Christian M. Appendini

Christian M. Appendini
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México | UNAM · Institute of Engineering

PhD

About

86
Publications
31,086
Reads
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743
Citations
Introduction
I am an oceanographer from the Universidad Autónoma de Baja California where I also got my M.Sc. degree. I worked in consulting companies in Denmark, Spain and, USA for 11 years in studies related to coastal and ocean engineering. I currently work as Head of the Coastal Processes and Engineering Lab at the Institute of Engineering from UNAM, where I also got my Ph.D. My research interests are currently oriented to Oceanography, Climatology, and Meteorology, related to the fields of coastal and offshore engineering. The last years I have been involved in different projects involved using synthetic tropical cyclones to characterize waves and storm surge undet the influence of climate change. Nevertheless, I am always involved in different coastal and offshore engineering studies!
Additional affiliations
December 2009 - present
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
Position
  • Academic
December 2005 - November 2009
DHI Inc.
Position
  • Senior Researcher
January 2002 - December 2005
ALATEC Ingenieros Consultores y Arquitectos, S.A.
Position
  • Manager
Education
January 2015 - February 2017
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
Field of study
  • Coastal and Maritime Engineering
August 1996 - July 1998
Autonomous University of Baja California
Field of study
  • Coastal Oceanography
August 1990 - June 1994

Publications

Publications (86)
Article
Full-text available
This paper evaluates the wave modeling performance in the Gulf of Mexico and Western Caribbean Sea employing three different wind reanalysis data. Wind reanalysis is employed as the main forcing in wave generation/propagation numerical models. While the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)/National Center for Atmospheric Research (N...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes wave climate and variability in the Gulf of Mexico based on a 30-years wave hindcast. The North American Regional Reanalysis wind fields (NCEP at NOAA) are employed to drive a third generation spectral wave model with high- spatial (0.005° - 0.06°) and temporal (3 hourly) resolution from 1979 through 2008. The wave hindcast inf...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes the application of a third-generation wave model and a hydrodynamic model to determine extreme waves and water levels associated to the incidence of tropical cyclones along the Mexican coast. In addition to historical records and to overcome the limitation associated to data scarcity in Mexico, we employ information from 3100 s...
Preprint
Barrier islands in tropical regions are prone to coastal flooding and erosion during hurricane events. The Yucatan coast, characterized by karstic geology and the presence of barrier islands, was impacted by Hurricanes Gamma and Delta in October 2020. Inner shelf, coastal, and inland observations were acquired simultaneously near a coastal communit...
Article
Notions of fair-weather, storm, and swell wave bases are ubiquitous in interpretations of wave-dominated siliciclastic shelves, carbonate ramps, and mixed-systems deposits that are present throughout the geologic record. A review of literature, observations of several modern and ancient depositional systems, and numerical hydrodynamic models reveal...
Book
Full-text available
Los ciclones tropicales son uno de los fenómenos naturales que generan mayores daños en las zonas tropicales debido a sus intensos vientos, el oleaje extremo resultante y la marea de tormenta, así como las lluvias torrenciales que generan deslaves e inundaciones. En México, estos eventos afectan tanto en la vertiente del Atlántico como del Pacífico...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the low occurrence of tropical cyclones at the archipelago of San Andres, Providencia, and Santa Catalina (Colombia), Hurricane Iota in 2020 made evident the area vulnerability to tropical cyclones as major hazards by obliterating 56.4 % of housing, partially destroying the remaining houses in Providencia. We investigated the hurricane stor...
Article
Full-text available
Massive quantities of the pelagic brown macroalgae Sargassum spp. (sargassum) have been invading the Caribbean and West African shores since 2011, causing devastating effects on the coastal ecosystem and local economy. Little is known about sargassum beaching dynamics and the capacity of the coastal system to naturally remove beached sargassum. Her...
