Chris Zevenbergen

Chris Zevenbergen
IHE Delft Institute for Water Education | UNESCO-IHE · Department of Water Science and Engineering

About

200
Publications
87,046
Reads
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3,806
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2014 - present
IHE Delft Institute for Water Education
Position
  • Professor (Full)
February 2007 - present
Delft University of Technology
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (200)
Article
Full-text available
As a result of the fast growth of remote sensing and data assimilation technology, many global land use land cover (LULC) and climate reanalysis data sets have been used to advance our understanding of climate and environmental change. This paper investigates the precipitation variations of the Yangtze Delta Megalopolis by using precipitation reana...
Article
Full-text available
Risk-informed flood risk management requires a comprehensive and quantitative risk assessment, which often demands multiple (thousands of) river and flood model simulations. Performing such a large number of model simulations is a challenge, especially for large, complex river systems (e.g., Mekong) due to the associated computational and resource...
Article
This Special Issue of Water Policy is dedicated to knowledge and capacity development (KCD). It offers selected contributions – analytical and review papers, and case studies – to the sixth International Symposium on Knowledge and Capacity Development held in May 20201 . This symposium was held 30 years after the first event in June 1991 which was...
Article
Full-text available
Many deltaic regions around the world are exploring or adopting planning initiatives to address the complex challenges associated with future economic development and climate change. A key feature is their adaptive nature, also coined as adaptive delta management (ADM). ADM refers to the development of strategies and measures that allow us to adapt...
Chapter
Most of the small- to medium-scale flood mitigation technologies in Bangladesh are planned, designed, and constructed in a top-down approach, ignoring the actual needs of the vulnerable communities and the appropriateness of the technology in the local context. This non-inclusive approach does not create ownership of the technology by the local com...
Article
Stormwater biofiltration systems (SBS) are a popular technology for mitigating the negative effects of urbanization on the hydrological processes and water quality in urban areas. However, little is known about SBS's long-term performance in actual field conditions. The findings of a review of the scientific literature on the long-term performance...
Chapter
Aim: Highlights the typical water-related features of an urbanizing polder and its transformation into a water sensitive or “Sponge City” using recent experiences of Kunshan city, China. Main concepts covered: The main concept concerns the Sponge City approach which has been developed to address the major water challenges of China's rapidly expandi...
Article
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Permeable pavements can infiltrate and reduce stormwater runoff in parking lots, but issues around long construction periods and proper maintenance still required proper research and further understanding. The application of precast concrete can help to solve this. In this study, precast concrete components were applied to the design of permeable p...
Article
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Flood risk reduction strategies play an important role in flood risk management (FRM) and these strategies are being co-designed with the engagement of the stakeholder through multiple consultations and co-designing sessions. Effective participation of stakeholders in interactive work sessions requires fast and accurate modeling systems with a user...
Article
Alternative water sources offer opportunities to contribute to the water supply to meet non-potable urban demand, closing water supply-demand gaps. Detailed assessments of these schemes are often data intensive, which can be a barrier in resource-scarce locations. A data-light approach is proposed and applied to assess the potential contribution of...
Article
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Integrating sustainable urban water management into the urban planning process is essential for developing water-resilient cities. To this end, the central government of the People’s Republic of China initiated the “Sponge City” programme. However, challenges and gaps exist in current urban planning practice. The operationalizable planning approach...
Article
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Rapidly expanding cities in the Middle Eastern and North African (MENA) region are at risk of flooding due to heavy rainfall, insufficient drainage capacity, a lack of preparedness and insufficient data to conduct required studies. A low regret Early Warning Systems (EWS) using rainfall thresholds is proposed as a cost‐effective short‐term solution...
Article
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Urbanization is changing land use–land cover (LULC) transforming green spaces (GS) and bodies of water into built-up areas. LULC change is affecting ecosystem services (ES) in urban areas, such as by decreasing of the water retention capacity, the urban temperature regulation capacity and the carbon sequestration. The relation between LULC change a...
