Chris Margules

Chris Margules
1 James Cook University Cairns & 2 University of Indonesia · 1 College of Science and Engineering & 2 Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences

DPhil

About

131
Publications
65,049
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
25,586
Citations
Introduction
Chris Margules is an adjunct professor in the College of Science and Engineering, James Cook University and also in the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Indonesia. Chris does research in Conservation Biology, Ecology and Sustainable Development. His current projects include; 1 loss of primate habitat in Indonesia and what might be done about it, 2 understanding the complex multi-sectoral governance arrangements of natural resources in Indonesia, and 3 new developments in conservation science that help direct the development process rather than try to halt it altogether.

Publications

Publications (131)
Article
A new development model has recently emerged in Eastern Cameroon: privately-operated artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM), financed largely by Chinese actors. This paper examines how these actors have impacted the formalization of ASM in the country, focusing on the case of the gold-rich Bétaré Oya region. Here, Chinese companies lease artisanal...
Article
Full-text available
Indigenous Dayak Iban customary perspective on sustainable forest management, West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 424-435. Borneo is the third-largest island in the world, is rich in biodiversity and has diverse unique ecosystems. However, deforestation and land tenure conflicts continue to threaten the indigenous people who rely on fores...
Article
Biological and ecological information on the Tapanuli orangutan (Pongo tapanuliensis) remains limited. This study was designed to analyze the demographic parameters and build a growth model of the Tapanuli orangutans to help guide policy in developing a conservation program for them. Data were collected from tapanuli orangutans that were directly o...
Article
Conflicting policies relating to the management of multi-sectoral, multi-level and multi-actor forest uses often result in ineffective policy implementation. Methods for assessing policy coherence, however, are limited and often require an extensive evidence base which is not always available. In Indonesia, this has often led to conflicts between g...
Article
Full-text available
We report on the results of a survey of the herpetofauna of West Bali National Park (Taman Nasional Bali Barat in Indonesian, hereafter TNBB) that was carried out in 2015. The survey also included other taxa and the motivation for it was to identify a species or group of species that could be used as indicators of management success for Protected A...
Article
Full-text available
The human footprint (HF) was developed to measure of the impact of human activities on the environment. The human footprint has been found to be closely related to the vulnerability of protected areas around the world. In Indonesia, as nature conservation is still seen as hindering economic development, it is especially important to assess the huma...
Article
Full-text available
Tropical rainforests are among the most important ecosystems on earth. After Brazil, Indonesia has the second-largest tropical forest area in the world. Since the 1970s, Indonesia's forests have decreased from covering 87% to 50% of its land area. With the ever-increasing pressures from economic and human development, it appears likely that much of...
Article
Fifty years have elapsed since the first publication of Ambio. Throughout this period, fundamental changes have occurred in societal attitudes to biodiversity conservation. Ambio has published numerous papers that have aligned with these new approaches. High citations numbers suggest that Ambio papers have had a significant impact on conservation s...
Article
Major advances in biology and ecology have sharpened our understanding of what the goals of biodiversity conservation might be, but less progress has been made on how to achieve conservation in the complex, multi-sectoral world of human affairs. The failure to deliver conservation outcomes is especially severe in the rapidly changing landscapes of...
Article
Full-text available
Habitat destruction is increasingly threatening the remaining primate habitat on the island of Java and populations of primates are declining as a result. Field surveys are commonly used to document the status of species such as primates and often serve as a preliminary step to long-term studies of primate populations. We trained university student...
Article
Full-text available
Tropical forest landscapes are undergoing rapid transition. Rural development aspirations are rising, and land use change is contributing to deforestation, degradation, and biodiversity loss, which threaten the future of tropical forests. Conservation initiatives must deal with complex social, political, and ecological decisions involving trade-off...
Article
Full-text available
Sulawesi is an important island for primates. All 17 species that are found there are endemics. The island also includes contact zones between species of macaques (genus Macaca) where hybrids may arise. Sulawesi continues to be deforested, especially in the lowlands most suitable for estate crops and other agricultural products. We carried out an i...
Article
We propose an approach to studying the effectiveness of governance arrangements to deal with complexity in forest landscapes. Using a landscape approach and standard performance audit procedures, we (1) describe the interactions among multiple sectoral actors (2) evaluate the effectiveness of governance arrangements to deal with complexity in a for...
