Chris James Spray

Chris James Spray
University of Dundee · UNESCO Centre for Water Law, Policy and Science

MA (Cantab) PhD (Aberdeen)

About

65
Publications
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Publications

Publications (65)
Article
Full-text available
Nature-based solutions (NBSs) are measures reflecting the 'cooperation with nature' approach: mitigating fluvial flood risk while being cost-effective, resource-efficient, and providing numerous environmental, social, and economic benefits. Since 2015, the United Nations (UN) 2030 Agenda has provided UN member states with goals, targets, and indica...
Article
There is considerable empirical evidence that using nature-based solutions to restore and enhance hydrological processes such as infiltration, interception, floodplain re-connection and water storage, is effective at small scales for low to medium probability floods. However, the performance of systems of spatially distributed nature-based solution...
Article
Full-text available
Natural flood management (NFM) techniques attract much interest in flood risk management science, not least because their effectiveness remains subject to considerable uncertainty, particularly at larger catchment and event scales. This derives from a paucity of empirical studies which can offer either longitudinal or comparison data sets in which...
Book
Many environmental success stories of recent decades, including legislation to protect species and habitats, terrestrial and marine networks of protected areas, and prohibition of trade in endangered species, are the direct result of European Union or global international treaties. Yet, despite these achievements, the mechanisms of treaties remain...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Building with Nature (BwN) measures (also called Natural Flood Management (NFM), Nature Based Solutions (NBS)) are promising measures to reduce flood risk. They retain or slow down the water in the upper catchment, or increase discharge capacity in the lower catchment. BwN measures also have (potentially) many co-benefits, varying from increasing b...
Chapter
This paper explores the 12 OECD Principles on Water Governance through the lens of six existing frameworks in Europe, Asia-Pacific, Africa and South America to understand contextual factors enhancing or constraining water governance. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to analyse each framework against four criteria: alignment with...
Article
Full-text available
Background: the concept of 'ecosystem services bundles', i.e. ecosystem services that repeatedly appear together across space and/or time, has been developed and refined as part of an integrated approach to assess interactions between ecosystem services. Nevertheless, published evidence of actual use of bundles in decision-making is lacking. In the...
Article
Full-text available
Background: the concept of ‘ecosystem services bundles’, i.e. ecosystem services that repeatedly appear together across space and/or time, has been developed and refined as part of an integrated approach to assess interactions between ecosystem services. Nevertheless, published evidence of actual use of bundles in decision-making is lacking. In the...
Article
Increased river flood frequency is considered a major risk under climate change. Protecting vulnerable communities is, therefore, a key public policy objective. Natural flood management measures (NFM) ‐ notably re‐afforestation on hillslope and floodplain ‐ are increasingly discussed as cost‐effective means for providing flood regulation, particula...
Article
Full-text available
Although the relationships between habitats and ecosystem services (ESs) have been acknowledged, investigating spatio-temporal change in these has received far less attention. This study assesses the influence of habitat changes on ES delivery across space and time, based on two time points some 60 years apart, 1946 and 2009. A 1946 aerial photo co...
Article
Through the lens of the 12 OECD Principles on Water Governance, this article examines six water resources and water services frameworks in Europe, Asia-Pacific, Africa and South America to understand enhancing and constraining contextual factors. Qualitative and quantitative methods are used to analyze each framework against four criteria: alignmen...
Article
Full-text available
Integrated Catchment Management (ICM) has in recent years been promoted by a wealth of “top-down” government policies, while a number of “bottom-up” community-based initiatives have also been set up. At the same time, adaptive water governance, built around multi-level, integrative and participatory institutional arrangements, is called for in orde...
Article
River degradation and loss of ecosystem services due to pollution and deforestation poses a great challenge for a holistic and sustainable river basin management. In Malaysia, about two third of its rivers are categorized as slightly polluted or polluted and this has led to the loss of ecosystem services in many of its river basins, notably in the...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore how flood management practitioners rationalise the emergence of sustainable flood management. Key to this analysis are differences rooted in assumptions over what flood management is and should do. Design/methodology/approach – The popularity of natural flood management offers a case with which to...
Article
Full-text available
River flooding is a serious hazard in the UK with interest driven by recent widespread events. This paper reviews different approaches to flood risk management and the borders (physical, conceptual and organisational) that are involved. The paper showcases a multi-method approach to negotiating flood risk management interventions. We address three...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report analyses analyses the provisions around the ‘value’ of water in the Water Resources (Scotland) Act 2013 and related legislation, and assesses how these can be implemented, especially by Scottish Water and including a comparative study.
