# Christian Gerhard BoehmerUniversity College London | UCL · Department of Mathematics

Christian Gerhard Boehmer

PhD

Head of Department

## About

140

Publications

31,430

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7,718

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Introduction

My main research interest lies in theoretical physics and applied mathematics. In recent years I developed a keen interest in continuum mechanics.
Things I am currently working on are: dynamical systems in cosmology, various modified theories of gravity, the relationship between Cosserat elasticity and TEGR.
I am thinking about the various symmetries in gravity, diffeomorphisms, Lorentz transformations and others.

Additional affiliations

Education

October 2000 - July 2002

September 1999 - June 2000

October 1997 - July 2002

## Publications

Publications (140)

Introduction to General Relativity and Cosmology gives undergraduate students an overview of the fundamental ideas behind the geometric theory of gravitation and spacetime. Through pointers on how to modify and generalise Einstein's theory to enhance understanding, it provides a link between standard textbook content and current research in the fie...

The compatibility conditions for generalised continua are studied in the framework of differential geometry, in particular Riemann–Cartan geometry. We show that Vallée’s compatibility condition in linear elasticity theory is equivalent to the vanishing of the three-dimensional Einstein tensor. Moreover, we show that the compatibility condition sati...

Starting from the original Einstein action, sometimes called the Gamma squared action, we propose a new setup to formulate modified theories of gravity. This can yield a theory with second order field equations similar to those found in other popular modified gravity models. Using a more general setting the theory gives fourth order equations. This...

The starting point of this work is the original Einstein action, sometimes called the Gamma squared action. Continuing from our previous results, we study various modified theories of gravity following the Palatini approach. The metric and the connection will be treated as independent variables leading to generalised theories which may contain tors...

It is well known that the Einstein-Hilbert action in two dimensions is topological and yields an identically vanishing Einstein tensor. Consequently one is faced with difficulties when formulating a non-trivial gravity model. We present a new, intrinsically two-dimensional, approach to this problem based on the Einstein action. This yields a well d...

The starting point of this work is the original Einstein action, sometimes called the Gamma squared action. Continuing from our previous results, we study various modified theories of gravity following the Palatini approach. The metric and the connection will be treated as independent variables leading to generalized theories, which may contain tor...

Modified gravity theories can be used for the description of homogeneous and isotropic cosmological models through the corresponding field equations. These can be cast into systems of autonomous differential equations because of their sole dependence on a well-chosen time variable, be it the cosmological time, or an alternative. For that reason, a...

Modified gravity theories can be used for the description of homogeneous and isotropic cosmological models through the corresponding field equations. These can be cast into systems of autonomous differential equations because of their sole dependence on a well chosen time variable, be it the cosmological time, or an alternative. For that reason a d...

The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) has the potential to reveal wonders about the fundamental theory of nature at play in the extreme gravity regime, where the gravitational interaction is both strong and dynamical. In this white paper, the Fundamental Physics Working Group of the LISA Consortium summarizes the current topics in fundament...

The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) has the potential to reveal wonders about the fundamental theory of nature at play in the extreme gravity regime, where the gravitational interaction is both strong and dynamical. In this white paper, the Fundamental Physics Working Group of the LISA Consortium summarizes the current topics in fundament...

The field equations of modified gravity theories, when considering a homogeneous and isotropic cosmological model, always become autonomous differential equations. This relies on the fact that in such models all variables only depend on cosmological time, or another suitably chosen time parameter. Consequently, the field equations can always be cas...

The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) has the potential to reveal wonders about the fundamental theory of nature at play in the extreme gravity regime, where the gravitational interaction is both strong and dynamical. In this white paper, the Fundamental Physics Working Group of the LISA Consortium summarizes the current topics in fundament...

The field equations of modified gravity theories, when considering a homogeneous and isotropic cosmological model, always become autonomous differential equations. This relies on the fact that in such models all variables only depend on cosmological time, or another suitably chosen time parameter. Consequently, the field equations can always be cas...

