Christian Kreuder-Sonnen

Christian Kreuder-Sonnen
Friedrich Schiller University Jena | FSU · Department of Political Science

Dr.

About

37
Publications
24,992
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
487
Citations
Citations since 2017
27 Research Items
455 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100
Introduction
I am assistant professor of international organizations in political science at Friedrich Schiller University Jena. My three main ongoing research projects are about 1) emergency politics and empowerment of international organizations; 2) the relationship between democracy problems inhering liberal international institutions and their current legitimacy crisis; 3) regime collisions in a fragmented global order and how they are managed.
Additional affiliations
September 2012 - present
WZB Berlin Social Science Center
Position
  • Research Associate

Publications

Publications (37)
Article
Full-text available
This article studies a conflict over two competing norms in which the actors demonstrated incompatible positions not through arguments, but through actions. During the SARS crisis, China and the World Health Organization (WHO) entered a norm conflict over the precedence of sovereignty or global health security. Both resorted to behavioural, not dis...
Book
Full-text available
Emergency Powers of International Organizations explores emergency politics of international organizations (IOs). It studies cases in which, based on justifications of exceptional necessity, IOs expand their authority, increase executive discretion, and interfere with the rights of their rule-addressees. This ''IO exceptionalism'' is observable in...
Article
Full-text available
The EU is increasingly shaped by emergency politics as a mode of rule. Other than the state of exception in domestic constitutions, emergency politics at the European level is largely unregulated-with important negative effects for the integrity and normative quality of the EU's legal and political order. This article discusses whether and how a Eu...
Article
Full-text available
This piece outlines the concept of emergency politics as it may be applied to EU politics, distinguishing it from more familiar terms such as crisis management. We define emergency politics as a mode of politics in which actions departing from convention are rationalised as necessary responses to exceptional and urgent threats. Arguably, the many c...
Article
Full-text available
The Liberal International Order (LIO) is under pressure from various angles. To account for this phenomenon, a recent trend is to focus on endogenous sources of contestation-institutional properties of the order that create negative feedback effects. In this article, we seize on and extend an endogenous explanation centring on the LIO's political s...
Book
Full-text available
While deaths and cases of severe illness due to COVID-19 are dropping in most parts of the EU, the Russian invasion of Ukraine in February 2022 shows that, regrettably, the theme of crisis on the European continent is – and will remain – topical. This is a dark moment for Europe, marked by tremendous human suffering in Ukraine, by the destabilizati...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter investigates how the International Organization for Migration (IOM) dramatically expanded its involvement in humanitarian emergencies over the past three decades. Building on insights from historical institutionalism in international relations, we hypothesize that crises which touch upon matters of migration may constitute opportunitie...
Article
Full-text available
Exceptional times call for exceptional measures – this formula is all too familiar in the domestic setting. Governments have often played loose with their state’s constitution in the name of warding off an urgent threat. But after decades of increasing interconnectedness and emerging transnational governance, today one sees new forms of emergency p...
Article
Full-text available
The increasing density and entanglement of international law and institutions leads to a growing potential for collisions between norms and rules emanating from different international institutions. It is an open question, however, when actors actually create manifest conflicts about overlapping norms and rules and how – and with what consequences...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper investigates how the International Organization for Migration (IOM) dramatically expanded its involvement in humanitarian emergencies over the past three decades. Building on insights from historical institutionalism in international relations, we hypothesize that crises which touch upon matters of migration may constitute opportunities...
Chapter
This chapter offers an International Relations perspective on the fragmented institutional landscape of ocean governance. Drawing on a series of international confrontations about straddling fish stocks – most prominently the EC-Chile swordfish dispute – it traces how fragmentation shapes states’ strategies in achieving their objectives and how the...
Article
Full-text available
Fragmentation, institutional overlaps, and norm collisions are often seen as fundamental problems for the global (legal) order. Supposedly, they incite conflict and disorder. However, some scholars have also emphasized functional and normative advantages of the resulting institutional pluralism. We argue that the consequences of the increasing inte...
Article
Full-text available
The standard narrative of the politicization literature regards the growing authority of international organizations (IOs) as the main driver of their politicization (authority-politicization nexus) which then drives their democratization (politicization- democratization nexus). While we agree with the authority-politicization nexus, we disagree wi...
Research
Full-text available
The liberal international order (LIO) is experiencing a legitimacy crisis in its Western heartland. What causes this crisis? Existing approaches focus on the LIO's unequal allocation of wealth and values that produces losers and thus breeds dissatisfaction. Yet, why this dissatisfaction translates into a delegitimation of the order rather than a co...
Chapter
Full-text available
Every state can find itself in a state of emergency, in which—by imposing a state of emergency—it has to suspend the law for a certain period of time in order to take all possible action against an existential threat or even its own destruction. Carl Schmitt described this situation as a ‘provisional dictatorship’. Such a situation occurs when the...
Chapter
The concluding chapter revisits the proportionality theory and assesses its explanatory power relative to the theoretical competitors by way of an aggregated cross-case comparison. It finds that the theory fares exceptionally well in both explaining single case outcomes and accounting for variance across cases. The model holds across a variety of i...
