Christel de Blok

Christel de Blok
Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam | VU · Internal Medicine/Clinical Research Unit

Doctor of Medicine

About

24
Publications
8,031
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1,035
Citations
Citations since 2016
22 Research Items
1026 Citations
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20162017201820192020202120220100200300
20162017201820192020202120220100200300

Publications

Publications (24)
Article
It has been suggested that compounds present in silicone breast implants (eg, silicone particles or heavy metals such as platinum) migrate into the body and can cause systemic symptoms in susceptible women, causing what is known as breast implant illness. This pilot study investigates possible associations between hair platinum levels in patients w...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Excess visceral fat increases the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease and is influenced by sex hormones. Our aim was to investigate changes in visceral fat and the ratio of visceral fat to total body fat (VAT/TBF), and their associations with changes in lipids and insulin resistance after one year of hormone therapy in t...
Article
Context Breast development is important for most trans women. An important limitation of current breast development measurement methods is that these do not allow for 3D volume analyses. Objectives To examine breast development and change in anthropometry during the first 3 years of gender-affirming hormone treatment using 3D imaging. Associations...
Article
•Transgender people experience incongruence between the sex assigned at birth and the gender with which they identify. •Transgender people can be treated with sex hormones and gender-affirming surgery to induce desired physical changes of the gender they identify with. •Treatment with sex hormones is effective; it induces the desired physical chara...
Article
Full-text available
Context Trans women (male sex assigned at birth, female gender identity) mostly use anti-androgens combined with estrogens and can subsequently undergo vaginoplasty including orchiectomy. Because the prostate remains in situ after this procedure, trans women are still at risk for prostate cancer. Objective The incidence of prostate cancer in trans...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: This study explored the overall suicide death rate, the incidence over time, and the stage in transition where suicide deaths were observed in transgender people. Methods: A chart study, including all 8,263 referrals to our clinic since 1972. Information on death occurrence, time and cause of death was obtained from multiple sources....
Article
Introduction: As breast development in trans women (male sex assigned at birth, female gender identity) who receive gender-affirming hormone treatment is often moderate, they may choose breast augmentation as part of their treatment. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the frequency, determinants, and satisfaction of breast augmentation...
Article
Full-text available
Concerns about bone health in transgender people using gender‐affirming hormonal treatment (HT) exist, but the fracture risk is not known. In this nationwide cohort study, we aimed to compare the fracture incidence in transgender people using long‐term HT with an age‐matched reference population. All adult transgender people who started HT before 2...
Article
Background: Gender-affirming hormonal treatment (HT) in adult transgender people influences bone mineral density (BMD). Besides BMD, bone geometry and trabecular bone score are associated with fracture risk. However, it is not known whether bone geometry and TBS changes during HT. Purpose: To investigate the bone geometry and TBS in adult transg...
Article
Gender-affirming hormonal treatment (HT) in transgender people is considered safe in general, but the question regarding (long-term) risk on sex hormone-related cancer remains. Because the risk on certain types of cancer differs between men and women, and some of these differences are attributed to exposure to sex hormones, the cancer risk may be a...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To investigate the incidence and characteristics of breast cancer in transgender people in the Netherlands compared with the general Dutch population. Design Retrospective, nationwide cohort study. Setting Specialised tertiary gender clinic in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Participants 2260 adult trans women (male sex assigned at birth,...
Article
In hypogonadal/postmenopausal individuals, hormone therapy has been associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular events (CVEs). A steeply growing population that often receives exogenous hormones is transgender individuals. Although transgender individuals hypothetically have an increased risk of CVEs, there is little known about the occurr...
Article
Endocrine Abstracts (2018) 56 P982 | DOI: 10.1530/endoabs.56.P982 Polycythemia in transmen - Prevalence, determinants and outcome in a large cohort Dennis van Dijk, Chantal Wiepjes, Christel de Blok, Maartje Klaver, Nienke Nota, Marieke Tebbens, Martin den Heijer & Elfi Conemans VU Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands. Introduction: Testoste...
Article
Benign brain tumours may be hormone sensitive. To induce physical characteristics of the desired gender, transgender individuals often receive cross-sex hormone treatment, sometimes in higher doses than hypogonadal individuals. To date, long-term (side) effects of cross-sex hormone treatment are largely unknown. In the present retrospective chart s...
Article
In trans persons on gender‐affirming hormonal treatment, a decrease (in trans women) or increase (in trans men) in hematocrit is often observed. Reference ranges for evaluation of hematocrit levels in trans persons have not been established. This prospective cohort study is part of the European Network for the Investigation of Gender Incongruence (...
Article
Background: Over the past decade, the number of people referred to gender identity clinics has rapidly increased. This raises several questions, especially concerning the frequency of performing gender-affirming treatments with irreversible effects and regret from such interventions. Aim: To study the current prevalence of gender dysphoria, how...
Article
Objective: Cross-sex hormonal therapy (CHT) in trans persons affects their total body fat and total lean body mass. However, it is unknown how separate body regions are affected and whether these changes alter body shape. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects on body fat and lean body mass in separate body regions and on bo...
Article
Context Breast development is a key feature of feminization and therefore important to transwomen (male-to-female transgender persons). However, it is not exactly known when breast development starts after initiating cross-sex hormone therapy (CHT) and how much growth may be expected of CHT alone. Objective To investigate breast development in cen...
Article
Background: In male to female transgender patients breast development is a key part in the process of feminization using cross sex hormone therapy. In the Endocrine Society’s clinical guideline ‘Endocrine treatment of transsexual persons’ the onset of breast growth is estimated as 3–6 months after starting cross sex hormone treatment. The maximum b...
Article
Background: Since their introduction, the safety of silicone breast implants has been under debate. Although an association with systemic diseases was never established, women continuously blamed implants for their unexplained systemic symptoms. In 2011, a pattern of symptoms caused by systemic reactions to adjuvants (e.g. vaccines, silicone) was...

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Projects

Projects (3)
Project
The ‘Amsterdam Cohort of Genderdysphoria’ (ACOG) aims to better understand the long-term effects and side effects of hormonal treatment and thereby to improve quality of care for individuals with gender dysphoria.
Project
https://www.vumc.nl/afdelingen/over-vumc/nieuws/siliconen/