The basic foundations and building blocks of General Relativity are discussed with a view to introduce various modifications and extensions of the theory. After a brief discussion of matter couplings, Einstein–Cartan theory and the Teleparallel Equivalent of General Relativity are introduced, these can be seen as the linear extensions. This is foll...

Astroparticle physics is undergoing a profound transformation, due to a series of extraordinary new results, such as the discovery of high-energy cosmic neutrinos with IceCube, the direct detection of gravitational waves with LIGO and Virgo, and many others. This white paper is the result of a collaborative effort that involved hundreds of theoreti...

In the field of crystallography, some crystals are not made of a single component but are instead twinned.In these cases, the observed intensities at some points in the lattice will be far larger than predictions. If we find the rotation associated to the twinned component, we can model this twin and improve our agreement with observations. In this...

In the field of crystallography, some crystals are not made of a single component but are instead twinned.In these cases, the observed intensities at some points in the lattice will be far larger than predictions. If we find the rotation associated to the twinned component, we can model this twin and improve our agreement with observations. In this...

In the field of crystallography, some crystals are not made of a single component but are instead twinned.In these cases, the observed intensities at some points in the lattice will be far larger than predictions. If we find the rotation associated to the twinned component, we can model this twin and improve our agreement with observations. In this...

Starting from the original Einstein action, sometimes called the Gamma squared action, we propose a new setup to formulate modified theories of gravity. This can yield a theory with second order field equations similar to those found in other popular modified gravity models. Using a more general setting the theory gives fourth order equations. This...

General Relativity and the $\Lambda$CDM framework are currently the standard lore and constitute the concordance paradigm. Nevertheless, long-standing open theoretical issues, as well as possible new observational ones arising from the explosive development of cosmology the last two decades, offer the motivation and lead a large amount of research...

General Relativity and the ΛCDM framework are currently the standard lore and constitute the concordance paradigm. Nevertheless, long-standing open theoretical issues, as well as possible new observational ones arising from the explosive development of cosmology the last two decades, offer the motivation and lead a large amount of research to be de...

The regular black hole solution arising as a spherically symmetric vacuum solution of Born-Infeld gravity possesses an asymptotic interior structure which is very well described by a four dimensional generalization of the non-rotating BTZ metric. According to this picture no singularity exists, and instead, infalling observers experience a constant...

In this paper, which is of programmatic rather than quantitative nature, we aim to further delineate and sharpen the future potential of the LISA mission in the area of fundamental physics. Given the very broad range of topics that might be relevant to LISA, we present here a sample of what we view as particularly promising directions, based in par...

The compatibility conditions for generalised continua are studied in the framework of differential geometry, in particular Riemann-Cartan geometry. We show that Vall\'{e}e's compatibility condition in linear elasticity theory is equivalent to the vanishing of the three dimensional Einstein tensor. Moreover, we show that the compatibility condition...

The regular black hole solution arising as a spherically symmetric vacuum solution of Born-Infeld gravity possesses an asymptotic interior structure which is very well described by a four dimensional generalization of the non-rotating BTZ metric. According to this picture no singularity exists, and instead, infalling observers experience a constant...

We provide an updated assessment of the fundamental physics potential of LISA. Given the very broad range of topics that might be relevant to LISA, we present here a sample of what we view as particularly promising directions, based in part on the current research interests of the LISA scientific community in the area of fundamental physics. We org...

The presence of additional compact dimensions in cosmological models is studied in the context of modified teleparallel theories of gravity. We focus the analysis on eleven dimensional spacetimes, where the seven dimensional extra dimensions are compactified. In particular, and due to the importance that global vector fields play within the concept...

It is well-known that many three-dimensional chiral material models become non-chiral when reduced to two dimensions. Chiral properties of the two-dimensional model can then be restored by adding appropriate two-dimensional chiral terms. In this paper we show how to construct a three-dimensional chiral energy function which can achieve two-dimensio...