Chapter
Full-text available
The first chapter introduces the emergency problematique for the context of international organizations (IOs). While long tied to the nation-state, the internationalization of political authority in the last decades has now also rendered IOs potential and actual holders of emergency powers. In conversation with the relevant strands of research in i...
Chapter
Chapter 5 starts with an analysis of the establishment and normalization of the European “bailout regime” in the Euro crisis. In 2010, member states of the Eurogroup and EU institutions devised exceptional emergency credit facilities and created the so-called troika to devise and implement harsh austerity measures in recipient states. A combination...
Chapter
This chapter introduces a constitutional perspective on international organizations (IOs) that foregrounds the legally constituted relationship between authority-holders and authority-addressees. Distinct from the common principal–agent perspective, it paves the way for understanding IOs’ crisis-induced authority-leaps as an assumption of emergency...
Chapter
Full-text available
Chapter 6 analyzes two consecutive cases of exceptionalism in the World Health Organization (WHO). In the first case study, it explains how the WHO’s assumption of emergency powers in the 2003 SARS crisis led to their legal normalization. To confront the SARS outbreak, the WHO resorted to unprecedented emergency measures infringing on states’ sover...
Chapter
Chapter 3 develops a proportionality theory of IO emergency powers to account for the variable outcomes of normalization (ratchets) and containment (rollbacks). It posits that IO exceptionalism creates distributional consequences at the level of political autonomy that are positive for the governors and negative for the governed. Since IO authority...
Chapter
Chapter 4 applies the proportionality model to two cases of IO exceptionalism at the United Nations (UN) Security Council. First, it explains the normalization of the Council’s self-asserted emergency power to act as a global legislator. After 9/11, the Council, for the first time, decreed abstract, general, and indefinite rules to the entire inter...
Article
Full-text available
This paper applies the concept of emergency powers to the crisis politics of international organizations (IOs). In the recent past, IOs like the UN Security Council, the WHO, and the EU have reacted to large-scale crises by resorting to assertive governance modes bending the limits of their competence and infringing on the rights of the rule-addres...
Article
Full-text available
The DFG research group, "Overlapping Spheres of Authority and Interface Conflicts in the Global Order" (OSAIC), focuses on the rise of interface conflicts within and across overlapping spheres of authority. The increased institutional production of norms in the international realm leads to both horizontal interface conflicts at the same level of go...
Article
Full-text available
This article theorises the relationship of crisis and political secrecy in European public policy. Combining the literatures on crisis management and securitisation, it introduces two distinct types of crisis-related secrecy. (1) Reactive secrecy denotes the deliberate concealment of information from the public with the aim of reducing immediate ne...
Article
Full-text available
This contribution contends that the European Union (EU) has taken an authoritarian turn in the past crisis decade which needs to be systematically addressed in EU studies. Starting from an ideal-typical conception of scenarios for the EU's emergent political order, it argues that there has been a shift towards decisionist authority structures at bo...
Article
Full-text available
European Studies used to be dominated by legal and political science approaches which hailed the progress of European integration and its reliance on law. The recent set of crises that struck the EU have highlighted fundamental problems in the ways and means by which European integration unfolds. The quasi‐authoritarian emergency politics deployed...
Article
Full-text available
This essay analyzes the consequences of Contested Multilateralism (CM) for the level of constitutionalization of specific multilateral institutions. We argue that CM has implications for institutions’ constitutional quality in particular if it is polity-driven and not (merely) policy-driven, that is, when actors’ employment of alternative instituti...
Article
Full-text available
Political science analyses of the governance of the euro crisis largely build on conventional theories of European integration to account for the extent to which institutional developments either reflect supranationalism, intergovernmentalism, or historical path-dependencies. This analytical focus captures the usual integration dynamics and institu...
Article
Full-text available
The most recent transformation of world order is often depicted as a shift from a Westphalian to a post-Westphalian era in which international organizations are becoming increasingly independent sites of authority. This internationalization of authority is often considered as an indication of the constitutionalization of the global legal order. How...
Chapter
Full-text available
Consecutive international health crises have shifted both the center of authority and the public attribution of success and failure in emergency governance to the international level, especially the WHO. Against the background of the current Ebola crisis, critics call for a further delegation of authority to international institutions. As the exper...
Chapter
Consecutive international health crises have shifted both the center of authority and the public attribution of success and failure in emergency governance to the international level, especially the WHO. Against the background of the current Ebola crisis, critics call for a further delegation of authority to international institutions. As the exper...
Article
Full-text available
This article analyses the emergency governance of international organizations by combining securitization theory with legal theory on the state of exception. Our main argument is that where issues are securitized as global threats, exceptionalism can emerge at the level of supranational bodies, endowing them with the decisionist authority to define...
Chapter
Der Beitrag befasst sich mit der Anti-Terror-Politik des UN Sicherheitsrates, die im Kern aus drei außergewöhnlichen Sanktionsregimen besteht. Mit den Resolutionen 1267 (1999), 1373 (2001) und 1540 (2004), die auch als „quasi-Rechtsprechung“ und „Gesetzgebung“ durch den Sicherheitsrat bezeichnet werden, greift der Rat in die Grundrechte von Individ...