Article
Full-text available
There is a global shift of forest management to local levels to better reconcile local livelihoods and biodiversity conservation. We argue that achieving such outcomes will require embedding science in landscape-scale management systems. We show that science can contribute to local learning and adaptation within landscape contexts. Complexity and p...
Article
Full-text available
Integrated approaches to natural resource management are often undermined by fundamental governance weaknesses. We studied governance of a forest landscape in East Lombok, Indonesia. Forest Management Units (Kesatuan Pengelolaan Hutan or KPH) are an institutional mechanism used in Indonesia for coordinating the management of competing sectors in fo...
Article
Full-text available
Decentralizing natural resource management to local people, especially in tropical countries, has become a trend. We review recent evidence for the impacts of decentralization on the biodiversity values of forests and forested landscapes, which encompass most of the biodiversity of the tropics. Few studies document the impact of decentralized manag...
Article
Full-text available
Landscape approaches attempt to achieve balance amongst multiple goals over long time periods and to adapt to changing conditions. We review project reports and the literature on integrated landscape approaches, and found a lack of documented studies of their long-term effectiveness. The combination of multiple and potentially changing goals presen...
Article
Full-text available
Recent decades have seen a rapid movement towards decentralising forest rights and tenure to local communities and indigenous groups in both developing and developed nations. Attribution of local and community rights to forests appears to be gathering increasing momentum in many tropical developing countries. Greater local control of forest resourc...
Article
Land tenure in Indonesia is regulated by a complex combination of traditional, formal and informal arrangements. Legal ambiguity over land and natural resources has resulted in tenure insecurity, impacting livelihoods and perpetuating conflict. We reviewed land and forest laws in Indonesia and their effect on livelihoods and conflict and studied th...
Article
Full-text available
The clearing and subsequent fragmentation of terrestrial ecosystems is commonly acknowledged as a major cause of the decline of biodiversity. These and other predicted responses to habitat fragmentation are derived from theory, which ecologists have tested with empirical approaches ranging from observations to experimental manipulations. These empi...
Article
Full-text available
A framework was developed for the construction of an objectives hierarchy for multicriteria decisions in land use planning. The process began through identification of fundamental objectives; these were iteratively decomposed into a hierarchy of subobjectives until a level was reached at which subobjectives had measurable attributes. Values were de...
Article
Full-text available
Initiatives to manage landscapes for both biodiversity protection and sustainable development commonly employ participatory methods to exploit the knowledge of citizens. We review five examples of citizen groups engaging with landscape scale conservation initiatives to contribute their knowledge, collect data for monitoring programs, study systems...
Article
This paper draws on the literature on agroforestry, disaster risk reduction, and livelihoods of people on small islands as it applies to a community prospering in conditions of adversity in Kinali village on Siau Island, Indonesia. Siau Island produces between one-third and one-half of all nutmeg and mace exported from Indonesia. The Kinali communi...
Article
Full-text available
We conducted an analysis of global forest cover to reveal that 70% of remaining forest is within 1 km of the forest’s edge, subject to the degrading effects of fragmentation. A synthesis of fragmentation experiments spanning multiple biomes and scales, five continents, and 35 years demonstrates that habitat fragmentation reduces biodiversity by 13...
Article
Full-text available
Landscape approaches are widely applied in attempts to reconcile tradeoffs amongst different actors with conflicting demands on land and water resources. Key principles for landscape approaches have been endorsed by inter-governmental processes dealing with climate change mitigation and adaptation and biodiversity conservation. We review experienc...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Experiments provide the strongest inferential framework to understand the dynamics of communities and species in response to habitat fragmentation – one of the greatest global threats to diversity. Experiments of large spatial scale and long temporal scale, like the Wog Wog experiment in Australia, allow us to disentan...
Article
Full-text available
Setting aside protected areas is widely recognized as the most effective measurement to prevent species from extinction1-3. Accordingly, there has been a tremendous effort by governments worldwide in the creation of over 100,000 sites to achieve the 10% target proposed at the Fourth World Park Congress in 1992 in Caracas4. The main European Union e...
Article
Full-text available
This Editorial presents the focus, scope and policies of the inaugural issue of Nature Conservation, a new open access, peer-reviewed journal bridging natural sciences, social sciences and hands-on applications in conservation management. The journal covers all aspects of nature conservation and aims particularly at facilitating better interaction...