Article
Although carbonate ramps are ubiquitous in the geologic record, the impacts of oceanographic processes on their facies patterns are less well constrained than with other carbonate geomorphic forms such as isolated carbonate platforms. To better understand the role of physical and chemical oceanographic forces on geomorphic and sedimentologic variab...
Article
Full-text available
Wave runup is a relevant parameter to determine the storm impact on barrier islands. Here, the role of the beach morphology on wave runup and storm impact was investigated at four coastal communities located on the northern Yucatan coast. Current wave conditions based on regional wind simulations, topo-bathymetric transects measured at each locatio...
Article
Development of port infrastructure for small-scale fisheries started in the late 1960s and increased in the 1980s along the northern Yucatan Peninsula. These ports mainly consist of a pair of jetties that significantly interrupt littoral transport. Hence, they are responsible for coastal erosion in this region, which has been exacerbated by urbaniz...
Article
The Rapid Oil Spill Hazard Assessment is presented as a demonstration of concept for a tool providing a framework for managers and planners to assess potential impact areas of oil spills. The tool consists of precomputed oil spill scenarios derived from the analysis of twenty years of modeled current data using Self-Organizing Maps to identify 16 r...
Article
Full-text available
This study presents a new approach to assess storm surge risk from tropical cyclones under climate change by direct calculation of the local flood levels using a limited number of events with an associated probability. The approach is based on the near-worst-case flood scenario, associated with a known tropical cyclone wind intensity probability (r...
Article
Full-text available
Central American cold surge outbreaks, known as Nortes, are standard features of the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) climate, having significant oceanic and atmospheric impacts over the region that are essential for the marine ecosystem. Fifteen years of analysis of weather reports showed that Nortes occur within a nine months window (September to May), with...
Article
The breeze phenomenon is of great importance in coasts around the world owing to both its impact on local atmospheric dynamics and its influence on coastal processes. The northwest of the Yucatan Peninsula (YP) is characterized by the presence of intense sea breezes and Cold Surge (CS) events (locally known as Nortes). Field observations suggest th...
Article
Full-text available
This study applies three different methods to assess the flood risk and damage from the strongest high-pressure cold front (locally known as 'Norte') event in terms of the residual tide from 30 years (1979-2008) of data for Progreso, Yucatan. The most important difference between the three methods is the estimation of flood vulnerability for Progre...
Article
Full-text available
We investigate the storm impact associated with historical events in the northern Yucatan Peninsula. The study area is prone to coastal flooding due to both its geographical location and low-lying areas. Extreme events associated with tropical cyclones and Central American cold surge (CACS; locally known as Nortes) are ubiquitous in this region, an...
Article
Full-text available
Debido a la posición geográfica del archipiélago de San Andrés, Providencia y Santa Catalina (SPSC), esta es la parte del territorio colombiano más expuesto a ser inundado por marea de tormenta generada por ciclones tropicales (CT). Entre los peligros asociados a los CT, las inundaciones suelen ocasionar los mayores daños. En este estudio se evalúa...
Article
Full-text available
Tropical cyclones generated in the North Atlantic and the Eastern Pacific are a constant hazard for Mexico. Along with a possible increased hazard of tropical cyclones due to global warming, there is an inescapable increase in vulnerability and disaster risk towards tropical cyclones due to population growth and coastal infrastructure developments....
Article
Full-text available
Wave and wind forces from tropical cyclones are one of the main design parameters of coastal and offshore infrastructure in tropical areas. The estimation of ocean waves parameters in the design of structures in tropical areas is difficult due to the complexity of wind fields associated with tropical cyclones. The use of numerical wave models, forc...
Poster
Full-text available
Storm surge is one of the greatest hazards associated with hurricanes in coastal areas. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (AR5, 2013) states that the warming of the system is "unequivocal" and, nevertheless, "there is low confidence in region-specific projections of storms" and, therefore, the associated storm surge. The assessment of t...