Network

Cited By

Projects

Projects (2)
Project
The institutional development of the World Health Organization (WHO) in the past two decades was markedly shaped by global public health emergencies. In the aftermath of the SARS crisis in 2003, the organization was delegated new legal authority to contain contagious disease outbreaks. In light of its contested performance during the H1N1 swine flu pandemic in 2009-10, however, member states cut WHO off the resources to fulfill its mandate. Finally, the coronavirus crisis has seen an intense politicization of the organization and the (preliminary) withdrawal of its most powerful member state. More often than not, IOs do not look the same before and after major crises in which they are involved. The shape of the European Union before and after the euro crisis attests to this as well as the International Organization for Migration in the context of the humanitarian crisis in Libya after 2011. However, the direction of change is undetermined. Broadly speaking, sometimes IOs emerge stronger form crises while sometimes they are weakened. How can this variation be explained? When are IOs able to use crises as opportunity and when do they function as constraint? What are the conditions under which crises either compel states to defer to the judgment of IOs or lead them to contest and defy? In this project, we intend to 1) gather data on comparable crises in world politics and IO responses to these crises; 2) theorize factors accounting for the different institutional IO trajectories; 3) test the theoretical expectations in both quantitative and qualitative studies.
Project
The research group, funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), focuses on the rise of interface conflicts within and across overlapping spheres of authority. The increased institutional production of norms in the international realm leads to both horizontal interface conflicts at the same level of governance (e.g. between international institutions) and vertical interface conflicts across different levels (e.g. between international and national authorities). Under which conditions become such conflicts manifest? What are the responses to conflicting norms and rules within and across overlapping spheres of authority? If responses are justified with reference to normative principles, what are these principles and how are they operationalized concretely? What consequences do the different ways of responding to interface conflicts have for the global order as a whole? With these questions, the research group moves beyond the study of issue-area specific international institutions or organizations, and targets the question of the international order understood as a system of overlapping and interacting spheres of authority. The interdisciplinary research group consists of thematic sub-projects in the fields of international relations and (international) law from Freie Universität Berlin, Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies (Geneva), Helmut-Schmidt-Universität (Hamburg), Hertie School of Governance (Berlin), Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, University of Potsdam, and the WZB Berlin Social Science Center.