Chapter
Full-text available
The newly identified “Forests of East Australia” Global High Biodiversity Hotspot corresponds with two World Wildlife Fund (WWF) Ecoregions: the Eastern Australian Temperate Forests and Queensland’s Tropical Rain forests. The region contains more than 1,500 endemic vascular plants, meeting the criterion for global biodiversity significance, and mor...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Habitat fragmentation is considered a major threat to biodiversity because it often results in smaller, more isolated populations with a higher risk of extinction. If these populations are connected by the migration of individuals, the assemblage comprises a metapopulation whose persistence is driven by the balance betw...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Habitat loss and fragmentation continue to account for most biodiversity loss worldwide. Understanding how local communities on fragments disassemble can help to understand the community-level mechanisms that drive this loss. Fragmentation can alter local community structure via both stochastic processes (e.g. extincti...
Article
Full-text available
There are few well-documented, general ecological principles that can be applied to pressing environmental issues. When they discuss them at all, ecologists often disagree about the relative importance of different aspects of the science's original and still important issues. It may be that the sum of ecological science is not open to universal sta...
Article
Full-text available
Species extinctions and the deterioration of other biodiversity features worldwide have led to the adoption of systematic conservation planning in many regions of the world. As a consequence, various software tools for conservation planning have been developed over the past twenty years. These tools implement algorithms designed to identify conserv...
Article
The Wet Tropics World Heritage Area (WTWHA) in Far North Queensland is one of the world’s hotspots of rainforest biodiversity and is an area rich in cultural heritage, with surrounding landscapes important nationally for agriculture and tourism. Like many globally important UNESCO sites, the area is currently experiencing unprecedented rates of pop...
Article
Full-text available
The demand for accurate forecasting of the effects of global warming on biodiversity is growing, but current methods for forecasting have limitations. In this article, we compare and discuss the different uses of four forecasting methods: (1) models that consider species individually, (2) niche-theory models that group species by habitat (more spec...
Article
A major challenge for the science of ecology, to make it relevant, is to build a bridge between the local scale of reductionist science and the landscape scale of planning and decision making. This is, of course, the task that landscape ecology has set for itself. Planning for biodiversity conservation is a practice that illustrates the opportuniti...
Article
Full-text available
We summarise the contributions of empiricists, modellers, and practitioners in this issue of Biodiversity and Conservation, and highlight the most important areas for future research on species survival in fragmented landscapes. Under the theme uncertainty in research and management, we highlight five areas for future research. First, we know littl...
Article
Full-text available
We reviewed empirical data and hypotheses derived from demographic, optimal foraging, life-history, community, and biogeographic theory for predicting the sensitivity of species to habitat fragmentation. We found 12 traits or trait groups that have been suggested as predictors of species sensitivity: population size; population fluctuation and stor...
Article
Full-text available
We present a brief introduction to current attempts to understand and mitigate the effects of fragmentation on species survival. We provide a short overview of the contributions of empiricists, modellers, and practitioners in this issue of Biodiversity and Conservation, which were initiated during a workshop held in Australia in February 2002 on th...
Article
Theory and empirical evidence have long suggested that some species are extremely vulnerable to extinction because they have combinations of extinction promoting traits. However, ecologists have not considered whether the form of the relationship between traits is additive (not synergistic) or nonadditive (synergistic). We looked at how traits and...
Article
Full-text available
Biodiversity has acquired such a general meaning that people now find it difficult to pin down a precise sense for planning and policy-making aimed at biodiversity conservation. Because biodiversity is rooted in place, the task of conserving biodiversity should target places for conservation action; and because all places contain biodiversity, but...
Article
Full-text available
Biodiversity priority areas together should represent the biodiversity of the region they are situated in. To achieve this, biodiversity has to be measured, biodiversity goals have to be set and methods for implementing those goals have to be applied. Each of these steps is discussed. Because it is impossible to measure all of biodiversity, biodive...
Article
Full-text available
The data needed to prioritize areas for biodiversity protection are records of biodiversity features - species, species assemblages, environmental classes - for each candidate area. Prioritizing areas means comparing candidate areas, so the data used to make such comparisons should be comparable in quality and quantity. Potential sources of suitabl...
Article
Full-text available
The prioritization of places on the basis of biodiversity content is part of any systematic biodiversity conservation planning process. The place prioritization procedure implemented in the ResNet software package is described. This procedure is primarily based on the principles of rarity and complementarity. Application of the procedure is demonst...
