Christian Hof

Christian Hof
Technische Universität München | TUM · Department of Ecology and Ecosystem Management

PhD

About

83
Publications
33,902
Reads
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4,370
Citations
Introduction
Being broadly interested in many aspects of macroecology and biodiversity research, my current work focuses on (i) the potential impacts of climate change on species distributions and biodiversity, (ii) the evolution of species’ ecological niches, and (iii) large-scale patterns of biodiversity and the associated processes. Within these topics, I work with several groups of animals such as vertebrates (birds and amphibians) and freshwater organisms (in particular dragon- and damselflies).
Additional affiliations
June 2018 - present
Technische Universität München
Position
  • Group Leader
April 2011 - May 2018
Senckenberg Biodiversität und Klima - Forschungszentrum
Position
  • PostDoc Position
March 2010 - March 2011
University of Copenhagen
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (83)
Preprint
Aim Until recently, complete information on global reptile distributions has not been widely available. Here, we provide the first comprehensive climate impact assessment for reptile distributions at a global scale. Location Global, excluding Antarctica Time period 1995, 2050, 2080 Major taxa studied Reptiles Methods We performed species distri...
Article
Full-text available
Recent climate and land-use changes are having substantial impacts on biodiversity, including population declines, range shifts, and changes in community composition. However, few studies have compared these impacts among multiple taxa, particularly because of a lack of standardized time series data over long periods. Existing data sets are typical...
Article
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Climate change is predicted to drive geographical range shifts, leading to fluctuations in species richness (SR) worldwide. However, the effect of these changes on functional diversity (FD) remains unclear, in part because comprehensive species‐level trait data are generally lacking at global scales. Here, we use morphometric and ecological traits...
Preprint
Full-text available
Current modelling approaches to predict spatially explicit biodiversity responses to climate change mainly focus on the direct effects of climate on species. Integration of spatiotemporal land-cover scenarios is still limited. Current approaches either regard land cover as constant boundary conditions, or rely on general, typically globally defined...
Preprint
The establishment and maintenance of protected areas (PAs) is viewed as a key action in delivering post-2020 biodiversity targets. PAs often need to meet a multitude of objectives, ranging from biodiversity protection to ecosystem service provision and climate change mitigation. As available land and conservation funding are limited, optimizing res...
Article
Full-text available
Metacommunity ecology currently lacks a consistent functional trait perspective across trophic levels. To foster new cross‐taxa experiments and field studies, we present hypotheses on how three trait dimensions change along gradients of density of individuals, resource supply and habitat isolation. The movement dimension refers to the ability to mo...
Article
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The global loss of biodiversity has increased rapidly over the last 50 years. Biodiversity is essential for ecosystem functioning and the provisioning of ecosystem services and thus ultimately affects human well-being. One major threat to biodiversity is climate change. Reducing global warming is therefore vital to reduce the threat to biodiversity...
Book
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In einer durch Landnutzung und Klimawandel massiv veränderten Welt werden historische Gärten zu potentiellen Refugien für wildlebende Tiere und Pflanzen. Darüber hinaus reagieren zahlreiche Arten bereits auf den Klimawandel, mit verschiedenen Implikationen für die Gärten. Ein besseres Verständnis dieser hier umrissenen komplexen Beziehungen ist dri...
Article
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The majority of scenarios that meet the goals of the Paris agreements exceed sustainability and precautionary thresholds in land, biodiversity and BECCS potentials. Risks may be best avoided by demand‐side driven rapid decarbonization and less land‐intensive carbon dioxide removal technologies.
Article
The accelerating biodiversity crisis, for which climate change has become an important driver, urges the scientific community for answers to the question of whether and how species are capable of responding successfully to rapidly changing climatic conditions. For a better understanding and more realistic predictions of species' and biodiversity re...
