Christian Gortázar

Christian Gortázar
University of Castilla-La Mancha · Sanidad y Biotecnología (SaBio)

Professor

About

754
Publications
166,682
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
19,398
Citations
Introduction
Research interests: Wildlife epidemiology and disease control: Viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases of wildlife. Epidemiology and control of relevant diseases shared with livestock and humans. Tuberculosis: TB epidemiology at the wildlife-livestock interface. New diagnostic tools. Oral vaccination and other tools for integrated disease control. Emerging diseases: Wildlife as sources and indicators of emerging viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases.

Publications

Publications (754)
Article
Full-text available
EFSA received a mandate from the European Commission to assess the effectiveness of prohibitions of certain activities in restricted zones, and of certain risk mitigation treatments for products of animal origin and other materials with respect to diseases included in the Category A list in the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) 2016/429). This opi...
Preprint
Background: Excessive and irrational use of antibiotics as growth promoters in poultry has been one of key factors contributing to increased emergence of antibiotics resistant bacteria. Drug resistant infections are becoming major concerns in poultry production impacting both human and poultry health. Several alternatives for antibiotic growth prom...
Article
Full-text available
Bagaza virus emerged in Spain in 2010 and was not reported in other countries in Europe until 2021, when the virus was detected by molecular methods in a corn bunting and several red-legged partridges in Portugal. Sequencing revealed high similarity between the 2021 strains from Portugal and the 2010 strains from Spain.
Article
Full-text available
Background Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) that causes the chronic infectious disease- tuberculosis (TB), often presents with a complicated epidemiological pattern where the transmission chain may include humans, domestic animals and wildlife, including elephants. TB has been reported globally in both captive and wild elephants. The One He...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to develop a multiplex bead assay using a Brucella rLPS antigen, a Brucella suis smooth antigen, and a Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 antigen that not only discriminates Brucella-infected from Brucella-uninfected pigs and wild boar, but also overcomes the cross reactivity with Y. enterocolitica O:9. Sera from 126 domestic pig...
Article
Non‐tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) circulate between the environment, animals and humans entailing a double concern: their ability to interfere with tuberculosis diagnosis and their potential to cause infections in their hosts. However, published records on NTM infections in animals are still scarce. The aims of the present study were to describe t...
Article
Full-text available
Air pollution and associated particulate matter (PM) affect environmental and human health worldwide. The intense vehicle usage and the high population density in urban areas are the main causes of this public health impact. Epidemiological studies have provided evidence on the effect of air pollution on airborne SARS-CoV-2 transmission and COVID-1...
Article
Full-text available
This document provides methodological guidance developed by the EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare to produce Scientific Opinions in response to mandates received from the European Commission in the context of the Farm to Fork Strategy. The mandates relate to the welfare of (i) animals during transport, (ii) calves, (iii) laying hens, (iv) bro...
Article
Full-text available
Many game species are prey species and evolved to cope with significant mortality by natural predators. In the absence of predation or hunting, these game populations will be limited by resource depletion or disease. Both situations may fall within the overabundance definition. We review drivers of game species overabundance, considering if recreat...
Article
Tick vaccines are necessary as part of a One Health approach for the control of tick infestations and tick-borne diseases. Subolesin (SUB, also known as 4D8) is a tick protective antigen that has shown efficacy in vaccine formulations for the control of ectoparasite infestations and pathogen infection/transmission. A recent proof-of-concept study r...
Article
Full-text available
Trained immunity (TRAIM) may be defined as a form of memory where innate immune cells such as monocytes, macrophages, dendritic and natural killer (NK) cells undergo an epigenetic reprogramming that enhances their primary defensive capabilities. Cross‐pathogen protective TRAIM can be triggered in different hosts by exposure to live microbes or micr...
Article
Full-text available
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) was identified among the most relevant antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacteria in the EU for dogs and cats in a previous scientific opinion. Thus, it has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on its e...
Article
Full-text available
This report provides a descriptive analysis of the African swine fever (ASF) Genotype II epidemic in the affected Member States in the EU and two neighbouring countries for the period from 1 September 2020 to 31 August 2021. ASF continued to spread in wild boar in the EU, it entered Germany in September 2020, while Belgium became free from ASF in O...
Article
Full-text available
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) was identified among the most relevant antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacteria in the EU for cattle and horses in previous scientific opinions. Thus, it has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on its eli...
Article
Full-text available
Escherichia coli (E. coli) was identified among the most relevant antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacteria in the EU for dogs and cats, horses, swine, poultry, cattle, sheep and goats in previous scientific opinions. Thus, it has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease pro...
Article
Full-text available
The EFSA asked the Panel on Animal Health and Welfare to develop a guidance document on good practice in conducting scientific assessments in animal health using modelling. In previous opinions, the AHAW Panel has responded to two-thirds of animal health-related mandates using some kind of modelling. These models range from simple to complex, emplo...
Article
Full-text available
