychiatry provides a promising way to address the burden of mental illness. However, established approaches focus on specific diagnoses and do not address the heterogeneity and manifold potential outcomes of help-seeking populations that present at early recognition services. Conceptualizing the psychopathology manifested...
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In this commentary paper, it is discussed if Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder (CSBD) is best categorized as an Impulse Control Disorder, an Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder or in light of the overlap of characteristics with both Gaming and Gambling Disorder as an addictive behavior. The overlapping features are: loss of control over the respective...
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Background and aims We aimed to systematically identify, evaluate and summarize the research on adolescent emotion dysregulation and problematic technology use. We critically appraise strengths and limitations and provide recommendations for future research. Methods We followed the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews...
Article
The present study investigates the relationship between Gaming Disorder (GD) and how gaming motives might differ between three groups of gamers. The first group stated to be professional gamers (n = 129; 2,49%), the second group consisted of non-professional gamers, who intended to become professional gamers (n = 646; 12,45%), and the third group w...
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Individual differences in the magnitude of semantic priming effects are associated with executive functions (EF). Striatal dopamine has been shown to be associated with EF as well as impulsivity and could therefore be associated with differences in the magnitude of semantic priming. We investigated n = 155 individuals in an unmasked as well as in a...
Article
Studies that apply digital phenotyping and mobile sensing strategies have increased in recent years enabling a better understanding of psychiatric and psychological conditions, as well as neurodegenerative disorders. Although in this context the study of so-called “digital biomarkers” is proliferating, few studies have actually linked digital footp...
Article
Introduction: There are currently no approved drug interventions for social behavior dysfunction in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previous trials investigating effects of daily intranasal oxytocin treatment have reported inconsistent results and have not combined it with positive social interaction. However, in two preclinical studies we establi...
Preprint
Background Accumulating evidence suggests brain structural and functional alterations in Internet Use Disorder (IUD). However, conclusions are strongly limited due to the retrospective case-control design of the studies, small samples, and the focus on general rather than symptom-specific approaches. Methods We here employed a dimensional multi-me...
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The present data set contains self-report data of German individuals participating in a longitudinal data assessment via online surveys conducted in the year before general elections in Germany. Data of N = 122 individuals are included in the data set. Those individuals participated in an initial, extensive survey between November 2020 and February...
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The WHO recently included Gaming Disorder as a psychiatric diagnosis. Whether there are distinct groups of adolescents who differ based on severity of gaming disorder and their relationships with other mental health and addictive behavior outcomes, including problematic smartphone use (PSU), remains unclear. The current study explored and identifie...
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Introduction The American Psychiatric Association (APA) proposed ‘Internet Gaming Disorder’ (IGD) as a tentative disorder (APA framework) in 2013 and in 2019 the World Health Organization (WHO) has fully recognized ‘Gaming Disorder’ (GD) as a mental health disorder (WHO framework). These two frameworks have not yet been jointly investigated in the...
Preprint
Recent years have seen a sharp rise in studies linking digital phenotypes to psychological functions. Digital phenotyping has been defined as the prediction of psychological traits and states from digital variables, which typically includes mobile sensing via smartphone data logs, smartphone sensors, and social media activity. The psychological sci...
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Background and aims With the inclusion of gaming disorder in the ICD-11, diagnostic criteria were introduced for this relatively new disorder. These criteria may also be applied to other potential specific Internet-use disorders, which may be classified in ICD-11 as other disorders due to addictive behaviors, such as online buying-shopping disorder...
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Nowadays, customers can utilize both online and in-store retail channels. Consequently, it is crucial for retailers to understand the possible drivers of retail channel selection, including customers’ personalities, degrees of trust, and product touch preferences. Unfortunately, current omnichannel research only scarcely addresses the effects of pe...
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The aim of this study was to investigate if and how disordered gaming, loneliness, and family relations have changed throughout the COVID-19 pandemic (from 2019 to 2021), and if there were any changes in the association between these variables across three samples of gamers (for each respective year). Samples from 2019, 2020, and 2021 were matched...