Article
Full-text available
The ocean circulation in the western Gulf of Mexico is influenced by Loop Current eddies (LCEs), which affect the thermohaline structure and distribution of environmental variables as well as the design and management of offshore structures and maritime activities. In this study, we assess the ocean circulation and its variability by applying dual...
Article
Full-text available
Shoreline change is an important morphological feature used to identify impacts on coastal processes caused by coastal infrastructure or natural conditions (e.g., storms or sea level rise), providing insightful information for coastal and shoreline management. While shoreline measurements are not always available, remote sensing data can provide sh...
Chapter
We present an assessment of the effect of climate change over the longshore sediment transport patterns along the Yucatan coast. As a basis for the present climate, we used the hindcast wave conditions derived using CFSR reanalysis, while the assessment of the climate change effects was based on waves derived using the CNRM-M5 winds for the present...
Article
Reefs are known to provide coastal protection and important ecosystem services for many coastlines around the world. Physical processes such as wave damping, sediment transport and nearshore hydrodynamics are closely related to the coastal protection services provided by reefs. The steep-fronted bathymetries of reefs cause abrupt wave transformatio...
Article
Full-text available
Full manuscript available at http://rdcu.be/FORD Anticyclonic cold surges entering the Gulf of Mexico (Nortes) generate ocean waves that disrupt maritime activities. Norte derived waves are less energetic than the devastating waves from tropical cyclones, but more frequent (~ 22 events/year) and with larger spatial influence. Despite their importan...
Article
Full-text available
La vida útil de las estructuras costeras está en función de las fuerzas ejercidas por la acción combinada del oleaje y el nivel medio del mar. Sin embargo, el estudio de la interacción oleaje-estructura requiere conocer el papel de la rotura, el cual es en un fenómeno complejo que no se puede estudiar de forma analítica. Por tanto, en el presente t...
Article
Full-text available
Coastal flooding in the northern Yucatán Peninsula is mainly associated with storm surge events triggered by high-pressure cold front systems. This study evaluates the hydrodynamic processes of the Chelem lagoon, Mexico and the flooding threat from cold fronts for the neighbouring town of Progreso. A 30-year water-level hindcast (excluding wave set...
Article
Full-text available
Coastal flooding in the northern Yucatán Peninsula is mainly associated with storm surge events triggered by high-pressure cold front systems. This study evaluates the hydrodynamic processes of the Chelem lagoon, Mexico and the flooding threat from cold fronts for the neighbouring town of Progreso. A 30-year water-level hindcast (excluding wave set...
Article
Full-text available
Reefs and sand dunes are critical morphological features providing natural coastal protection. Reefs dissipate around 90 % of the incident wave energy through wave breaking, whereas sand dunes provide the final natural barrier against coastal flooding. The storm impact on coastal areas with these features depends on the relative elevation of the ex...
Article
Full-text available
Reefs and sand dunes are critical morphological features providing natural coastal protection. Reefs dissipate around 90 % of the incident wave energy through wave breaking, whereas sand dunes provide the final natural barrier against coastal flooding. The storm impact on coastal areas with these features depends on the relative elevation of the ex...
Article
Full-text available
Thirty-year time series of hindcast wave data were analysed for 10 coastal locations along the eastern Mexican coast to obtain information about storm events occurring in the region, with the goal of examining the possible presence of interannual trends in the number of storm-wave events and their main features (wave height, duration and energy con...
Article
Full-text available
Thirty-year time series of hindcast wave data were analysed for 10 coastal locations along the eastern Mexican coast to obtain information about storm events occurring in the region, with the goal of examining the possible presence of interannual trends in the number of storm-wave events and their main features (wave height, duration and energy con...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The characterization of extreme ocean waves allows for better planning of maritime operations, regulation of coastal activities, and the design of coastal and offshore structures and facilities. In the Gulf of Mexico, extreme ocean waves are a consequence of tropical cyclones and anticyclone cold front systems known as Nortes. Waves derived from tr...
