Christian Garnier

Christian Garnier
Ecole Nationale d'Ingénieurs de Tarbes | INP ENIT · Laboratoire Génie de Production

Associate Profesor

About

43
Publications
6,322
Reads
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710
Citations
Citations since 2016
34 Research Items
600 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120140
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120140
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120140
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120140
Additional affiliations
July 2008 - December 2011
Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse
Position
  • PhD Thesis

Publications

Publications (43)
Article
In this paper, a new fatigue limit determination method based on the thermographic data is proposed to overcome the limit of Risitano and Luong’s method. The stress amplitude corresponding to peak value of normalized angle change is defined as the fatigue limit. The method was evaluated by the experimental data of Multidirectional (MD) CFRP laminat...
Article
4D printing is defined as the additive manufacturing process of smart (stimuli‐responsive) materials. Shape memory materials are sensitive to specific stimuli such as heat, electricity, magnetic fields, etc., which can change their form or properties. This characteristic gives the material a dynamic behavior over time (the 4th dimension). The appli...
Article
Full-text available
In the present work, an ultrasonic, an induction, and a through transmission laser welding were compared to join carbon fibre reinforced polyetheretherketone (CF/PEEK) composites. The advantages and drawbacks of each process are discussed, as well as the material properties required to fit each process. CF/PEEK plates were consolidated at 395 °C wi...
Article
Full-text available
Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is among the most used thermoplastic polymers in large scale manufacturing. Opaque PET is increasingly used in milk bottles to save weight and to bring a glossy white aspect due to TiO2 nanoparticles. The recyclability of opaque PET is an issue: whereas the recycling channels are well established for transparent PET...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes a thermal numerical model accessible to all users for predicting temperature in friction stir welding from the power, material thermal properties, process parameters, tool, and plate dimensions. Starting with the information obtained from the machine, power or torque, the heat flux is modeled as a circular moving source with a...
Article
Full-text available
A statistical analysis of the response of the parameters has been led by a design of experiments to extract the most influential parameters in the selective laser sintering process. The parametric study was carried out by varying five parameters on the SLS machine and by looking at their influence on five groups of responses relating to the physica...
Article
Process parameters and base material thermal properties strongly affect peak temperature evolution in friction stir welding (FSW). This work develops a semi-empirical model for peak temperature estimation during FSW of aluminium alloys. Several bead-on-plate runs were conducted on AA5083-H111, AA6082-T6 and AA7075-T6. Different rotational and weldi...
Article
Aluminum (Al) matrix composites with boron carbide (B4C) reinforcements were fabricated by solid state powder metallurgy using the hot-pressing process. Composite materials were fabricated at different volume fractions of B4C particles, ranging from 2% to 12%, to evaluate the impact of B4C reinforcements on the thermal and mechanical properties of...
Article
In this study, the behaviour of woven composite fabrics under large deformation is investigated. Two hybrid discrete continuous approaches based on mesoscale modelling are developed and implemented in the Abaqus software using VUMAT subroutines. In both hybrid models, connectors for tensile behaviour are combined with membranes for consideration of...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The tool-workpiece interaction in friction stir welding represents a critical issue. It is responsible for the final quality of the joint and the thermo-mechanical phenomena that develop during the process. Unfortunately, this interaction is continuously h idden by the tool shoulder, and thus, it is impossible to follow the tool-workpiece contact....
Article
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Polyetheretherketone (PEEK)/polyethersulfone (PES) blends are initially not miscible, except when the blends are prepared by solvent mixing. We propose a route to elaborate PEEK/PES blends with partial miscibility by melt mixing at 375 °C with phenolphthalein. The miscibility of blends has been examined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)...
Article
Opaque PET (Polyethylene terephthalate) was recently introduced as a dairy packaging, mainly for milk bottles. Opaque PET, obtained as PET filled with mineral nanoparticles, allows for a reduction of bottles’ thickness, thus a cost reduction for industrials. For this reason, the use of opaque PET is steadily increasing. However, its recyclability i...
Article
Full-text available
Manufacturing complex metal matrix composite (MMC) structures by laser powder-bed fusion (LPBF) could unleash their full potential but is difficult due to the presence of reinforcement. Unmelted particles negatively affect the pool dynamics, cause critical spatter ejections, and form printing defects. In this work, by taking copper (Cu) / diamond (...
Article
Full-text available
The influence of processing parameters and several combinations of natural as well as artificial aging on the mechanical properties of friction stir welded AA7075-T6 is analyzed in the present investigation. Different sets of welding parameters were employed to obtain joints characterized by different peak temperatures and thermal cycles. The joint...
Article
This study focuses on the influence of the welding parameters on defectiveness, thermal field and grain size in friction stir welding of aluminium alloy 7075-T6. Different welded specimens were produced employing various rotational speeds and welding speeds. In the first part of the analysis, the quality of the joints was evaluated by microscopic o...
Article
In this work, the shear fatigue behavior of a Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) composite has been studied by carrying out tensile test on the laminates [±45°]8. The amount of heat generation rate per unit of volume within CFRP laminate under various cyclic loading condition is investigated by combining experimentation and numerical simulation...
Article
Full-text available
Transmission laser welding (TLW) is an environmentally friendly and versatile process for assembling polymeric parts. Welding by transmission requires the upper element to be transparent to the laser wavelength whereas the inferior part is absorbent to the same wavelength. Thus, the energy of the laser beam is concentrated at the interface, allowin...
Conference Paper
Selective laser sintering (SLS) is a process of additive manufacturing (AM) based on the melting and adhesion of layers of thermoplastic powder. PEEK (polyetheretherketone) is a high-performance thermoplastic, which is the most durable in severe environments such as aerospace conditions. Despite noteworthy progresses to master its processing, print...
Conference Paper
In order to understand the causes and the formation process of the tow sliding defect, shape preforming tests were performed on a hemispherical punch. Variable orientation and blank holders’ pressure were investigated in order to assess the phenomena and a cohesion pull-out test was proposed to investigate the cohesion of the reinforcement which wa...
Article
The first step in the composite manufacturing process consists of forming a flat textile reinforcing structure into a 3D shape. The quality of the final composite part is affected by the presence of defects induced during the forming process. Loss of cohesion in the woven fibre network (intra-ply yarn sliding) is a frequent defect in the forming pr...