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Jaak Panksepp’s Affective Neuroscience Theory is of high relevance not only for a better under- standing of affective brain disorders but also in personality research. To make Panksepp’s theory more accessible for psychologists and psychiatrists, Davis, Panksepp, and Normansell (2003) developed the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales (ANPS)....
Article
Scientific literature suggests that Neuroticism is an important predictor in understanding individual differences in anxiety-related coping styles such as vigilance (positive association) and cognitive avoidance (negative association). Considering Pankseppian Affective Neuroscience (AN) theory could contribute to understand these relationships more...
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The amount of money individuals were willing to accept (WTA) to discontinue using prominent Chinese social media platforms (WeChat/QQ), the willingness to pay (WTP) for using these platforms, as well as WTA/WTP disparities were investigated in between-groups and within-subjects design studies to examine their existence, size, and psychological corr...
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Recently there has been increased interest in understanding the relationship between microtransactions, gaming, and gambling. This review aimed to synthesise the evidence on the relationship between microtransactions, ‘Internet Gaming Disorder’ (IGD), and Gambling Disorder in order to report on the: psychometric assessments used, sampling and demog...
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Playing computer and video games (so-called gaming ) is of great popularity among children and adults. But for some people, gaming gets out of hand and can result in a Gaming Disorder (GD). Among others, high neuroticism and low conscientiousness are considered to play a role in the etiology of GD. Next to personality traits, environmental variable...
Article
A growing number of scientists investigate possible negative side-effects of digital technology. Problematic usage of the Internet (PUI) covers addictive, hazardous, harmful and unsafe use. The present paper scrutinizes what we actually know about the costs arising from PUI. It becomes apparent that PUI is related to mental and physical health, soc...
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Introduction There are reports of an increase in depressive symptoms and fear during the COVID-19 pandemic, in particular in patients with depression. This study investigates factors related to fear of COVID-19 in former inpatients suffering from depression and healthy controls by assessing variables typically associated with depression and anxiety...
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More than three billion users are currently on one of Meta’s online platforms with Facebook being still their most prominent social media service. It is well known that Facebook has designed a highly immersive social media service with the aim to prolong online time of its users, as this results in more digital footprints to be studied and monetize...
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We retrieved the current profile picture of 2234 Italian Facebook users who also answered self-report questionnaires on demographic variables and personality. Data were collected between March and June 2018 using a Facebook wep application. Profile pictures consisting of 200 × 200 resolution jpegs were obtained by sending a request via the Facebook...
Article
Background ‘Gaming Disorder’ (GD) is now an officially recognized mental health disorder according to the World Health Organization (WHO) framework while ‘Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) remains as a tentative disorder as per the American Psychiatric Association (APA) framework. Although both GD and IGD reflect disordered gaming tendencies marked by...
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Background Common elements across different forms of addiction suggest the possibility of comorbid addictions, as well as the transition/replacement of one form of addiction with another. This study aimed to conduct a Network analysis of symptoms of 10 forms of addictive behaviors to examine their behavioral commonalities/ interrelations. Methods:...
Preprint
There are currently no approved drug interventions for social behavior dysfunction in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previous trials investigating effects of daily intranasal oxytocin treatment have reported inconsistent results and have not combined it with positive social interaction. However, In two preclinical studies we established that treat...
Chapter
In annually published focused volumes, the series ‘Health Research. Interdisciplinary Perspectives (G.IP)’ deals with questions and problems in the field of health. The aim is to take the claim of interdisciplinary re-search seriously and to present the latest results from health research on current topics for discussion across disciplines and prof...
Article
This study aimed to examine the degree of homogeneity versus heterogeneity of individuals’ political information environments across offline and online media types and relations with sociodemographic variables, personality, and political attitudes. In two online surveys, German participants (sample 1: N = 686; sample 2: N = 702) provided informatio...
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Disordered gaming has gained increased medical attention and was recently included in the eleventh International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) by the World Health Organization (WHO) after its earlier inclusion in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (fifth revision) (DSM-5) as an emerging disorder by the American Psychiat...
Article
Numerous psychological variables are associated with self-reported/estimated smartphone use in college students. However, less is known about how additional psychological variables involving academic study and productivity relate to objectively-measured smartphone usage, such as procrastination, surface learning, and academic productivity. We admin...