Preprint
Full-text available
Ongoing climate change is a major threat to biodiversity and impacts on species distributions and abundances are already evident. Heterogenous responses of species due to varying abiotic tolerances and dispersal abilities have the potential to further amplify or ameliorate these impacts through changes in species assemblages. Here we investigate th...
Preprint
Climate change is predicted to drive geographical range shifts in many taxa, leading to the formation of novel species assemblages and fluctuations in species richness worldwide. However, the effect of these changes on functional diversity is not yet fully understood, in part because comprehensive species-level trait data are generally lacking at g...
Article
Plant-animal interactions are fundamentally important in ecosystems, but have often been ignored by studies of climate-change impacts on biodiversity. Here, we present a trait-based framework for predicting the responses of interacting plants and animals to climate change. We distinguish three pathways along which climate change can impact interact...
Chapter
Full-text available
In einer durch Landnutzung und Klimawandel massiv veranderten Welt werden historische Garten zu potentiellen Refugien fur wildlebende Tiere und Pflanzen. Daruber hinaus reagieren zahlreiche Arten bereits auf den Klimawandel, mit verschiedenen Implikationen fur die Garten. Ein besseres Verstandnis dieser hier umrissenen komplexen Beziehungen ist dri...
Article
Full-text available
Positive relationships in compositional similarity between consumer and resource assemblages are widely known in free‐living taxa, but less is known about parasites and their hosts. We investigated whether congruent patterns of assemblage similarity across diverse taxa of hosts and parasites exist at a continental scale and quantified the relative...
Article
Full-text available
Predicting future changes in species richness in response to climate change is one of the key challenges in biogeography and conservation ecology. Stacked species distribution models (S‐SDMs) are a commonly used tool to predict current and future species richness. Macroecological models (MEMs), regression models with species richness as response va...
Article
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Projecting future distributions of species under climate change remains a particular challenge for species that are trophically interacting. Interaction partners are often assumed to react differently to climate change, causing spatial mismatches in future distributions and increased extinction risks. We compare potential direct effects of climate...
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Recent years have seen an exponential increase in the amount of data available in all sciences and application domains. Macroecology is part of this "Big Data" trend, with a strong rise in the volume of data that we are using for our research. Here, we summarize the most recent developments in macroecology in the age of Big Data that were presented...
Article
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Climate and land-use change interactively affect biodiversity. Large-scale expansions of bioenergy have been suggested as an important component for climate change mitigation. Here we use harmonized climate and land-use projections to investigate their potential combined impacts on global vertebrate diversity under a low- and a high-level emission...
Article
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Mechanistic approaches for predicting the ranges of endotherms are needed to forecast their responses to environmental change. We test whether physiological constraints on maximum metabolic rate and the factor by which endotherms can elevate their metabolism (metabolic expansibility) influence cold range limits for mammal and bird species. We exami...
Article
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Metabolic critical temperatures define the range of ambient temperatures where endotherms are able to minimize energy allocation to thermogenesis. Examining the relationship between metabolic critical temperatures and basal metabolic rates (BMR) provides a unique opportunity to gain a better understanding of how animals respond to varying ambient c...
Article
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Animal movement is fundamental for ecosystem functioning and species survival, yet the effects of the anthropogenic footprint on animal movements have not been estimated across species. Using a unique GPS-tracking database of 803 individuals across 57 species, we found that movements of mammals in areas with a comparatively high human footprint wer...
Article
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In Paris, France, December 2015, the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) invited the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to provide a special report in 2018 on the impacts of global warming of 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission...
Presentation
Full-text available
We tested to what extent patterns of endemism and phylogenetic diversity of European dragonfly assemblages are structured by (i) phylogenetic conservatism of thermal adaptations and (ii) differences in the ability of post-glacial recolonization by species adapted to running waters (lotic) and still waters (lentic). Dragonfly species richness peaked...
Article
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Identifying patterns in the effects of temperature on species' population abundances could help develop a general framework for predicting the consequences of climate change across different communities and realms. We used long-term population time series data from terrestrial, freshwater, and marine species communitieswithin central Europe to comp...
