Christian C Joyal

Christian C Joyal
Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières · Département de Psychologie

Ph.D.

About

87
Publications
110,744
Reads
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2,985
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2001 - present
Institut Philippe-Pinel de Montréal
Position
  • Resesarch
January 2001 - December 2001
Niuvanniemi Hospital
Position
  • PostDoc Position
September 1998 - December 1999
Harvard Medical School
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Education
February 2000 - December 2001
University of Helsinki
Field of study
  • Forensic psychiatry
August 1998 - September 1999
Harvard Medical School
Field of study
  • Neurology
September 1993 - August 1998
Université de Montréal
Field of study
  • Neuropsychology

Publications

Publications (87)
Article
Full-text available
IntroductionAlthough several theories and treatment plans use unusual sexual fantasies (SF) as a way to identify deviancy, they seldom describe how the fantasies referred to were determined to be unusual.AimThe main goal of this study was to determine which SF are rare, unusual, common, or typical from a statistical point of view among a relatively...
Article
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Abstract Paraphilic sexual interests are defined as unusual or anomalous, but their actual occurrence in non-clinical samples is still unknown. This study looks at desire for and experience of paraphilic behaviors in a sample of adult men and women in the general population. A secondary goal is to compare the results of two survey modes – tradition...
Article
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A growing number of studies have demonstrated that BDSM (Bondage/Discipline-Domination/Submission-Sadism/Masochism) practices are not signs of mental illness. However, the reasons for engaging in such behaviors are not well understood, especially for sexual masochism or submission (m/s). A thorough review of the literature was conducted, as well as...
Preprint
Full-text available
This is the preprint version of a chapter published in: L. A. Craig & R. M. Bartels (Eds.) 2021. Sexual Deviance: Understanding and Managing Deviant Sexual Interest and Paraphilic Disorders. Wiley. https://www.wiley.com/en-gb/Sexual+Deviance%3A+Understanding+and+Managing+Deviant+Sexual+Interests+and+Paraphilic+Disorders-p-9781119705833
Article
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Although paraphilic interests represent significant risk factors for recidivism among sexual offenders, little is known about the magnitude of concordance between paraphilic interests and behaviors in the general population. The goal of this follow-up study was to conduct secondary analyses based on a sample of 1040 adults (475 men; 565 women) recr...
Article
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Although risk factors associated with offending and recidivism are relatively well-established for mainstream sexual offenses, much less is known about men with a low IQ who have sexually offended (MIQSO), let alone those with forensic involvement. In this exploratory study, 137 convicted for the commission of at least one sexual offense and found...
Article
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Neurological cases of child sexual abuse (acquired pedophilia) are sometime used as evidence for the neuroanatomical bases of pedophilia. However, these cases seem to represent a more general syndrome of impulsivity or hypersexuality than a true modification of sexual interests. Therefore, acquired pedophilia may not be adequate to investigate the...
Article
Although most persons with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder are not aggressive, a minority is at higher risks to commit violent acts, especially in forensic settings. The first goal of this study was to assess inpatients in a maximum-security hospital with a self-report questionnaire, neuropsychological tests of behavioral impulsivity/attentional...
Article
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Although most persons with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) wish to have romantic and/or sexual relationships, little is known about self-report sexuality of adolescents/young adults with ASD. In this exploratory study, 172 male and female adolescents/young adults (68 with ASD and 104 without ASD) completed an online version of the Sexual Behavior...
Article
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https://theconversation.com/identifier-les-mecanismes-de-la-pedocriminalite-156918
Article
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A growing number of large-scale studies suggest that people with disabilities are at greater risk of sexual victimization than nondisabled individuals. However, certain results are inconsistent and whether potential moderators explain this variability in previous findings remain to be considered. This meta-analysis aimed to determine the magnitude...
Article
Although neuropsychological assessments provide valuable information for those working in forensic mental health, few neuropsychological studies concern persons who sexually offend, particularly juveniles who have sexually offended (JSO). It has been suggested that, contrary to current theories, executive function in JSO, as a group, is no more imp...
Article
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The concept of sexual presence (SP) is explored experimentally by comparing how synthetic and non-synthetic pornography elicit psychophysiological responses in male heterosexual participants. Using quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG), penile plethysmography (PPG) and oculometry, it was shown that distinct psychophysiological profiles are ass...
Article
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ABSTRACT The principal objective was obtaining preliminary data with sexual offenders. Individual interviews were conducted with 17 male sexual offenders about their sexual fantasies prior to the index crime. Our analyses revealed the presence of two subgroups of offenders based on the predictive value (planning) and the fixity of their sexual fant...