Trained immunity is the capacity of innate immune cells to produce an improved response against a secondary infection after a previous unrelated infection. Salmonellosis represents a public health issue and affects the pig farming industry. In general, vaccination against salmonellosis is still facing problems regarding the control of distinct sero...
Article
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) control programs can be improved by combined use of tests for humoral and cell-mediated immune responses targeting multiple biomarkers of Mycobacterium bovis. To further the diagnostic benefits of this approach, we used Dual Path Platform (DPP) technology to test sera from cattle with naturally acquired bTB in the United S...
Article
Full-text available
Brachyspira hyodysenteriae (B. hyodysenteriae) was identified among the most relevant antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacteria in the EU for swine in a previous scientific opinion. Thus, it has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on its e...
Article
Tuberculosis (TB) is a zoonotic mycobacterial infection with great importance in human health, animal production, and wildlife conservation. Although an ambitious eradication programme in cattle has been implemented for decades, TB-free status has not yet been achieved in most of Spain, where animal TB persists in a multi-host system of domestic an...
Article
Full-text available
In this Opinion, the antimicrobial-resistant bacteria responsible for transmissible diseases that constitute a threat to the health of certain kept fish species have been assessed. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), carp (Cyprinus spp.), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), sea bream (Sparus aurata) and tilapia (Oreochromis spp.), selected as represent...
Article
Full-text available
Rhodococcus equi (R. equi) was identified among the most relevant antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacteria in the EU for horses in a previous scientific opinion. Thus, it has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on its eligibility to be li...
Article
Full-text available
Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (S. pseudintermedius) was identified among the most relevant antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacteria in the EU for dogs and cats in a previous scientific opinion. Thus, it has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Art...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) was identified among the most relevant antimicrobial‐resistant (AMR) bacteria in the EU for poultry in a previous scientific opinion. Thus, it has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on its e...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Enterococcus cecorum (E. cecorum) was identified among the most relevant antimicrobial‐resistant (AMR) bacteria in the EU for poultry in a previous scientific opinion. Thus, it has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on its eli...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract EFSA received a mandate from the European Commission to assess the effectiveness of control measures against diseases included in the Category A list according to Regulation (EU) 2016/429 on transmissible animal diseases ('Animal Health Law’). This opinion belongs to a series of opinions where these control measures are assessed, with this...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract EFSA received a mandate from the European Commission to assess the effectiveness of some of the control measures against diseases included in the Category A list according to Regulation (EU) 2016/429 on transmissible animal diseases (‘Animal Health Law’). This opinion belongs to a series of opinions where these control measures will be ass...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract EFSA received a mandate from the EC to assess the effectiveness of some of the control measures against diseases included in the Category A list according to Regulation (EU) 2016/429 on transmissible animal diseases (‘Animal Health Law’). This opinion belongs to a series of opinions where these control measures are assessed, with this opin...
Article
Full-text available
EFSA received a mandate from the European Commission to assess the effectiveness of some of the control measures against diseases included in the Category A list according to Regulation (EU) 2016/429 on transmissible animal diseases ('Animal Health Law'). This opinion belongs to a series of opinions where these control measures will be assessed, wi...
Article
Full-text available
EFSA received a mandate from the European Commission to assess the effectiveness of some of the control measures against diseases included in the Category A list according to Regulation (EU) 2016/429 on transmissible animal diseases ('Animal Health Law'). This opinion belongs to a series of opinions where these control measures were assessed for se...
Article
Full-text available
Equine Herpesvirus-1 infection has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of: Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of the disease to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of the disease according to disease prevention and control measures as in Annex IV...
Article
Full-text available
EFSA received a mandate from the European Commission to assess the effectiveness of some of the control measures against diseases included in the Category A list according to Regulation (EU) 2016/429 on transmissible animal diseases ('Animal Health Law'). This opinion belongs to a series of opinions where these control measures will be assessed, wi...
Article
Full-text available
Animal tuberculosis (TB) is a multi-host disease caused by members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC). Due to its impact on economy, sanitary standards of milk and meat industry, public health and conservation, TB control is an actively ongoing research subject. Several wildlife species are involved in the maintenance and transmission...
Article
Full-text available
EFSA received a mandate from the European Commission to assess the effectiveness of some of the control measures against diseases included in the Category A list according to Regulation (EU) 2016/429 on transmissible animal diseases ('Animal Health Law'). This opinion belongs to a series of opinions where these control measures will be assessed, wi...
Article
Full-text available
In this opinion, the antimicrobial-resistant bacteria responsible for transmissible diseases that constitute a threat to the health of sheep and goats have been assessed. The assessment has been performed following a methodology based on information collected by an extensive literature review and expert judgement. Details of the methodology used fo...
Article
Full-text available