Article
Full-text available
Manufacturing complex composite part via Liquid Composite Molding (LCM) processes involves preforming dry textile perform before injecting the liquid resin. The defect that may be encountered within the textile structure during preforming step decreases the expected mechanical properties of the composite part. The intra-ply yarn sliding is a defect...
Article
In this paper, a new fatigue life prediction methodology is proposed by combining stiffness degradation and temperature variation measured by InfraRed Thermographic (IRT) camera. Firstly, the improved thermographic method is used to determine the fatigue limit by using the data of stabilized temperature rising. Following this, a two-parameter model...
Article
Full-text available
A non-linear discrete hybrid approach based on the association of hypoelastic continuous elements (non-linear shear behaviour) with specific connectors (non-linear tension stiffness) is developed. It allows the simulation of a two-dimensional (2D) woven reinforcement forming via an accurate explicit finite element analysis. This approach allows the...
Article
Preforming is the first step to manufacture a complex composite part via Liquid Composite Moulding processes. The defects that may be encountered during this phase within the preform architecture may decrease the expected mechanical performances of the final part. The intra-ply yarn sliding is a defect frequently observed during preforming of a wov...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Impact damage is one of the most critical aggressions for composite structures in aeronautical applications. Consequences of a high/low velocity and high/low energy impacts are very important to investigate. It is usually admitted that the most critical configuration is the Barely Visible Impact Damage (BVID), with impact energy of about 25 J, wher...
Article
Preforming is the first step to manufacture a complex composite part via Liquid Composite Moulding processes.The defects that may be encountered during this phase within the preform architecture may decrease the expected mechanical performances of the final part. The intra-ply yarn sliding is a defect frequently observed during preforming of a wove...
Article
Full-text available
A new fatigue life prediction model is developed for composite laminates based on both infrared thermographic data and stiffness degradation process. The fatigue limit is firstly determined by the improved thermographic method and then a two-parameter function is proposed to describe the normalized stiffness degradation of specimens subjected to va...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, the printing temperature ranges of PLA and PEEK, two semi-crystalline thermoplastics, have been investigated for the Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) process. The printing range, comprised between the melting temperature and the degradation of each polymer, is 160°C to 190°C for PLA and 350°C to 390°C for PEEK. The complex viscosity...
Article
Based on infrared thermography, the graphic methods such as Luong’s method and Risitano’s method are proved to be rapid and efficient for fatigue limit determination comparing to conventional methods. However, the determination procedure involves visual inspection so contains man-made uncertainties, which restricts their usage. In the present paper...
Conference Paper
For many years, the use of carbon fiber reinforced composite materials in the chassis of racing cars and aircraft structures, (52% of the airbus A350 made out of composite) could be justified by the combination of low weight and high strength or high stiffness. These structures can be damaged with different scales starting from the small damage dur...
Article
Full-text available
Low velocity barely visible impact damage (BVID) in laminated carbon composite structures has a major importance for aeronautical industries. This contribution leads with the development of finite element models to simulate the initiation and the propagation of internal damage inside a carbon composite structure due by a low velocity impact. Compos...
Conference Paper
Higher efficiency, power density, reliability and longer lifetime of power electronic devices would stem from progresses in material science. In this work, we propose to use a high performance thermoplastic polymer PAEK as packaging box to extend the operating temperature above 200°C. More, the laser transmission welding process has been applied to...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this work, the temperature distribution inside the specimens has been measured during transmission laser welding. The material studied is a high performance thermoplastic of the polyaryletherketone (PAEK) family. The assembly consists of a quasi-amorphous sample as the upper part and a semi-crystalline sample as the lower part. The temperature f...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to compare the mechanical behaviour of different impact-damaged composite materials. Three composite materials were realized using the Liquid Resin Infusion process (LRI) according to three different cycles of polymerization. Thus the temperature of the glass transition of the resin was controlled and the influence of this...
Article
The present work is devoted to damaging process in carbon–fiber reinforced laminated composites. An original experimental approach combining three optical measurement techniques is presented. Image stereo-correlation and infrared thermography, that respectively provide the kinematic and thermal fields on the surface of the composites, are used in l...
Article
Full-text available
The first aim of this study is to analyze the impact behavior of pre-loaded composite. Indeed, a bi-axial load is applied to the composite specimen, in order to keep in touch with a real case of composite fuselage. Then, this pre-loaded specimen is impacted by a pendulum. The used energy and velocity are weak in order to be in the case of low-energ...
Article
Full-text available
A study of three Non Destructive Testing methods (Ultrasonic Testing, InfraRed Thermography and Speckle Shearing Interferometry, known as Shearography) was carried out on different specific types of composite specimens having a variety of defects. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of these NDT methods in the detection of in site d...
Article
Full-text available
An investigation of two nondestructive methods (ultrasounds and infrared thermography) is carried out. The defect detection by both methods is first examined. The determination of the position and the dimensions are then studied. And finally, the feasibility and the time of the experimental protocol setting up are analysed. The aim is to compare tw...
Article
Full-text available
This study deals with cumulative damage and its evolution in already impact damage composite structure. In order to follow the growing damage and to compare it with cumulative model, tests are monitored with an InfraRed thermography system. A carbon-epoxy composite is first low-energy impacted and then fatigued under tensioncompression loading. Thi...
Article
Full-text available
Even if the mechanical performances of composite materials give new perspectives for the aircraft and space design, the variability of their behavior, linked to the presence of initial microscopic defects or led in service, constitute however a still important brake in their development. As regards particularly the response to fatigue loads or agei...
Article
Full-text available
Même si les performances des matériaux composites donnent de nouvelles perspectives pour la conception aéronautique et spatiale, la variabilité de leur comportement, liée à la présence de micro-défauts initiaux ou provoqués en service constitue néanmoins un frein important à leur développement. En s'intéressant plus particulièrement à la réponse de...