Article
Full-text available
To generate projections of wave climate associated to tropical cyclones is a challenge due to their short historical record of events, their low occurrence, and the poor wind field resolution in General Circulation Models. Hence, synthetic tropical cyclones provide an alternative to overcome such limitations, improving robust statistics under both...
Poster
Full-text available
Tropical cyclones generate extreme waves that represent a risk to infrastructure and maritime activities. The projection of the tropical cyclones derived wave climate are challenged by the short historical record of tropical cyclones, their low occurrence, and the poor wind field resolution in General Circulation Models. In this study we use synthe...
Presentation
Full-text available
Mexico is under the constant threat of tropical cyclones generated in the Atlantic and the Eastern Pacific oceans. While the National Hurricane Center (NHC) in Miami is responsible for the forecast of tropical cyclones in both basins and providing watch and warning areas information for Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean, they are not respon...
Chapter
Full-text available
Los ciclones tropicales son una amenaza presente cada año en México y la creciente densidad poblacional, la modificación a la zona costera y el desarrollo de infraestructura incrementa la vulnerabilidad de esta zona ante ciclones tropicales. El cámbio climático global modifica la incidencia de estos fenómenos meteorológicos extremos y como consecue...
Article
Full-text available
Tropical cyclones and their associated impacts along the western and eastern Mexican coastlines have led to the recent announcement of the creation of a National Hurricane and Severe Storms Center in Mexico. While Mexico falls under the responsibility of the Regional Specialized Meteorological Center in Miami, the newly announced center aims to pro...
Article
Full-text available
We present a downscaling approach for the study of wave-induced extreme water levels at a location on a barrier island in Yucatán (Mexico). Wave information from a 30-year wave hindcast is validated with in situ measurements at 8 m water depth. The maximum dissimilarity algorithm is employed for the selection of 600 representative cases, encompassi...
Article
Full-text available
To characterize some of the world’s ocean physical processes such as its wave height, wind speed and sea surface elevation is a major need for coastal and marine infrastructure planning and design, tourism activities, wave power and storm surge risk assessment, among others. Over the last decades, satellite remote sensing tools have provided quasi-...
Chapter
Full-text available
En este capítulo se revisa el conocimiento actual de tendencias observadas y esperadas por el Cambio Climático en los mares circundantes al territorio nacional. El conjunto de temas abordados es amplio, incluyendo 1) temperatura y contenido de energía térmica, 2) oleaje, 3) hidrografía (masas de agua), y 4) acidificación. Estos temas, sin ser exhau...
Article
Full-text available
En las regiones tropicales, los daños generados por inundaciones costeras se deben principalmente a la marea de tormenta generada por ciclones tropicales. Sin embargo, la estimación de la marea de tormenta está limitada por la escasez de mediciones y de información histórica de estos eventos. En México esto es particularmente relevante puesto que l...
Poster
Full-text available
Tsunamis and storm surge from tropical cyclones have devastating consequences for coastal settlements. Due to their importance, their incidence has been characterized by their resulting morphological changes using paleodeposits. This type of proxies can provide uncertainty on the type of genesis, which has led to debates in the scientific community...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Tsunamis and storm surge from tropical cyclones have devastating consequences for coastal settlements. Due to their importance, their incidence has been characterized by their resulting morphological changes using paleodeposits. This type of proxies can provide uncertainty on the type of genesis, which has led to debates in the scientific community...
Article
Full-text available
We present a downscaling approach for the study of wave-induced extreme water levels at a location on a barrier island in Yucatan (Mexico). Wave information from a 30 year wave hindcast is validated with in situ measurements at 8 m water depth. The Maximum Dissimilarity Algorithm is employed for the selection of 600 representative cases, encompassi...
Poster
Full-text available
El sistema de predicción de oleaje cercano a la costa (Nearshore Wave Prediction System NWPS) fue desarrollado por la National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) con la finalidad de proveer pronóstico en tiempo real de las condiciones de oleaje utilizando mallas de alta resolución. Este sistema se encuentra en operación de manera experim...