Article
Due to concerns about data quality, McKechnie, Coe, Gerson, and Wolf (2016) questioned the conclusions of our study (Khaliq et al., 2015) published in this journal. Here, we argue that most of the questioned data points are in fact useful for macrophysiological analyses, mostly because the vast majority of data are explicitly reported in the peer-r...
Preprint
Full-text available
Aim We test whether physiological constraints on maximum metabolic rate and the factor by which endotherms can elevate their metabolism (metabolic expansibility) govern cold range limits for mammal and bird species. Location Global Methods We examine metabolic expansibility at the cold range boundary (ME crb ) and its trait predictors and then us...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated the effects of contemporary and historical factors on the spatial variation of European dragonfly diversity. Specifically, we tested to what extent patterns of endemism and phylogenetic diversity of European dragonfly assemblages are structured by (i) phylogenetic conservatism of thermal adaptations and (ii) differences in the abili...
Article
To study the potential effects of climate change on species, one of the most popular approaches are species distribution models (SDMs). However, they usually fail to consider important species-specific biological traits, such as species’ physiological capacities or dispersal ability. Furthermore, there is consensus that climate change does not infl...
Article
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"An IPCC for biodiversity" - this is what many people were hoping for when the Intergovernmental Platform for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) was founded. IPBES has had a very promising start - with a comprehensive conceptual framework and an ambitious work program. Its first published thematic assessment on pollinators, pollination and...
Article
To understand how climatic conditions influence the geographical distributions of species and their potential responses to climate change, we investigated the relationships between the thermal tolerances of species and the size and limits of their distributions. We tested two hypotheses for endotherms: the climatic variability hypothesis, which pre...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change, land-use change, pollution and exploitation are among the main drivers of species’ population trends; however, their relative importance is much debated. We used a unique collection of over 1,000 local population time series in 22 communities across terrestrial, freshwater and marine realms within central Europe to compare the impac...
Poster
Full-text available
Physiological characteristics are important determinants of the climatic niches species can inhabit and can help us predict their responses to climate change. In endotherms, most studied aspects so far concerned metabolic rates and thermal tolerances. Less attention was given to another aspect of physiology, evaporative water loss, which plays an i...
Article
Full-text available
A departmental structure – as opposed to the system of professorial chairs which has existed up until now – has the potential to correct several imbalances in today’s higher education system. But what exactly does this mean? How might it be implemented? And what consequences – some more desirable than others – would be associated with such a struct...
Article
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Eine Department-Struktur – als eine Alternative zur bisherigen Lehrstuhl-Struk- tur – hat das Potential, mehrere Schiefl agen im heutigen Wissenschaftssystem zu überwinden. Aber was ist konkret damit gemeint? Wie könnte diese umge- setzt werden? Und mit welchen Folgen – einige davon mehr, andere weniger wün- schenswert – ginge ein solcher Strukturw...
Data
Supplementary Figures and Supplementary Tables
Data
Network metrics, climatic niche breadth and climatic suitability change. For 295 plant and 414 animal species, we provide information on plant and animal taxonomy (class, order, family), the effective number of interaction partners, complementary specialization d' (uniqueness of interaction partners relative to other species [range 0-1]), range siz...
Data
Metadata of 13 mutualistic networks. Given are network type, geographic location, habitat type, sampling duration and the number of visitation events, plant and animal species in each network. We only included species in the networks for which occurrence data were available and provide the number of excluded plant and animal species for the study t...
Article
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Exzellente Wissenschaft braucht kluge Köpfe und langfristige Perspektiven. Auf- grund ihrer prekären Grundfi nanzierung können Universitäten in beides nicht mehr adäquat investieren. Auch die Drittmittelförderung bietet hierfür bisher keine Lösung: Aktuelle Förderformate sind stark projektbezogen und haben zu vielen befristeten Stellen geführt. E...