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Projects (2)
Project
ENABLE aims to train early-stage researchers in what is referred to as an outstanding challenge for the future of manufacturing: developing novel solutions for forecasting and mastering processes relevant for all factories using metallic alloys. ENABLE proposes a complete rethink of the usual process simulation method by developing innovative multiscale, multiphysical and multi-level advanced (TRL 1 to 8) simulation. To extend the benefits to a wide range of industrial actors, the simulation will be carried out on several widely-used processes: Machining, Friction Stir Welding and Additive Manufacturing. The most popular metals in industry (Titanium, Nickel based and Aluminium alloys) will be chosen for the scientific investigation. ENABLE will lead to the development of new tools that are better suited to production (reduced premature wear, increased service life, improved tools, etc.) and will reduce production time and thereby production costs. A group of 9 ESR will be introduced to dynamic approaches to exploiting advances in fundamental research towards innovative applications. To “enable” this vision, each trainee will have access to closely integrated complementarities and world-class expertise in mechanical science, materials science, computer science/numerical methods, state-of-the-art scattering, advanced equipment and significant computational resources. Additional cross-disciplinary training and a strong involvement on the part of the 12 Industries and SMEs and research centres will provide the students with transferable skills and complementary competencies which will improve their research training and enhance their future employability. The proposed project has been co-constructed by academics and industries in line with today’s markets requirements and taking into account the “knowledge triangle philosophy” focusing on a strong interaction between research, education and innovation, which are key drivers of a knowledge-based society.