Article
The inclusion of an ecosystem services framework into planning and decision-making processes is increasingly being seen as a means to further a better implementation of the Ecosystem Approach and to achieve a more sustainable allocation of resources. Tools are slowly emerging to help scientists and practitioners with mapping ecosystem services. Thi...
Chapter
7.1 INTRODUCTION The European Water Framework Directive (2000) provided a step-change in the way European waters are characterised, monitored, and managed. The Directive provides a framework to integrate multiple water environments and to coordinate a range of water-relevant legislation, while advocating for public participation and economic effici...
Article
Full-text available
Catchment management in the developed world is undergoing a fundamental reconfiguration in which top-down governance is being challenged by local organisations promoting collaborative decisionmaking. Local, participation-based organisations are emerging as mediators of relations between governments and publics. These organisations, defined here as...
Article
Full-text available
Ecosystem -centred approach to natural resource management is not new, and in the case of water management has been very well emphasised for many decades. Recently however, a new focus has emerged around the identification and assessment of ecosystem services, and the potential to somehow use valuation of these services as a basis for more effectiv...
Article
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This paper presents a conceptual framework and methodology to assist with optimising the outcomes of river rehabilitation in terms of delivery of multiple ecosystem services and the benefits they represent for humans at the river network scale. The approach is applicable globally, but was initially devised in the context of a project critically exa...
Article
The EU Water Frame Work Directive (WFD) requires member states to work towards the achievement of 'good ecological status' for water bodies, through a 6 year cycle of river basin management plans (RBMPs). Within these RBMPs, states must develop and implement programmes of measures designed to improve the quality of individual water bodies at risk o...
Article
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Climate change will have a major impact on freshwater environments globally. The management of these ecosystems is one of the key challenges currently facing environmental policymakers and producing well-informed climate change adaptation strategies is a priority. Links between climate, hydrology and ecology are poorly understood, and relatively li...
Article
We review the conservation issues facing migratory shorebird populations that breed in temperate regions and use wetlands in the non-breeding season. Shorebirds are excellent model organisms for understanding ecological, behavioural and evolutionary processes and are often used as indicators of wetland health. A global team of experienced shorebird...
Article
Full-text available
The two concepts that presently dominate water resource research and management are the Global Water Partnership's (GWP, 2000) interpretation of Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) and Ecosystem Services (ES) as interpreted by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA, 2005). Both concepts are subject to mounting criticism, with a significant...
Article
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This paper provides data on the changing character of river restoration within one country within a single policy and legislative framework. The information gathered was based on web searches, meetings and questionnaire responses with organizations and individuals working as environmental policy developers, stakeholders and practitioners of catchme...
Article
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Trends in total population size and mid-winter distribution have been determined for the Icelandic Whooper Swan population through coordinated international censuses, undertaken in January across its wintering range in Britain, Ireland and Iceland, at c. 5-yearly intervals from 1986 onwards. A total of 29,232 swans recorded during the sixth interna...
Article
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Presented as a panacea for the problems of environmental management, participation' conceals competing frames of meaning. Ladders of participation' explain insufficiently why public engagement is often limited to consultation, even within so-called higher level partnerships. To explain how participation is shaped to produce more or less symmetric e...
Article
Scotland is a country with outstanding freshwater systems providing multiple social, economic and cultural functions as well as ecological services of international importance. Scotland's lakes (locally termed lochs) occupy approximately 3% of the country's land mass and contain more than 90% of Great Britain's total freshwater resource. With over...
Chapter
Full-text available
Despite the multiple benefits of naturally functioning wetlands and floodplains, many have been degraded, lost or converted (for example, by drainage) to other uses designed to deliver specific services incompatible with their original condition (such as crop production). Where wetlands are intact, the major reason has been for nature conservation,...
Article
Several recent studies have emphasised the need for a more integrated process in which researchers, policy makers and practitioners interact to identify research priorities. This paper discusses such a process with respect to the UK water sector, detailing how questions were developed through inter-disciplinary collaboration using online questionna...
