Christian Gold

Christian Gold
University of Bergen | UiB

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157
Publications
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Publications

Publications (157)
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: 1) To describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of residents with dementia and depressive symptoms in the Australian private residential aged care (RAC) context; and 2) to investigate the association between neuropsychiatric symptoms, depression and quality of life and their interactions with dementia severity. Methods: T...
Article
Background: Social interaction and social communication are among the central areas of difficulty for autistic people. Music therapy uses music experiences and the relationships that develop through them to enable communication and expression, thus attempting to address some of the core problems of autistic people. Music therapy has been applied i...
Article
Background: Substance use disorder (SUD) is the continued use of one or more psychoactive substances, including alcohol, despite negative effects on health, functioning, and social relations. Problematic drug use has increased by 10% globally since 2013, and harmful use of alcohol is associated with 5.3% of all deaths. Direct effects of music ther...
Article
Music therapy is efficacious for the treatment of depression. Compared to other psychotherapeutic forms, it allows for the emergence of various modes of mutual interaction, thus enabling multiple channels for emotional expression and fostering therapeutic alliance. Although musical interaction patterns between client and therapist have been regarde...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, a large cluster-randomized controlled trial was designed—Music Interventions for Dementia and Depression in ELderly care (MIDDEL)—to assess the effectiveness of music interventions on depression in care home residents with dementia (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03496675). To understand the pathophysiological mechanisms, we observed the effect of...
Article
Background Dementia and depression are highly prevalent and comorbid conditions among older adults living in care homes and are associated with individual distress and rising societal costs. Effective, scalable, and feasible interventions are needed. Music interventions have shown promising effects, but the current evidence base is inconclusive. Th...
Article
Background: Dementia and depression are highly prevalent, comorbid conditions in older adults residing in care homes and are associated with individual distress and associated challenges for care staff. Music-based interventions are widely used and potentially effective nonpharmacological interventions, due to the relative preservation of the abil...
Article
Full-text available
Unbuffered stress levels may negatively influence preterm-infants’ autonomic nervous system (ANS) maturation, thus affecting neurobehavior and psycho-emotional development. Music therapy (MT) is an evidence-based treatment modality in neonatal care. When coupled with skin-to-skin care (SSC), it may reduce stress responses in both preterm infants an...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Despite medical advances, preterm birth and neonatal intensive care (NICU) hospitalization are demanding and pose risks for infants and parents. Various music therapy (MT) models have suggested parental singing to promote healthy bonding and development in premature infants, but evidence on long-term effects is lacking. Method: We pre...
Article
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(1) Background: European guidelines provide recommendations for services and care for people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but not all interventions are generally available. Knowledge of service use and costs and wider societal costs in Europe is limited; (2) Method: Using an international sample, we analysed services and costs in 357 childr...
Article
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Introduction: There is evidence from earlier trials for the efficacy of music therapy in the treatment of depression among working-age people. Starting therapy sessions with relaxation and revisiting therapeutic themes outside therapy have been deemed promising for outcome enhancement. However, previous music therapy trials have not investigated th...
Article
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Premature infants and their parents experience significant stress during the perinatal period. Music therapy (MT) may support maternal–infant bonding during this critical period, but studies measuring impact across the infant’s first year are lacking. This nonrandomized feasibility study used quantitative and qualitative methods within a critical r...
Article
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Background The resources involved in delivering a clinical trial in residential aged care facilities (RACFs) are significant and the success of a trial is dependent upon adequate planning, including appropriate timelines for each component of the study and the required budget. This paper describes process and resource assessment during recruitment,...
Article
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This study examined whether musical and emotional attunement predicts changes in improvisational music therapy with children with autism (4–7 years, N = 101, majority: no/limited speech, low IQ), assessed over 12 months. Attunement, as observed from session videos, and changes in generalized social skills, judged by blinded assessors and parents, w...