Teleparallel gravity and its popular generalization f(T) gravity can be formulated as fully invariant (under both coordinate transformations and local Lorentz transformations) theories of gravity. Several misconceptions about teleparallel gravity and its generalizations can be found in the literature, especially regarding their local Lorentz invari...

Massless particles in General Relativity move with the speed of light, their trajectories in spacetime are described by null geodesics. This is independent of the electrical charge of the particle being considered, however, the charged light-like case is less well understood. Starting with the Maxwell field of a charged particle having a light-like...

Massless particles in General Relativity move with the speed of light, their trajectories in spacetime are described by null geodesics. This is independent of the electrical charge of the particle being considered, however, the charged light--like case is less well understood. Starting with the Maxwell field of a charged particle having a light--li...

Massless particles in general relativity move with the speed of light, and their trajectories in spacetime are described by null geodesics. This is independent of the electrical charge of the particle being considered; however, the charged lightlike case is less understood. Starting with the Maxwell field of a charged particle having a lightlike ge...

The presence of additional compact dimensions in cosmological models is studied in the context of modified teleparallel theories of gravity. We focus the analysis on eleven dimensional spacetimes, where the seven dimensional extra dimensions are compactified. In particular, and due to the importance that global vector fields play within the concept...

It is well-known that many isotropic three-dimensional chiral material models become non-chiral when reduced to two dimensions. Chiral properties of the two-dimensional model can be restored by adding appropriate two-dimensional chiral terms. In this presentation we show how to construct a chiral energy function which can achieve two-dimensional ch...

In the context of Born-Infeld gravity theories we report the existence of a regular black hole interior representing a spherically symmetric vacuum solution of the theory. It reduces to the Schwarzschild
interior metric in the weak field region. In particular, there is a new length scale which is related to the Born-Infeld parameter λ. This endows...

It is well-known that many three-dimensional chiral material models become non-chiral when reduced to two dimensions. Chiral properties of the two-dimensional model can then be restored by adding appropriate two-dimensional chiral terms. In this paper we show how to construct a three-dimensional chiral energy function which can achieve two-dimensio...

In the context of Born-Infeld gravity theories we report the existence of a regular black hole interior representing a spherically symmetric vacuum solution of the theory. It reduces to the Schwarzschild interior metric in the weak field region. In particular, there is a new length scale which is related to the Born-Infeld parameter. This endows th...

Teleparallel gravity and its popular generalization $f(T)$ gravity can be formulated as fully invariant (under both coordinate transformations and local Lorentz transformations) theories of gravity. Several misconceptions about teleparallel gravity and its generalizations can be found in the literature, especially regarding their local Lorentz inva...

A new class of modified theory of gravity is introduced where the volume form becomes dynamical. This approach is motivated by unimodular gravity and can also be related to Brans-Dicke theory. On the level of the action, the only change made will be through the volume element which is used in the integration. This is achieved by the introduction of...

A new class of modified theory of gravity is introduced where the volume form becomes dynamical. This approach is motivated by unimodular gravity and can also be related to Brans-Dicke theory. On the level of the action, the only change made will be through the volume element which is used in the integration. This is achieved by the introduction of...

We study the fully nonlinear dynamical Cosserat micropolar elasticity problem in space with three dimensionals with various energy functionals dependent on the microrotation $\overline{R}$ and the deformation gradient tensor $F$ . We derive a set of coupled nonlinear equations of motion from first principles by varying the complete energy functiona...

The Nobel Prize winning confirmation in 1998 of the accelerated expansion of our Universe put into sharp focus the need of a consistent theoretical model to explain the origin of this acceleration. As a result over the past two decades there has been a huge theoretical and observational effort into improving our understanding of the Universe. The c...