Article
Full-text available
The extent to which different kinds of organisms have adapted to environmental temperature regimes is central to understanding how they respond to climate change. The Scholander-Irving (S-I) model of heat transfer lays the foundation for explaining how endothermic birds and mammals maintain their high, relatively constant body temperatures in the f...
Article
Physiological traits that approximate the fundamental climatic niche – the climatic conditions where a species can survive – are the outcome of adaptation to the environment under historical and current environmental constraints. If a large amount of the variation in physiological traits among species can be explained by their phylogeny rather than...
Article
Aim. Species distribution modelling (SDM) is commonly used to predict spatial patterns of biodiversity across sets of taxa with sufficient distributional records, while omitting narrow-ranging species due to statistical constraints. We investigate the implications of this dichotomy for conservation priority setting in Africa, now and in the future....
Data
Full-text available
[COVER CAPTION] Rare amphibians in sub-Saharan Africa. Inset: Parker's forest tree frog (Leptopelis parkeri) in the Uluguru Mountains, Tanzania, Endangered on The IUCN Red List. Lower left: Barbour's forest tree frog (Leptopelis barbouri), Vulnerable on The IUCN Red List. Background: mountain forests strip moisture from the air in Nyungwe National...
Article
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Dispersal, the behaviour ensuring gene flow, tends to covary with a number of morphological, ecological and behavioural traits. While species-specific dispersal behaviours are the product of each species' unique evolutionary history, there may be distinct interspecific patterns of covariation between dispersal and other traits ('dispersal syndromes...
Article
Current patterns of biological diversity are influenced by both historical and present-day factors, yet research in ecology and evolution is largely split between paleonto-logical and neontological studies. Responding to recent calls for integration, we provide a conceptual framework that capitalizes on data and methods from both disci-plines to in...
Article
Aim We compared the effects of recent shifts of northern range boundaries of odonates adapted to either lentic (standing water) or lotic (running water) habitats in Europe. Lentic species are thought to have a higher dispersal propensity than lotic species because of the lower spatial and temporal persistence of lentic habitats on average. Hence, w...
Article
Full-text available
Over the last two decades, macroecology – the analysis of large-scale, multi-species ecological patterns and processes – has established itself as a major line of biological research. Analyses of statistical links between environmental variables and biotic responses have long and successfully been employed as a main approach, but new developments a...
Article
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Habitat persistence should influence dispersal ability, selecting for stronger dispersal in habitats of lower temporal stability. As standing (lentic) freshwater habitats are on average less persistent over time than running (lotic) habitats, lentic species should show higher dispersal abilities than lotic species. Assuming that climate is an impor...
Article
Full-text available
While patterns in geographic range sizes in free-living species have received much attention, little is known on the corresponding patterns in parasites. For the first time, we report on patterns in geographic range sizes and dimensions of endoparasites, using published species lists of freshwater trematodes in 25 biogeographical regions of Europe....
Article
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Amphibian population declines far exceed those of other vertebrate groups, with 30% of all species listed as threatened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. The causes of these declines are a matter of continued research, but probably include climate change, land-use change and spread of the pathogenic fungal disease chytridiomyco...
Article
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Ongoing climate change is assumed to be exceptional because of its unprecedented velocity. However, new geophysical research suggests that dramatic climatic changes during the Late Pleistocene occurred extremely rapid, over just a few years. These abrupt climatic changes may have been even faster than contemporary ones, but relatively few continent...
Article
Full-text available
Aim We investigated the relationship between host and parasite diversity as well as latitudinal gradients in parasite diversity on a continental scale in European freshwater trematodes. Location European freshwaters. Methods We extracted distributional data for 564 freshwater trematodes across 25 biogeographical regions in Europe from the Limnofaun...
Article
Aim  In Europe, the relationships between species richness and latitude differ for lentic (standing water) and lotic (running water) species. Freshwater animals are highly dependent on suitable habitat, and thus the distribution of available habitat should strongly influence large-scale patterns of species richness. We tested whether habitat availa...