Article
Full-text available
This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (intervention). The objectives are as follows: Main objective To compare the effect of music therapy (MT) in addition to standard care versus standard care alone, or to standard care plus an active control intervention, on psychological symptoms, substance craving, motivation for treatment, and motivation t...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Group music therapy (GMT) represents a promising person-centered approach facilitating emotional and social interaction and alleviating behavioral and psychological symptoms in people with dementia. The aim of this study is to produce a consensus statement that can inform provision of and research on person-centered group music therapy...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: The resources involved in delivering a clinical trial in residential aged care facilities (RACFs) are significant and the success of a trial is dependent upon adequate planning, including appropriate timelines for each component of the study and the required budget. The main aim of this paper is to describe process and resource assessme...
Article
Full-text available
For most interventions to reduce criminal recidivism, long-term effects are uncertain. Music therapy has shown effects on possible precursors of recidivism, but direct evidence on long-term effects is lacking. In an exploratory parallel randomized controlled trial, 66 inmates in a Norwegian prison were allocated to music therapy or standard care an...
Article
Music therapy (MT) interventions and skin-to-skin care (SSC) both aim to address the varied needs of preterm infants, including sensory regulation and stress reduction, inclusion of parents in their infant’s care, support of parents’ emotional state, and enhancing the parent–infant attachment process. Few studies have investigated the combination o...
Article
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Introduction: Preterm birth has major medical, psychological and socioeconomic consequences worldwide. Music therapy (MT) has positive effects on physiological measures of preterm infants and maternal anxiety, but rigorous studies including long-term follow-up are missing. Drawing on caregivers’ inherent resources, this study emphasises caregiver i...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined whether the therapeutic relationship in music therapy with children with Autism Spectrum Disorder predicts generalized changes in social skills. Participants (4–7 years, N = 48) were assessed at baseline, 5 and 12 months. The therapeutic relationship, as observed from session videos, and the generalized change in social skills,...
Article
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Background: Research on dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) or 12‐step programmes has shown inconclusive results; no systematic review has directly compared the two. Objectives: The goals of this meta‐analytic review were to assess if DBT is more ef‐ fective than treatment as usual (TAU) and if DBT is more effective than 12‐step pro‐ grammes (inclu...
Article
Full-text available
Background Depression is among the leading causes of disability worldwide. Not all people with depression respond adequately to standard treatments. An innovative therapy that has shown promising results in controlled trials is music therapy. Based on a previous trial that suggested beneficial effects of integrative improvisational music therapy (...
Article
High-quality clinical trials testing music therapy interventions have become more prevalent over the past decade. However, recent reviews of published music therapy trials reveal that reporting of strategies used to ensure treatment fidelity is lacking. Treatment fidelity refers to methodological strategies, put in place prior to clinical trial imp...
Chapter
Full-text available
In older age, context factors common for depression in adulthood persist, while circumstances typical for later life periods (physical frailty, burden through family caregiving, loss of family members, co-occurring dementia) may aggravate a patient’s situation. Using joint singing, playing music, and listening to music in one-to-one or group settin...
Article
Background: For young children on the autism spectrum, the inclusion of parent-child music activities in everyday life may provide additional opportunities for social interactions in the home, however no standardized assessment exists to measure the extent of shared music activity within family or community contexts. Objective: This study aimed to...
Poster
Full-text available
Music therapy (MT) may facilitate skills in areas affected by autism spectrum disorder (ASD), such as social interaction and communication. The TIME-A study (Bieleninik et al. JAMA 2017) examined the effect of improvisational MT on generalized social communication skills of children with ASD and represents the largest randomized controlled trial of...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Depression is a highly prevalent mood disorder that is characterised by persistent low mood, diminished interest, and loss of pleasure. Music therapy may be helpful in modulating moods and emotions. An update of the 2008 Cochrane review was needed to improve knowledge on effects of music therapy for depression. Objectives: 1. To asse...
Article
Background Preliminary studies have indicated that music therapy may benefit children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Objectives To examine the effects of improvisational music therapy (IMT) on social affect and responsiveness of children with ASD. Design International, multicentre, three-arm, single-masked randomised controlled trial, incl...
Article
Full-text available
Background Exploring ways to improve the trajectory and symptoms of autism spectrum disorder is prevalent in research, but less is known about the natural prognosis of autism spectrum disorder and course of symptoms. The objective of this study was to examine the temporal stability of autism spectrum disorder and autism diagnosis, and the longitudi...