Article
Full-text available
An objective of biodiversity conservation activities is to minimize the exposure of biodiversity features to threatening processes and to ensure, as far as possible, that biodiversity persists in the landscape. We discuss how issues of vulnerability and persistence can and should be addressed at all stages of the conservation planning and implement...
Article
Full-text available
Results are presented which prioritize areas for potential protection in Qubec on the basis of biodiversity considerations. These results are relevant to the ongoing public discussion in Qubec about designating new parks and refuges so that the province may fulfil its obligations to Canada's Endangered Spaces Campaign. The prioritization algorithm...
Article
Full-text available
The effects of the experimental fragmentation of native eucalypt forest on the beetle community were tested, in a controlled, replicated, long-term experiment. In- cluded in our design were three fragment sizes, fragment edge and interior sites, and sites in the surrounding exotic pine plantation matrix. We followed 325 species through 28 sampling...
Article
The effects of the experimental fragmentation of native eucalypt forest on the beetle community were tested, in a controlled, replicated, long-term experiment. Included in our design were three fragment sizes, fragment edge and interior sites, and sites in the surrounding exotic pine plantation matrix. We followed 325 species through 28 sampling pe...
Article
Full-text available
A rapid biodiversity assessment ("BioRap") project identified candidate areas for biodiversity protection in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and provides an ongoing evaluation framework for balancing biodiversity conservation and other land use needs. Achieving a biodiversity protection target with minimum opportunity cost was an important outcome given tha...
Article
Full-text available
Papua New Guinea (PNG) has an incredible variety of land and marine ecosystems, including many components of biodiversity that are unique in the world. PNG's land mass constitutes less than one percent of the world's land area, yet estimates suggest that the country has more than 5% of the world's biodiversity. PNG has been recognized therefore as...
Article
A conservation planning study in Papua New Guinea (PNG) addresses the role of biodiversity surrogates and biodiversity targets, in the context of the trade-offs required for planning given real-world costs and constraints. In a trade-offs framework, surrogates must be judged in terms of their success in predicting general biodiversity complementari...
Article
Full-text available
We describe three challenges for biodiversity planning, which arise from a study in Papua New Guinea, but apply equally to biodiversity planning in general. These are 1) the best use of available data for providing biodiversity surrogate information, 2) the integration of representativeness and persistence goals into the area prioritization process...
Article
In this brief review we outline the contribution of Dr J. F. Lawrence to a major long-term field experiment in the southeast forests of NSW that examines the effect of habitat fragmentation on beetles. Dr J. F. Lawrence identified and curated the beetle fauna, which proved to be a significant and long-term commitment. The beetle data set has since...
Article
The conservation of biological diversity has become one of the important goals of managing forests in an ecologically sustainable way. Ecologists and forest resource managers need measures to judge the success or failure of management regimes designed to sustain biological diversity. The relationships between potential indicator species and total b...
Article
Full-text available
We strongly support initiatives to produce clear, efficient and practical goals for conservation to guide biodiversity planners and decision-makers in governments, agencies, conventions and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). However, as things stand there is only limited consensus on global conservation priorities at international level. We bel...
Article
Full-text available
The realization of conservation goals requires strategies for managing whole landscapes including areas allocated to both production and protection. Reserves alone are not adequate for nature conservation but they are the cornerstone on which regional strategies are built. Reserves have two main roles. They should sample or represent the biodiversi...
Article
Full-text available
Theory suggests that species with particular traits are at greater risk of extinction than others. We assumed that a decline in abundance in forest fragments, com- pared to continuous forest, equated to an increase in extinction risk. We then tested the relationships between five traits of species and decline in abundance for 69 beetle species in a...
Article
Full-text available
1. We tested for effects of habitat fragmentation in a controlled, replicated, field experiment, in south-eastern Australia. Our experimental subjects were eight carabid beetle species, and the carabid assemblage (45 species). Monitoring was by pitfall trapping in forest remnants and in adjacent continuous-forest controls. Remnants were of three si...
Article
This paper responds to recent criticisms in Biological Conservation of heuristic reserve selection algorithms. These criticisms primarily concern the fact that heuristic algorithms cannot guarantee an optimal solution to the problem of representing a group of targeted natural features in a subset of the sites in a region. We discuss optimality in t...