Article
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As a result of high-density urbanization and climate change, both the frequency and intensity of extreme urban rainfall are increasing. Drainage systems are not designed to cope with this increase, and as a result, floods are becoming more common in cities, particularly in the rapidly growing cities of China. To better cope with more frequent and s...
Chapter
Over the past years a considerable number of municipalities joined together in networks that address climate change mitigation and more and more also adaptation. The presented research focuses on one key aspect of those networks: The sharing of knowledge and experience among the member cities, referred to as city-to-city learning. Due to climate ch...
Article
Full-text available
Deterioration of water quality due to economic development, climate change and other factors has become a challenge to human beings and the ecosystem. Most countries have recognized this problem and have resorted to actions for improving water quality. However, the effect on water quality improvements due to these actions is uncertain due to the pl...
Preprint
Full-text available
Monitoring organic pesticides in surface water using grab water sampling method is ineffective in most cases due to pesticides’ irregular emission and low solubility in water. To address the problem in water sampling method, this study used passive samplers (PS) composed of silicon rubber sheets (SR) and speedisk (SD). SR and SD were used respectiv...
Preprint
Full-text available
Flood risk management and planning decisions in many parts of the world have historically utilised flood hazard or risk maps for a very limited number of hazard scenarios (e.g. river water levels), mainly due to computational challenges. With the potentially massive increase in flood risk in future due to the combination of climate change effects (...
Article
Floods have an increasing impact on cities, encompassing the management of the water cycle by integrating multiple disciplines of engineering, social, economic and environmental sciences. This study focuses on deploying site specific spatial strategies considering human interactions towards assessing urban flooding. Initially, two surface runoff mo...
Article
Floods have an increasing impact on cities, encompassing the management of the water cycle by integrating multiple disciplines of engineering, social, economic and environmental sciences. This study focuses on deploying site specific spatial strategies considering human interactions towards assessing urban flooding. Initially, two surface runoff mo...
Article
Full-text available
Has COVID-19 compounded the risk to the people affected by floods? Flooding (fluvial, pluvial, tidal and storm surge) affects the lives, livelihoods and socioeconomic activities of millions of people every year and displaces them from their homesteads, communities and socio-cultural setting. During extreme events, people are forced to move to shelt...
Article
Urbanisation is increasing in many countries, leading to the establishment of 33 megacities, representing huge water demand which is increasingly difficult to supply, exemplified by the recently avoided Day Zero event in Cape Town (2018) and the ongoing water crisis in Chennai, India. The ongoing growth of megacities could lead to the potential for...
Article
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Three different conceptual frameworks of resilience, including engineering, ecological and social–ecological have been presented and framed within the context of flood risk management. Engineering resilience has demonstrated its value in the design and operation of technological systems in general and in flood resilient technologies in particular....
Article
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The current study was aimed to investigate the filler layer structure in modified bioretention systems. Three different structural layers in bioretention were proposed to evaluate their hydrologic performance and pollutant removal efficiency under different rainfall intensities. These layers were as follows: all three layers (filter, transition, an...
Article
Cities are increasingly joining forces through transnational municipal networks. The presented research focuses on one of the key services of these organisations: providing a platform for city-to-city learning. Interviews with representatives of networks and cities showed that through network organisations local policymakers aim to connect with pee...
Article
Sustainable urban development at the global level results from sustainable actions undertaken at city, neighbourhood and household levels with the right balance of environmental, economic and social aspects, achieved through initiatives such as water sensitive cities, sponge cities and “active, beautiful and clean waters ” (ABC waters). Green infra...
Article
Full-text available
Flexibility in planning and implementation of responses to prevent and adapt to flooding can be achieved using methods such as Real-in-Option, Adaptation Tipping Point and Adaptation Pathway. However, these methods lack the ability to evaluate the degrees of flexibility of the adaptation measures. Hence, this paper proposes a method for evaluating...