Data
PRISMA checklist. Lists the reporting of important methodological details in the final review. (DOC)
Data
PRISMA-P checklist. Lists the reporting of important methodological details in the review protocol. (DOCX)
Data
Protocol for systematic review. Prespecified protocol as used in the review process. (DOCX)
Data
Data and syntax. Contains data used for meta-analysis and R syntax to reproduce the analyses. (ZIP)
Data
Overall severity of autism symptoms (Calibrated Severity Scores), split by participant type. (TIF)
Data
Proportion meeting autism spectrum disorder criteria (ADOS instrument classification), split by participant type. (TIF)
Article
Importance Music therapy may facilitate skills in areas affected by autism spectrum disorder (ASD), such as social interaction and communication. Objective To evaluate effects of improvisational music therapy on generalized social communication skills of children with ASD. Design, Setting, and Participants Assessor-blinded, randomized clinical tr...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: The aim of the present study was to meta-analyze the effect of music therapy (MT) on cognitive functions in patients with dementia. Method: A systematic literature search was performed in Medline, PsycINFO, Embase, CINAHL and RILM up to 8 September 2016. We included all randomized controlled trials that compared MT with standard care,...
Article
Background: Music therapy is a therapeutic approach that uses musical interaction as a means of communication and expression. Within the area of serious mental disorders, the aim of the therapy is to help people improve their emotional and relational competencies, and address issues they may not be able to using words alone. Objectives: To revie...
Article
Background Music forms an important part of the lives and identities of adolescents and may have positive or negative mental health implications. Music therapy can be effective for mental disorders such as depression, but its preventive potential is unknown. Objective The aim of this study was to examine whether group music therapy (GMT) is an eff...
Chapter
Full-text available
This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (Intervention). The objectives are as follows: Main objective: To assess the effects of music therapy, as a primary or a supportive intervention, compared to standard care, wait-list control or no treatment, for people with substance use disorders, to reduce substance use,the severity of substance dependence...
Article
CONTEXT: Given the recent expansion of research in the area of music therapy (MT) for preterm infants, there is a need for an up-to-date meta-analysis of rigorously designed studies that focus exclusively on MT. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review and meta-analyze the effect of MT on preterm infants and their parents during NICU hospitalization an...
Article
Background. Previous meta-analysis provided some evidence that music therapy (MT) positively impacts infant physiological/behavioral status, parental wellbeing and hospitalization. We aimed to review the effects of MT for preterm infants and their parents/caregivers during NICU hospitalization and after discharge. Methods. A comprehensive searching...
Article
Full-text available
Not all interventions that show promise in exploratory trials will be supported in phase III studies. But the high failure rate in recent trials of complex mental health interventions is a concern. Proper consideration of trial processes and greater use of adaptive trial designs could ensure better use of available resources.
Article
Full-text available
Objectives The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness of music therapy on improving the mental health of offenders in correctional settings. Methods Multiple databases and journals were searched to identify randomized controlled trials and quasi-randomized controlled trials of music therapy for offenders in correctional settings. Result...
Article
Background: Preparing a manuscript for submission and moving through the peer review process can be a challenging task. Authors may benefit from learning about the peer review process and understanding common pitfalls.Objective: Editors from music therapy journals across the globe will facilitate discussion with attendees about the process of peer...
Article
Background: Previous meta-analysis provided some evidence that music therapy (MT) is more effective than standard care for improving social interaction, non-verbal and verbal communication, initiating behaviour, social-emotional reciprocity, social adaptation and parent–child relationships.Methods: Children (4;0–6;11 years) with autism spectrum dis...
Article
Background: Preterm birth is a major medical, psychological and socio-economic problem worldwide. Research has expanded in this area, which necessitates an up-to-date meta-analysis of rigorously designed studies focusing exclusively on music therapy (MT).Methods: This systematic review examined the effects of MT versus standard care on preterm infa...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The number of people living with dementia is reaching crisis proportions. Consequently, music therapy researchers worldwide are attracting large grants to examine the impact of music participation on the health and wellbeing of people with dementia.Objective: To foster international collaborations and a shared research agenda amongst re...
Article
Background: Reports on music therapy and adolescents have become increasingly more present both in literature and research. The theme covers a wide range of topics related to various populations and practices, from schools to community. Because music is important for adolescents, we need to be aware of potential negative outcomes related to music a...