Chapter
Full-text available
On the role of sexual fantasies in the general population and sexual offenders.
Article
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Background: Although maltreatment is associated with a wide array of cognitive impairments, few neuropsychological data are available concerning neglected children. Because they represent a highly heterogeneous group, the main goal of this study was to identify cognitive profiles in neglected children using valid neuropsychological measures. Method...
Article
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Several studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) showed that empathic capabilities are associated with the activation (and deactivation) of relatively specific neural circuits. A growing number of electroencephalography studies also suggest that it might be useful to assess empathy. The main goal of this study was to use quantitat...
Chapter
Neuropsychological assessment is increasingly used in psychiatric and forensic settings because determining individual cognitive profiles helps in understanding the circumstances, reasons, and risk of recidivism for particular crimes (Denney & Sullivan, 2008; Fabian, 2012). Forensic neuropsychological evaluations involve the application of neurolog...
Chapter
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Article
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This exploratory study compared juveniles who sexually offend to nonoffending juveniles in their capacities to behaviorally and neurologically regulate, or reappraise, negative emotions. Participants were 39 juvenilemales, including 10 healthy, nonoffending control subjects and 29 juveniles who sexually offend, comprising 12 juveniles who sexually...
Article
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Although executive dysfunctions are commonly hypothesized to contribute to sexual deviance or aggression, evidence of this relationship is scarce and its specificity is unproven, especially among adolescents. The objective of this study was to compare the executive functioning (EF) of adolescents with sexual offense convictions (ASOC) to that of no...
Article
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Background: Evidence suggests a 2.1–4.6 times increase in the risk of violent behavior in schizophrenia compared to the general population. Current theories propose that the processing of negative emotions is defective in violent individuals and that dysfunctions within the neural circuits involved in emotion processing are implicated in violence....
Article
Understanding the pathways and circumstances of juvenile sexual offending is of utmost importance. However, juvenile sexual offenders (JSO) represent an especially diverse group of individuals, and several categorizations have been proposed to obtain more homogeneous subgroups. Victim age-based and family relation-based categorizations are particul...
Article
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In this paper, we present the pipeline of data acquisition and analysis used in the ARViPL lab at the Montreal Philippe-Pinel Institute for different studies related to forensic psychiatry in Virtual Reality (VR) environment and we discuss the different challenges that we encounter during the experiments when combining different new technologies th...
Conference Paper
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De nombreuses études ont montré qu’il y a une association entre les comportements violents et le fait d’avoir un diagnostic de schizophrénie (Sz) [1,2]. Cependant, il a aussi été démontré que seulement une minorité des patients sera violente [3]. Plusieurs études ont considéré ces phénomènes afin de mieux identifier les personnes à risque et, par l...
Article
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Introduction: According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5), a sexual fantasy (SF) is paraphilic if it concerns activities outside the realm of "genital stimulation or preparatory fondling with phenotypically normal, physically mature, consenting human partners" (normophilic). Intensity of the paraphil...
Article
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Although the assessment of the impulsive potential of a person is commonly required in clinical settings, it remains a challenging task for which few instruments exist. Impulsiveness is a multidimensional construct with principal components requiring specific measuring instruments. The great majority of existing studies and clinical settings use on...
Article
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Background: Facial expressions of emotions represent classic stimuli for the study of social cognition. Developing virtual dynamic facial expressions of emotions, however, would open- up possibilities, both for fundamental and clinical research. For instance, virtual faces allow real-time Human–Computer retroactions between physiological measures a...
Article
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Typically, neuropsychological studies of sex offenders have grouped together different types of individuals and different types of measures. This is why results have tended to be nonspecific and divergent across studies. Against this background, the authors undertook a review of the literature regarding the neuropsychology of sex offenders, taking...
Article
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Le trouble de personnalité limite (TPL) est une psychopathologie associée à des problèmes chroniques d’instabilité relationnelle et émotionnelle. De plus en plus d’études expliquent ces déficits par une atteinte des cognitions sociales, d’où l’importance de cerner et d’apprécier ces aspects. Cet article suggère un survol des outils d’évaluation de...
Article
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Objective: Alcohol and (or) illicit drug use (AIDU) problems are associated with mental health difficulties, but low-to-moderate alcohol consumption may have mental health benefits, compared with abstinence. Our study aimed to explore the hypothesis of a nonlinear, or J-curve, relation between AIDU profiles and psychological distress, psychiatric...