Article
Flexibility in planning and implementation of responses to prevent and adapt to flooding can be achieved using methods such as Real-in-Option, Adaptation Tipping Point and Adaptation Pathway. However, these methods lack the ability to evaluate the degrees of flexibility of the adaptation measures. Hence, this paper proposes a method for evaluating...
Article
Full-text available
Most cities are at risk of climate change related disasters and flood frequencies and impacts are increasing the need for adaptation. Apart from these large scale interventions imposed by the central government, small-scale interventions taken at the neighborhood or household level could further contribute to mitigate future flood risk and to enhan...
Article
Full-text available
Urbanization continues to trigger massive land-use land-cover change that transforms natural green environments to impermeable paved surfaces. Fast-growing cities in Asia experience increased urban temperature indicating the development of urban heat islands (UHIs) because of decreased urban green space, particularly in recent decades. This paper i...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper aims to briefly review the evolution and relationships between several NbS used in flood management, specifically: ‘Ecological Engineering’ (EE); ‘Low Impact Development’ (LID); ‘Green Infrastructure’ (GI); and ‘Building with Nature’ (BwN). Based on this temporal review, we try to describe the progression of different approaches.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Increasing occurrences of flash flooding poses significant social and economic threats to Barcelona. Approximately 65% of the population reside along the coast. Many rely on beach assets to attract 35 million annual visitors that buttress the city’s 7.1 billion EUR tourist sector. Both residents and tourists are vulnerable to late-summer and early-...
Article
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Worldwide, an increase in flood damage is observed. Governments are looking for effective ways to protect lives, buildings, and infrastructure. At the same time, a large investment gap seems to exist—a big difference between what should necessarily be done to curb the increase in damage and what is actually being done. Decision-makers involved in c...
Article
Full-text available
At present, the Sponge City Concept (SCC) is gaining ground, Sponge Cities technologies are becoming more and more accepted by Chinese city governments, and the first best practices are being shared. However, there are still many challenges ahead which hamper effective implementation and upscaling. This paper presents an overview of some opportunit...
Article
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What if sea level rises with 10 meters? This question has created a whole new genre of fiction: cli-fi. It also inspired water management engineer Geert van der Meulen to design a radically different adaptation pathway strategy for the Netherlands. A spectacular mapping exercise visualises a gradual retreat strategy, provocatively building on the c...
Article
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The lack of resilience of urban systems to weather and climate variability—termed type I adaptation—and also to climate change—type II adaptation—are both major challenges to the livability and sustainability of cities in the Global South. However, there is often competition and conflict in these cities between actions that address existing adaptat...
Article
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The planning and phasing of adaptation responses are essential to tackle uncertainties and ensure positive outcomes while adapting to changing circumstances. Understanding the evolution of coping and adaptation responses and their capacities is a prerequisite for preparing an effective flood management plan for the future. The aim of this paper is...
Article
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Adaptation gaps are shortcomings of a system responding to climate change, whereas adaptation deficits are shortcomings in providing services. These two drivers for adaptation are often in conflict in many secondary cities in the global south (SCGS). It is possible to align these seemingly conflicting drivers into a productive unity, a conceptual a...
Article
Full-text available
Rapid urbanization in China and global climate change have increased urban flood exposure in Wuhan, and the increased flood risk has reduced property values in flood-prone areas. The central government of China is promoting the application of the sponge city concept to reduce urban flood risk and improve the environment in cities. Wuhan is one of t...
Article
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Probabilistic flood forecasting requires flood models that are simple and fast. Many of the modelling applications in the literature tend to be complex and slow, making them unsuitable for probabilistic applications which require thousands of individual simulations. This article focusses on the development of such a modelling approach to support pr...
Article
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The Rebuild by Design (RBD) competition was launched after the devastating impact of Hurricane Sandy, and the winning designs have put a significant emphasis on green infrastructure (GI) as a means of achieving flood resilience in urban areas. Previous research in the field of urban stormwater management indicates that widespread implementation of...