Article
Background: The aim of this study is to examine if positive results of International Cochrane Reviews on Music Therapy and Schizophrenia can be confirmed by a randomized controlled, double blinded study on music therapy for people suffering from schizophrenia with extensive negative symptoms in Denmark. The study includes 120 participants.Methods:...
Article
Background: To conduct generalizable, rigorously designed, adequately powered trials investigating music therapy and other complex interventions, it is essential that study procedures are feasible and acceptable for participants. To date, only limited evidence on feasibility of trial designs and strategies to facilitate study implementation is ava...
Chapter
Psychiatric disorders are debilitating conditions that often rob patients of their sense of self-worth, connection to meaningful persons, and participation in social and productive activities, consequently resulting in significant disruption of their overall quality of life. The introduction of music therapy to the therapeutic repertoire of mental...
Chapter
Introduction: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects an individual throughout life. It is often associated with impairment in social interaction with others as well as in language skills. Music therapy is thought to utilize a “pre-verbal” form of communication that occurs between mothers and infants that includ...
Chapter
This chapter reviews methodological issues in quantitative psychotherapy outcome research. In the era of evidence-based medicine, it is vital for researchers to understand the methodological details that ensure the validity of outcome studies. By re-examining some “classical” examples of psychotherapy outcome studies, this chapter explains the rela...
Data
Full-text available
Appendix S1. Healthy-Unhealthy Uses of Music Scale (HUMS).
Article
Objectives: Several studies have suggested positive effects of music therapy in dementia, but research on age-related depression has been limited and of insufficient quality. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of interactive group music therapy versus recreational group singing on depressive symptoms in elderly nursing home residents....
Article
Background: Long-term stress-related sick leave constitutes a serious health threat and an economic burden on both the single worker and the society. Effective interventions for the rehabilitation and facilitation of return to work are needed. Objective: The aim of the study was to examine the effects of Guided Imagery and Music (GIM), a psychot...
Poster
Full-text available
Preterm birth and prematurity is a major medical, psychological and socio-economical problem worldwide. More than 1 in 10 of the world’s newborns are born prematurely corresponding to 14.9 million premature infants each year. Previous research suggests positive effects of music therapy for premature infants and their parents/caregivers, though meth...
Article
Improvisational methods of music therapy have been increasingly applied in the treatment of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) over the past decades in many countries worldwide. This study aimed at developing treatment guidelines based on the most important common characteristics of improvisational music therapy (IMT) with children aff...
Article
Full-text available
Background Music is an integral part of life in youth, and although it has been acknowledged that musical behavior reflects broader psychosocial aspects of adolescent behavior, no measurement instruments have been specifically designed for assessing musical engagement as an indicator of adolescent wellbeing and/or symptomatology. This study was con...
Article
Full-text available
This is a protocol for a systematic review of the effects of music therapy on offenders. Based on randomised controlled trials, the review aims to assess the effectiveness of music therapy on adolescent and adult offenders in custodial institutions including forensic psychiatric hospitals, and offenders or probationers in the community. The outcome...
Article
This study investigated the effects of group music therapy on improving anxiety, depression, and self-esteem in Chinese prisoners. Two-hundred male prisoners were randomly assigned to music therapy (n = 100) or standard care (n = 100). The music therapy had 20 sessions of group therapy compared with standard care. Anxiety (State and Trait Anxiety I...
Article
Heart rate (HR) and its variability (HRV) has been proposed as a marker for depressive symptoms and other aspects of mental health. However, the real correlation between them is presently uncertain, as previous studies have generally been conducted on the basis of small samples. In a sample of 113 adult male prisoners, we analyzed correlations betw...
Article
Background: The central impairments of people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affect social interaction and communication. Music therapy uses musical experiences and the relationships that develop through them to enable communication and expression, thus attempting to address some of the core problems of people with ASD. The present version of...
Article
People with Rett syndrome (RTT) have severe communicative difficulties. They have as well an immature brainstem that implies dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system. Music plays an important role in their life, is often used as a motivating tool in a variety of situations and activities, and caregivers are often clear about people with RTTs fav...