Article
Full-text available
1. The conservation of biodiversity depends upon both policy and regulatory frameworks. Here, we identify priority policy developments that would support conservation in the UK in the light of technological developments, changes in knowledge or environmental change. 2. A team of seven representatives from governmental organizations, 17 from non-go...
Article
Full-text available
This study provides an assessment of Cormorant occupancy and impact at stillwater game fisheries in England and Wales, during 1988/89 to 1992/93. A total of 167 waterbodies operated as ‘put-and-take’ trout fisheries was included within a questionnaire survey, and this provided the bulk of the data used in the analyses. The results show that Cormora...
Article
Full-text available
Developing new legislation is an iterative process between legislators, supported by a range of researchers, advisers, committees and stakeholders, who are often in competition with each other. Governments, academics and others recognize and stress the need for evidence-based policy. It is acknowledged that scientific data, analysis and interpretat...
Article
Lead poisoning of waterfowl through the ingestion of spent gunshot and discarded anglers' weights continues to be a problem worldwide. We took blood samples from 363 whooper swans Cygnus cygnus at wintering sites in Britain and Ireland and at moulting sites in Iceland during 2001–2005, and analysed them for total blood lead. Lead levels were genera...
Article
Full-text available
In 2002, a census of Mute Swans Cygnus olor was carried out in Great Britain and the Isle of Man, to determine the size of the Mute Swan population during the breeding season and to distinguish between the numbers of breeding and non-breeding birds. Coverage of the whole country had been attempted previously, in 1955/56, 1978, 1983 and 1990, but wa...
Article
Full-text available
Evidence-based policy requires researchers to provide the answers to ecological questions that are of interest to policy makers. To find out what those questions are in the UK, representatives from 28 organizations involved in policy, together with scientists from 10 academic institutions, were asked to generate a list of questions from their organ...
Article
The United Kingdom, with its extensive coastline, low-lying land and internationally important waterbirdpopulations, is likely to be much affected by climatechange generally and by rising sea-levels in particular.Already climate change has been linked with earlierbreeding (Crick & Sparks 1999) and changing breedingdistributions of the UK’s birds (T...
Article
Reproduced by permission of the Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust. This report aims to describe changes in the abundance and distribution of the Mute Swan Cygnus olor in Britain and Northern Ireland since 1960/61, to compile available historical information, to provide current estimates of population size, to review published data on the ecology and biolog...
Article
Daily movements by waterbirds, between roosting and feeding areas, were observed in the Thale Sap Non-Hunting area (Lake Songkla, southern Thailand) during summer and autumn 1987. Counts of birds in flight in the summer indicated the presence of more than 4500 Lesser Tree Ducks as compared to approximately 1000 ducks of all species in the autumn. I...
Article
Human fishing activity as a source of disturbance for waterbirds on Thale Sap (Lake Songkla, Thailand) was studied during June/July and October 1987. The distribution of fishing activity was compared with that of birds. Fishing activities were observed to quantify the incidence of disturbance interactions, and disturbance caused by local fishing cr...
Article
The study assessed the reproductive success at different stages of the breeding season of Whooper Swans Cygnus cygnus from two geographically distinct areas of Iceland, one an upland and the other a lowland region. Censuses made at both sites indicated that the majority of the birds did not attempt to breed and that annual recruitment came from 30...
Article
A number of incidents were reported between 1980 and 1986 involving the deaths of substantial numbers of whooper swans Cygnus cygnus in Scotland. Post-mortem examinations identified this to be due to lead poisoning in 47% of these cases. Gizzard contents indicated that most of the lead came from shotgun pellets. In contrast, examinations of mute sw...
Article
(1) Fenitrothion, an organophosphorus insecticide, has been used in Scotland to control outbreaks of pine beauty moth (Panolis flammea D. & S.) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Loud.) plantations. Fenitrothion is applied at 300 g ha-1 from helicopters using ultra-low-volume techniques. This study (1982-84) investigated the effects of spraying on f...

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Projects (4)
Project
Bundles can be defined as sets of ecosystem services which are repeatedly appearing together across space or time (Saidi & Spray 2018). Identifying bundles of ecosystem services is a statistical endeavour that generally combines clustering analyses, pair-wise correlations and regression analyses, in order to describe interrelationships among ecosystem services and identify their drivers. Bundle identification and analysis has been identified as a promising approach to support decision-making around the sustainable use of natural resources. However, the current literature on bundles falls short of conducting in-depth analyses on how bundle results could effectively benefit decision-making. My thesis contributes to filling this gap by conducting such an analysis in an urban environment, focusing on the City of Edinburgh as a case study.