The identification of a suitable gravitational energy in theories of gravity has a long history, and it is well known that a unique answer cannot be given. In the first part of this paper we present a streamlined version of the derivation of Freud's superpotential in general relativity. It is found if we once integrate the gravitational field equat...

A new Vaidya-type generalization of Kerr spacetime is constructed by requiring the Kerr mass and angular momentum per unit mass to depend upon a variable which has a simple geometrical origin. The matter distribution introduced in this way radiates mass and angular momentum at future null infinity. The Vaidya generalization of the Schwarzschild spa...

We consider a modification of General Relativity motivated by the treatment of anisotropies in Continuum Mechanics. The Newtonian limit of the theory is formulated and applied to galactic rotation curves. By assuming that the additional structure of spacetime behaves like a Newtonian gravitational potential for small deviations from isotropy, we ar...

A new Vaidya-type generalisation of Kerr space-time is constructed by requiring the Kerr mass and angular momentum per unit mass to depend upon a variable which has a simple geometrical origin. The matter distribution introduced in this way radiates mass and angular momentum at future null infinity. The Vaidya generalisation of the Schwarzschild sp...

We derive upper and lower limits for the mass-radius ratio of spin-fluid spheres in Einstein-Cartan theory, with matter satisfying a linear barotropic equation of state, and in the presence of a cosmological constant. Adopting a spherically symmetric interior geometry, we obtain the generalized continuity and Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations fo...

New classes of modified teleparallel theories of gravity are introduced. The action of this theory is constructed to be a function of the irreducible parts of torsion $f(T_{\rm ax},T_{\rm ten},T_{\rm vec})$, where $T_{\rm ax},T_{\rm ten}$ and $T_{\rm vec}$ are squares of the axial, tensor and vector components of torsion, respectively. This is the...

Modelling two-dimensional chiral materials is a challenging problem in continuum mechanics because three-dimensional theories reduced to isotropic two-dimensional problems become non-chiral. Various approaches have been suggested to overcome this problem. We propose a new approach to this problem by formulating an intrinsically two-dimensional mode...

We investigate modified theories of gravity in the context of teleparallel geometries with possible Gauss-Bonnet contributions. The possible coupling of gravity with the trace of the energymomentum tensor is also taken into account. This is motivated by the various different theories formulated in the teleparallel approach and the metric approach w...

We investigate modified theories of gravity in the context of teleparallel geometries with possible Gauss-Bonnet contributions. The possible coupling of gravity with the trace of the energy-momentum tensor is also taken into account. This is motivated by the various different theories formulated in the teleparallel approach and the metric approach...

Hartle's slow rotation formalism is developed in the presence of a
cosmological constant. We find the generalisation of the Hartle-Thorne vacuum
metric, the Hartle-Thorne-(anti)-de Sitter metric, and find that it is always
asymptotically (anti)-de Sitter. Next we consider Wahlquist's rotating perfect
fluid interior solution in Hartle's formalism an...

A new Lagrangian framework has recently been proposed to describe
interactions between relativistic perfect fluids and scalar fields. In this
paper we investigate the Einstein static universe in this new class of
theories, which have been named Scalar-Fluid theories. The stability of the
static solutions to both homogeneous and inhomogeneous pertur...

Elastic solids with microstructure can be studied using the Cosserat model for elastic continua. We formulate the complete dynamical Cosserat model including interaction terms between the deformation gradient and the Cosserat dislocation curvature tensor, and also take into account the Cosserat coupling term. This model is studied by assuming the d...

We investigate modified theories of gravity in the context of teleparallel
geometries. It is well known that modified gravity models based on the torsion
scalar are not invariant under local Lorentz transformations while
modifications based on the Ricci scalar are. This motivates the study of a
model depending on the torsion scalar and the divergen...

High-precision observational data have confirmed with startling evidence that
the Universe is currently undergoing a phase of accelerated expansion. This
phase, one of the most important and challenging current problems in cosmology,
represents a new imbalance in the governing gravitational equations.
Historically, physics has addressed such imbala...