In this opinion, the antimicrobial resistant bacteria responsible for transmissible diseases that constitute a threat to the health of cattle have been assessed. The assessment has been performed following a methodology based on information collected by an extensive literature review and expert judgement. Details of the methodology used for this as...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract In this opinion, the antimicrobial‐resistant bacteria responsible for transmissible diseases that constitute a threat to the health of farmed rabbits have been assessed. The assessment has been performed following a methodology based on information collected through an extensive literature review and expert judgement. Details of the method...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract In this opinion, the antimicrobial‐resistant bacteria responsible for transmissible diseases that constitute a threat to the health of pigs have been assessed. The assessment has been performed following a methodology based on information collected by an extensive literature review and expert judgement. Details of the methodology used for...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract In this opinion, the antimicrobial‐resistant bacteria responsible for transmissible diseases that constitute a threat to poultry health have been assessed. The assessment has been performed following a methodology based on information collected by an extensive literature review and expert judgement. Details of the methodology used for this...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract In this opinion, the antimicrobial‐resistant bacteria responsible for transmissible diseases that constitute a threat to the health of horses have been assessed. The assessment has been performed following a methodology composed of information collected via an extensive literature review and expert judgement. Details on the methodology use...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract EFSA received a mandate from the European Commission to assess the effectiveness of some of the control measures against diseases included in the Category A list according to Regulation (EU) 2016/429 on transmissible animal diseases (‘Animal Health Law’). This opinion belongs to a series of opinions where these control measures will be ass...
Preprint
Full-text available
Bagaza virus (BAGV) emerged in Spain, in 2010. Since then, BAGV was not reported in other European countries until September 2021, when BAGV was diagnosed by molecular methods in one corn bunting and several red-legged partridges, after abnormal mortality in Southern Portugal. Sequencing revealed high similarity with strains reported previously.
Article
Crimean‐Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) continues to cause new human cases in Iberia while its spatial distribution and ecological determinants remain unknown. The virus remains active in a silent tick‐animal cycle to which animals contribute maintaining the tick populations and the virus itself. Wild ungulates, in particular red deer, are e...
Article
In a context of disease emergence and faced with the ever-growing evidence of the role of wildlife in the epidemiology of transmissible diseases, efforts have been made to develop wildlife disease surveillance (WDS) programs throughout Europe. Disease monitoring is ideally composed of “numerator data” (number of infected individuals) and “denominat...
Article
Full-text available
The killing of sheep and goats for human consumption (slaughtering) can take place in a slaughterhouse or on-farm. The processes of slaughtering that were assessed for welfare, from the arrival of sheep and goats until their death (including slaughtering without stunning), were grouped into three main phases: pre-stunning (including arrival, unload...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 challenges the understanding of factors affecting disease progression and severity. The identification of prognostic biomarkers and physiological processes associated with disease symptoms is relevant for the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic interventions to contribute to the control of this p...
Article
Full-text available
Multi-host pathogens emerging and re-emerging at the wildlife-domestic animal interface affect wildlife management and conservation. This is the case of canine distemper virus (CDV), a paramyxovirus closely related to human measles virus and rinderpest virus of cattle. With an area of 10,603 km², Asturias region in Atlantic Spain is a hotspot of ca...
Article
Background: The world faces the challenge posed by the interaction between hosts and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) with potential role for arthropod vectors, and the effect of SARS-CoV-2 variants on acquired immunity, vaccine efficacy and coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic control. Proposal: The characterizati...
Book
Full-text available
This book, aimed at professionals in the sector such as veterinarians, livestock farmers or wildlife managers, is the first volume of a manual that lists and details the different sources of risk of tuberculosis for cattle. In each section, the risk is described, its epidemiological role is detailed and control measures are proposed, providing a co...
Book
Full-text available
This book, aimed at professionals in the sector such as veterinarians, ranchers or wildlife managers, is the second volume of a manual that lists and details the different sources of risk of tuberculosis for wildlife. In each section, the risk is described, its epidemiological role is detailed and control measures are proposed, providing a complete...
Article
Full-text available
We found severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 RNA in 6 (8.4%) of 71 ferrets in central Spain and isolated and sequenced virus from 1 oral and 1 rectal swab specimen. Natural infection occurs in kept ferrets when virus circulation among humans is high. However, small ferret collections probably cannot maintain virus circulation.
Article
Full-text available
Little is known about the role of ticks in maintaining highly prevalent zoonotic viruses in wildlife, such as hepatitis E virus (HEV), which do not require ticks for transmission between animals and humans. In this cross-sectional study, adult female ticks were collected from Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) in autumn 2015 in Spain. HEV RNA in both...
Article
Full-text available
Transboundary Animal Diseases (TADs) are notifiable diseases which are highly transmissible and have the potential for rapid spread regardless of national borders. Many TADs are shared between domestic animals and wildlife, with the potential to affect both livestock sector and wildlife conservation and eventually, public health in the case of zoon...