Article
Growing water demand poses a challenge for supply. Poor understanding of alternative sources can hamper plans for addressing water scarcity and supply resilience. The potential of three alternative supply systems in Lilongwe, Malawi and Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt are compared using a fast, data-light assessment approach. Lilongwe water supply is based...
Article
In the context of climate adaptation planning there are relationships between adaptation drivers and adaptation measures, which makes the selection and implementation of the adaptation measures a challenging task. This challenge may be addressed by: structuring the adaptation problem using a multiple perspective adaptation framework; and applying a...
Article
Full-text available
Conventional design standards for urban drainage systems are not set to deal with extreme rainfall events. As these events are becoming more frequent, there is room for proposing new planning approaches and standards that are flexible enough to cope with a wide range of rainfall events. In this paper, a semi risk-based approach is presented as a si...
Poster
Full-text available
Increasingly regarded as climate governors cities are joining together in transnational municipal networks (TMN) that address climate change mitigation and since recently also adaptation and resilience. The presented research provides a global picture of one under-researched key aspect of those networks: city-to-city learning (C2CL) and the exchang...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change and urbanization have led to an increase in the frequency of extreme water related events such as flooding, which has negative impacts on the environment, economy and human health. With respect to the latter, our understanding of the interrelationship between flooding, urban surface water and human health is still very limited. More...
Book
Over the last decades the world has witnessed a growing number of floods in urban areas. Climate change and rapid urbanization will exacerbate this trend. Flooding incidents in urbanized catchments and low-lying areas, such as polders, can lead to great public concern and anxiety, and their economical impact is severe. Apart from well-known flood p...
Article
Cities have started adapting to uncertain climate drivers such as temperature and sea level rise, and some cities are also transitioning towards concepts such as Water Sensitivity. In adaptation planning, flexibility is considered as an important characteristic to respond to changing circumstances. This paper develops a novel approach to identify w...
Article
Full-text available
In the Netherlands, the central government, water authorities, provinces and municipalities are working together on a new Delta Program on Flood Risk Management and Fresh Water Supply (DP). Its primary goal is to protect the Netherlands against floods and ensure the availability of fresh water, now and for future generations. The DP has developed a...
Research
China is a country with severe water problems, both in terms of water scarcity, flooding and water quality. Due to the rapid process of industrialization and urbanization and high frequencies of global extreme weather, the urban water problems have become very prominent in the last decade. The damages caused by floods are exponentially increasin...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, urban pluvial flooding caused by extreme rainfall has increasingly occurred across China. This paper reviews the challenges faced by China in addressing urban pluvial flooding and managing urban storm-water, with a particular focus on a policy initiative termed sponge cities. The paper first synthetically presents pluvial flood dis...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
D eveloping countries in Southeast Asia, are facing the challenge of the ASEAN Vision 2020 to produce quality agricultural products that will cater not only to its local consumers but to approximately 600 million people across ten ASEAN nations. Agricultural expansion through land conversion was intensified in developing countries experiencing rapi...
Article
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Conservation of water is essential as climate change coupled with land use changes influence the distribution of water availability. Stormwater harvesting (SWH) is a widely used conservation measure, which reduces pressure on fresh water resources. However, determining the availability of stormwater and identifying the suitable sites for SWH requir...
Conference Paper
Nature-based solutions (NBS) have been recently defined as “actions inspired by, supported by or copied from nature” – intended mainly as its features, capital and complex system processes – to address several “environmental, social and economic challenges in sustainable ways”. Their design and implementation require a multidisciplinary and multi-s...
Article
Full-text available
Storm water management in Singapore has always been a challenge due to intense rainfall in a flat, low-lying and urbanised catchment. PUB’s (Singapore’s National Water Agency) recent runoff control regulation limits the runoff coefficient to 0.55 for developments larger than or equal to 0.2 ha. The use of Active, Beautiful, Clean (ABC) Waters desig...