The Cosserat model generalises an elastic material taking into account the
possible microstructure of the elements of the material continuum. In
particular, within the Cosserat model the structured material point is rigid
and can only experience microrotation, which is also known as micropolar
elasticity. We present the geometrically nonlinear theo...

We consider an original variational approach for building new models of
quintessence interacting with dark or baryonic matter. The coupling is
introduced at the Lagrangian level using a variational formulation for
relativistic fluids, where the interacting term generally depends on both the
dynamical degrees of freedom of the theory and their space...

We present a new approach to build models of quintessence interacting with
dark or baryonic matter. We use a variational approach for relativistic fluids
to realize an effective description of matter fields at the Lagrangian level.
The coupling is introduced directly in the action by considering a single
function mixing the dynamical degrees of fre...

Cosmology is a well established research area in physics while dynamical
systems are well established in mathematics. It turns out that dynamical system
techniques are very well suited to study many aspects of cosmology. The aim of
this book chapter is to provide the reader with a concise introduction to both
cosmology and dynamical system. The mat...

Using ideas from continuum mechanics we construct a theory of gravity. We
show that this theory is equivalent to Einstein's theory of general relativity;
it is also a much faster way of reaching general relativity than the
conventional route. Our approach is simple and natural: we form a very general
model and then apply two physical assumptions su...

We consider a modification of General Relativity motivated by the treatment
of anisotropies in Continuum Mechanics. The Newtonian limit of the theory is
formulated and applied to galactic rotation curves. By assuming that the
additional structure of spacetime behaves like a Newtonian gravitational
potential for small deviations from isotropy, we ar...

It is the aim of the paper to present a new point of view on rotational elasticity in a nonlinear setting using orthogonal matrices. The proposed model, in the linear approximation, can be compared to the well-known equilibrium equations of static linear elasticity. An appropriate kinetic energy is identified, and we present a dynamical model of ro...

Hybrid metric-Palatini gravity is a recent and novel approach to modified
theories of gravity, which consists of adding to the metric Einstein-Hilbert
Lagrangian an f(R) term constructed a la Palatini. It was shown that the theory
passes local tests even if the scalar field is very light, and thus implies the
existence of a long-range scalar field,...

The importance of choosing suitable tetrads for the study of exact solutions in f(T) gravity is discussed. For any given metric, we define the concept of good tetrads as the tetrads satisfying the field equations without constrainig the function f(T). Employing local Lorentz transformations, good tetrads in the context of spherical symmetry are fou...

We introduce a new approach to modified gravity which generalizes the
recently proposed hybrid metric-Palatini gravity. The gravitational action is
taken to depend on a general function of both the metric and Palatini curvature
scalars. The dynamical equivalence with a non-minimally coupled bi-scalar field
gravitational theory is proved. The evolut...

We propose a new point of view for interpreting Newton's and Einstein's
theories of gravity. By taking inspiration from Continuum Mechanics and its
treatment of anisotropies, we formulate new gravitational actions for modified
theories of gravity. These models are simple and natural generalisations with
many interesting properties. Above all, their...

The book is addressed to theoretical physicists and mathematicians who want to learn about differential geometry and its applications in physics. It is sufficiently rigorous for a mathematics degree programme, yet physical enough to appeal to a wide readership. There is enough material in this book to last for at least three courses, a must have fo...

The importance of choosing suitable tetrads for the study of exact
solutions in f(T) gravity is discussed. For any given metric, we define
the concept of good tetrads as the tetrads satisfying the field
equations without constrainig the function f(T). Employing local Lorentz
transformations, good tetrads in the context of spherical symmetry are
fou...