Article
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Although some authors suggest to use Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR) sensors to evaluate brain functioning, the link between emissions of LWIR and mental effort is not established. The goal of this pilot study was to determine whether frontal LWIR emissions vary during execution of neuropsychological tasks known to differentially activate the pre-frontal...
Article
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Bien que l’impulsivité soit l’une des manifestations les plus couramment rencontrées en psychiatrie et en psychologie clinique, elle demeure difficile à prévoir, à mesurer, à traiter, voire même à définir. Le principal objectif de cette conférence était de proposer une définition claire et opérationnelle du construit multidimensionnel de l’impulsiv...
Article
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Primary objective: There is controversy surrounding the cognitive effects of sports concussion. This study aimed to verify whether the technique of virtual reality could aid in the identification of attention and inhibition deficits in adolescents. Study design: A prospective design was used to assess 25 sports-concussed and 25 non-sports-concus...
Article
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This chapter proposes a prospective view on using a real-time functional magnetic imaging (rt-fMRI) brain-computer interface (BCI) application as a new treatment for pedophilia. Neurofeedback mediated by interactive virtual stimuli is presented as the key process in this new BCI application. Results on the diagnostic discriminant power of virtual c...
Article
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A minority of persons with severe mental illness (SMI) engage in violence towards others. These individuals, however, constitute a heterogeneous population with respect to patterns and correlates of violence. The present study used multivariate profile analyses to identify clusters of patients with SMI who displayed similar patterns of violence and...
Article
This study is an exploration of the role of SUD and impulsivity in individuals with schizophrenia who are at higher risk of serious violence (SV). Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were performed on a sample of 139 males meeting DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SSD). Impulsivity was the...
Article
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Although reviews concerning the neuropsychology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) put great emphasis on impaired executive functioning, the overall conclusions are notoriously divergent. The main goal of the present study was to use a battery of neuropsychological tasks to assess nine cognitive domains with a special focus on executive functio...
Article
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Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common and impairing neuropsychiatric disorder with preschool onset. ADHD occurs in approximately 3-9% of the childhood population. There is a much higher incidence rate in boys who are around three times more likely than girls to be diagnosed. Approximately 30-60% of individuals diagnosed with A...
Article
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Le trouble déficitaire d’attention avec ou sans hyperactivité (TDAH) est l’une des problématiques la plus fréquemment rencontrée chez les enfants d’âge scolaire. Les difficultés du contrôle cognitif et de l’inhibition sont souvent rapportées dans la littérature sur le TDAH. Les études en neuropsychologie supportent de façon générale l’hypothèse que...
Article
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Previous reports of violence rates in psychiatric settings varied substantially. The main goal of this preliminary study was to prospectively record all violent incidents committed by chronic inpatients with schizophrenia (Sz) using a validated instrument. A secondary objective was to confirm that a majority of violent inward incidents were not com...
Article
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Although a substance use disorder (SUD) is traditionally associated with psycho-bio-social impairments, recent investigations among persons with schizophrenia (Sz) generated divergent results. Certain persons with Sz+SUD might in fact present better social and cognitive functioning than persons with Sz without SUD. This meta-analysis was conducted...
Article
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The existence of a neurobiological dysfunction implying regions of the prefrontal cortex related with behavioral inhibition combined with executive dysfunctions in ADHD lead to the hypothesis that children with ADHD may experience difficulties in metacognition and thus, that measures of EF, especially behavioral inhibition and metacognition should...
Article
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Current neurological hypotheses of paraphilia posit that sexual deviance is associated with frontal and/or temporal lobe damage. This broad conception is based on few investigations, however, and the first goal of this study was to review the existing data derived from neuropsychiatry, neuroimaging and neuropsychology. It is concluded that although...
Article
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The main goal of this functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) study was to verify the hypothesis that seriously violent persons with Sz and the co-morbid diagnoses of an Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD) and a Substance Use Disorder (Sz+APD+SUD) would present a different pattern of prefrontal functioning than seriously violent persons with...
Article
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The possibility of a causal link between major mental disorders (MMDs) and violence has been the matter of a debate for decades in psychiatry. Just as a consensus seemed to emerge, a standout and unprecedented large-scale com-munity investigation lead to contradictory conclusions. The main goal of this review was to provide clinicians with a critic...
Article
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In opposition to a widespread belief in psychiatry, mental disorders per se, without alcohol or drug abuse, represent a risk for violence against others, including homicide, that is significantly higher than that of the general population. The present paper extensively reviews the scientific literature during the past 15 years and present their fin...