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Digital data are abundantly available for researchers in the age of the Internet of Things. In the psychological and psychiatric sciences such data can be used in myriad ways to obtain insights into mental states and traits. Most importantly, such data allow researchers to record and analyze behavior in a real-world context, a scientific approach w...
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Understanding individual differences in attitudes towards Artificial Intelligence (AI) is of importance, among others in system development. Against this background, we sought to investigate associations between personality and attitudes towards AI. Relations were investigated in samples from two countries—Germany and China—to find potentially repl...
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A validated Chinese version of Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised (EDS-R) is currently lacking. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the psychometric properties of this translated scale in a Chinese sample. Following a forward–backward translation of the EDS-R, the Chinese version (EDS-C) and validated scales assessing associated constructs were ad...
Article
Fear of Missing Out (FoMO) is associated with self-reported problematic smartphone use (PSU) severity, but there is little investigation that includes objectively measured smartphone use. The aim of the current study was to provide insights into this domain. We combined the partially published data from two previous U.S.-based studies with college...
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The eleventh revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11), Gaming Disorder (GD) distinguished between disordered gaming occurring predominantly online, offline, and/or unspecified. Currently, no previous study has investigated whether such a distinction is meaningful in diagnosing disordered gaming. Therefore, a large group of...
Article
Risk factors for problematic smartphone use (PSU) have rapidly become an important area of research due to the prevalence of smartphones and functional impairment associated with PSU. Our aim was to examine relations between established predictors of PSU (depression and anxiety) and a potential mediator of PSU (anxiety sensitivity; AS). Participant...
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The aim of the current study was to investigate how problematic online gaming, problematic online gambling, problematic online shopping, problematic online pornography use, and problematic online social networking are associated with each other in bivariate and multivariate, network analytic analyses in an international gamer population. The effect...
Article
Data protection became an increasingly important topic in today’s digital society. With regard to messaging applications, WhatsApp especially has been at the center of discussion. Despite the existence of alternative messaging applications seemingly protecting one’s data more than WhatsApp does, individuals seem to rarely use these alternatives. Th...
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To understand what was driving individual differences in voting intentions in a large German sample, we investigated the predictability of voting intentions from the Big Five personality domains, facets, and nuances, thereby tackling shortcomings of previous studies. Using random forest analyses in a dataset of N = 4,286 individuals (46.01% men), s...
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Purpose of Review The present paper provides an accessible overview on the potential of digital phenotyping and mobile sensing not only shedding light on the nature of Internet Use Disorders (IUD), but also to provide new ideas on how to improve psycho-diagnostics of mental processes linked to IUD. Recent Findings In detail, the psycho-diagnostic...
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Recent evidence demonstrates that Internet Use Disorder tendencies (IUD; formerly known as Internet Addiction) are associated with higher tendencies toward autistic traits. In the present study, we aimed to further explore this association between IUD tendencies and autistic traits in a large cohort of German and Chinese subjects (total N = 1,524;...
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Recent years have seen a rise in research where so called “digital biomarkers” represent the focal study interest. Many researchers understand that digital biomarkers describe digital footprints providing insights into healthy and pathological human (neuro-)biology. Beyond that the term digital biomarker is also used at times to describe more gener...
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Problematic Internet and smartphone use (PIU and PSU, respectively) have received significant attention over the past years. In the current work, we studied the associations between PIU and PSU, primary emotional systems, and need satisfaction. The effective sample comprised 399 people who responded to scales measuring these variables. Bivariate co...
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Mounting evidence suggests that smartphone overuse/smartphone use disorder (SmUD) is associated with negative affectivity. Given a large number of smartphone users worldwide (currently about 4.7 billion) and the fact that many individuals carry their smartphones around 24/7, it is of high importance to better understand the phenomenon of smartphone...
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Understanding the psychological basis of individuals' voting intentions is of tremendous importance because voting for specific parties and politicians can influence political developments. In the present study associations of individuals’ satisfaction of each of Maslow’s five basic need categories with voting intentions were investigated in a Germ...