We consider charged spherically symmetric static solutions of the
Einstein-Maxwell equations with a positive cosmological constant $\Lambda$. If
$r$ denotes the area radius, $m_g$ and $q$ the gravitational mass and charge of
a sphere with area radius $r$ respectively, we find that for any solution which
satisfies the condition $p+2p_{\perp}\leq \rh...

We investigate the importance of choosing good tetrads for the study of the
field equations of $f(T)$ gravity. It is well known that this theory is not
invariant under local Lorentz transformations, and therefore the choice of
tetrad plays a crucial role in such models. Different tetrads will lead to
different field equations which in turn have dif...

We investigate two seemingly disjoint definitions of helicity, one commonly
used in particle physics, the other one used when studying bilinear covariants
of Clifford algebras. We can prove that the `mathematical' definition of
helicity implies its `physical' counterpart. As an unexpected application of
our result we show that the Hamiltonian descr...

Astrophysical bounds on the cosmological constant are examined for spherically symmetric bodies. Similar limits emerge from the hydrostatical and gravitational equilibrium and the validity of the Newtonian limit. The methods in use seem to be disjoint from the basic principles, however they have the same implication regarding the upper bounds. Ther...

We analyse dark energy models where self-interacting three-forms or phantom
fields drive the accelerated expansion of the Universe. The dynamics of such
models is often studied by rewriting the cosmological field equations in the
form of a system of autonomous differential equations, or simply a dynamical
system. Properties of these systems are usu...

Ever since the first observations that we are living in an accelerating universe, it has been asked what dark energy is. There are various explanations, all of which have various drawbacks or inconsistencies. Here we show that using a dark spinor field it is possible to have an equation of state that crosses the phantom divide, becoming a dark phan...

In this work, we explore the possibility that static and spherically
symmetric traversable wormhole geometries are supported by modified
teleparallel gravity or f(T) gravity, where T is the torsion scalar.
Considering the field equations with an off-diagonal tetrad, a plethora of
asymptotically flat exact solutions are found, that satisfy the weak...

We examine the existence of relativistic stars in f (T) modified gravity and explicitly construct several classes of static perfect fluid solutions. We derive the conservation equation from the complete f (T) gravity field equations and present the differences with its teleparallel counterpart. Firstly, we choose the tetrad field in the diagonal ga...

We examine the existence of relativistic stars in f(T) modified gravity and
explicitly construct several classes of static perfect fluid solutions. We
derive the conservation equation from the complete f(T) gravity field equations
and present the differences with its teleparallel counterpart. Firstly, we
choose the tetrad field in the diagonal gaug...

The Kosambi-Cartan-Chern (KCC) theory represents a powerful mathematical
method for the analysis of dynamical systems. In this approach one describes
the evolution of a dynamical system in geometric terms, by considering it as a
geodesic in a Finsler space. By associating a non-linear connection and a
Berwald type connection to the dynamical system...

It is the aim of the paper to present a new point of view on rotational
elasticity in a nonlinear setting using orthogonal matrices. The proposed
model, in the linear approximation, can be compared to the well known
equilibrium equations of static linear elasticity. An appropriate kinetic
energy is identified and we present a dynamical model of rot...

We consider an infinite 3-dimensional elastic continuum whose material points
experience no displacements, only rotations. This framework is a special case
of the Cosserat theory of elasticity. Rotations of material points are
described mathematically by attaching to each geometric point an orthonormal
basis which gives a field of orthonormal bases...

We investigate the evolution of sub-horizon cold dark matter perturbation in the dark energy dominated era of the Universe. By generalising the Meszaros equation to be valid for an arbitrary equation of state parameter, we derive the $w$-Meszaros equation. Its solutions determine the evolution of the cold dark matter perturbation by neglecting dark...

We introduce and carefully define an entire class of field theories based on non-standard spinors. Their dominant interaction is via the gravitational field which makes them naturally dark; we refer to them as Dark Spinors. We provide a critical analysis of previous proposals for dark spinors noting that they violate Lorentz invariance. As a workin...