Article
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Bien que la grande majorité des patients atteints de schizophrénie ne soit pas agressive et que la proportion de crimes violents attribuable à la schizophrénie dans la communauté soit minoritaire (Swanson et al., 1990 ; Marzuk, 1996 ; Taylor & Gunn, 1999), plusieurs rap-ports d'envergure publiés au cours des dernières années indiquent un lien signi...
Article
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Disponible sur internet le 25 octobre 2005 Résumé Contrairement à une opinion fréquente dans les milieux psychiatriques, les troubles mentaux graves représentent à eux seuls, sans abus d'alcool ou de drogues, un risque de violence physique envers autrui beaucoup plus élevé que celui de la population générale. La même constatation vaut pour les homi...
Article
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An association between cerebellar abnormalities and different manifestations of schizophrenia is increasingly hypothesized, either at the motor (anterior vermis), affective/psychotic (posterior vermis), or cognitive (cerebellar hemispheres) level. However, morphometric and volumetric cerebellar measurements have yielded highly divergent results. Th...
Article
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While men with schizophrenia are at higher risk of displaying homicidal behaviours compared with the general population, very little is known about the circumstances related to the triggering of such violent acts among offenders with schizophrenia. The main goal of the present investigation was to describe the surrounding context, psychotic symptom...
Article
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Comorbid substance use disorders (SUDs) increase the risk of homicide by persons with major mental disorders (MMDs). However, there are no published data from clinical interviews or lifetime objective documents on the prevalence of lifetime personality disorder (PD) or SUD among a comprehensive sample of mentally ill homicide offenders. Therefore,...
Article
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The attempts to evaluate amygdaloid volumes using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with schizophrenia have yielded highly divergent results. Volumes of the amygdala were measured in 22 healthy participants and 18 neuroleptic-naive patients with first-episode schizophrenia, while controlling for intracranial area, gender, age, and handed...
Article
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Imaging studies have frequently reported volume loss of limbic structures in schizophrenia, yet there appears to be no quantitative data on entorhinal cortex volumes in patients with neuroleptic naive first-episode schizophrenia. The volume of the entorhinal cortices of 22 control subjects and 18 patients with neuroleptic-naïve first-episode schizo...
Article
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The role of the dentate nucleus on spatial orientation, assessed by the Morris water maze test, and on postural sensorimotor performance, assessed by vertical grid, suspended wire, and rotorod tests, was investigated. Bilateral electrolytic lesions of the dentate nucleus slowed down the acquisition of the hidden platform task of the Morris water ma...
Article
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Female CD-1 mice were evaluated on three occasions over a nineteen month span in tests of exploration, motor coordination, and spatial orientation in a water maze. Aging decreased motor activity and exploration of specific environmental stimuli found in a hole-board and in a T-maze. Age-related deficits were also found in three motor coordination t...
Article
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A revolving food pellet (RFP) test is presented, measuring the ability of rats to eat food pellets suspended from a horizontal bar in their home cage. This easy to make and economical device evaluates the efficiency of bilateral front paw coordination while standing. During the beginning of a ten day testing period, rats exposed to the RFP chamber...
Article
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Because of the proposed importance of cytochrome oxidase in some neurological disorders, an inhibitor of this enzyme was evaluated in a battery of tests measuring exploration, motor coordination, and learning. Mice injected with sodium azide (6 or 12 mg/kg) were slower to initiate a response in a T maze and had less rears in a small chamber than mi...
Article
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Rats were lesioned in the midline cerebellum, comprising the vermis and fastigial nucleus, or the lateral cerebellum, comprising the cerebellar hemispheres and dentate nucleus, and evaluated in a series of motor and non-motor learning tests. Rats with midline lesions had difficulty in maintaining their equilibrium on a bridge and were slower before...
Article
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Lurcher mutant mice lose cerebellar granule cells and Purkinje cells. The mutants were compared to normal mice in a beam-walking task. Normal mice were placed on a slippery bridge while lurchers, because of their severe ataxia, were placed on a bridge with the same diameter, but enveloped with surgical tape to improve traction. The performance of b...
Article
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Rats with small dorsal striatal lesions were compared to sham-operated controls in a series of test measuring their exploratory behavior in a T-maze, a hole-board, and an elevated plus-maze. Motor coordination was evaluated in the inclined grid and in the square bridge tests and grip strength in the wire suspension test. The rats with dorsal striat...