Article
The present work provides robust insights into how cognitive ability is correlated to personality traits. We investigated how cognitive ability (operationalized as facets of working memory capacity) is linked to the Big Five personality traits on broader domain- and facet-levels, as well as with individual personality inventory items. The effective...
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In the eleventh International Classification of Diseases (ICD‐11) of the World Health Organization, gambling disorder and gaming disorder are included in the category ‘disorders due to addictive behaviours’, which can be specified further as occurring either predominantly offline or predominantly online. Other specific problematic behaviours may be...
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The present study investigates links between fear of COVID-19, the personality trait of neuroticism, social networks use disorder, and smartphone use disorder (SNUD and SmUD, respectively) tendencies. In an online survey, N = 932 participants recruited at a Chinese University (237 males and 695 females) completed self-reports on fear of COVID-19, n...
Article
Zusammenfassung. Fragestellung: Es existiert eine Vielzahl von Begriffen für Verhaltenssüchte, die Mängel in Operationalisierung, Bezug zum Verhalten, Kompatibilität mit internationalen Klassifikationen sowie nicht stigmatisierender Nutzung aufweisen. Daher werden einheitliche Begriffe für Verhaltenssüchte benötigt. Methode: Im Rahmen einer Leitlin...
Article
Research has demonstrated that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with internet-related problematic behaviors. However, studies have not explored the linkage between PTSD symptoms and internet gaming disorder (IGD) symptoms. The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and IGD...
Preprint
Manifold different constructs have been discussed in the context of political attitudes. However, the multivariate relations between these concepts remain unknown. The present study, therefore, aimed at examining the underlying network and dimensionality of various constructs related to political attitudes.In an online survey, German individuals (N...
Article
This study was designed to measure the impact of smartphone usage among college students on their current academic success. We report the results from a survey among 99 undergraduate student iPhone users in a large Midwestern U.S. university. The survey combines objective smartphone use time directly obtained from Apple's ScreenTime feature with of...
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Full-text available
Research in the field of digital phenotyping and mobile sensing has seen a tremendous rise in interest over the last few years. The psychological and psychiatric sciences were early adopters of implementing these promising techniques into their research to better understand the human mind. The most often studied data to predict mental states and tr...
Preprint
The open science movement has taken up the important challenge to increase transparency of statistical analyses, to facilitate reproducibility of studies, and to enhance reusability of data sets. To counter the replication crisis in the psychological and related sciences, the movement also urges researchers to publish their primary data sets alongs...
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Despite the popularity of the WeChat social media platform in China, investigations on its overuse potential as well as personal characteristics being associated with problematic WeChat use are scarce. Against this background, correlations of personality and Fear of Missing Out (FoMO) on rewarding experiences with problematic WeChat use were examin...
Article
The fear of missing out on rewarding social experiences (FOMO) is an increasingly studied psychological construct, related to negative affectivity and increased online social engagement. Yet the heterogeneity of FOMO across individuals is not known. We conducted a latent profile analysis (LPA) of FOMO self‐report ratings to determine sample heterog...
Preprint
Full-text available
Prevention in psychiatry provides a promising way to address the burden by mental illness. However, established approaches focus on specific diagnoses and do not address the heterogeneity and manifold potential outcomes of help-seeking populations that present at early recognition services. Conceptualizing psychopathology manifested in help-seeking...
Article
Previous studies have linked polymorphisms of the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA uVNTR) and serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) to individual differences in the expression of psychopathic traits, but findings remain inconsistent. One possible reason is that these studies have treated psychopathy as a unitary construct when there is accumulating eviden...
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Full-text available
Automatic and strategic processes in semantic priming can be investigated with masked and unmasked priming tasks. Unmasked priming is thought to enable strategic processes due to the conscious processing of primes, while masked priming exclusively depends on automatic processes due to the invisibility of the prime. Besides task properties, interind...
Article
Background: Despite the benefits that may result from smartphone use, evidence increasingly indicates that smartphone use may also have negative consequences when used in a disordered manner. One major concept in this research domain is a putative smartphone use disorder. Objective: It is not known how a positive evaluation or acceptance of the sma...