Chris James Kennedy

Chris James Kennedy
Massachusetts General Hospital | MGH · Center for Precision Psychiatry

PhD

About

41
Publications
2,383
Reads
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232
Citations
Introduction
My interests include targeted causal inference, deep & machine learning, and item response theory applied to biomedicine, hate speech, cancer epidemiology, elections, and electronic health records. Current projects include causal variable importance, multi-exposure mixture modeling, integrating item response theory with deep learning for hate speech measurement, Instagram vaping influencers, & prognostic modeling of heart attacks.
Additional affiliations
July 2011 - June 2014
Voter Participation Center
Position
  • Director of Analytics
Description
  • Experimental design and analysis, machine learning, reporting, data cleaning.
Education
August 2014 - September 2020
University of California, Berkeley
Field of study
  • Biostatistics
August 2005 - March 2007
University of Texas at Austin
Field of study
  • Public Affairs
August 2001 - May 2005
University of Texas at Austin
Field of study
  • Government, Economics

Publications

Publications (41)
Preprint
Full-text available
E-cigarette use is increasing dramatically among adolescents as social media marketing portrays “vaping” products as healthier alternatives to conventional cigarettes. In September 2018, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) launched an anti-vaping campaign, in U.S. high schools, on social media and other platforms, emphasizing “The Real Cost” of...
Preprint
Full-text available
We propose a general method for measuring complex variables on a continuous, interval spectrum by combining supervised deep learning with the Constructing Measures approach to faceted Rasch item response theory (IRT). We decompose the target construct, hate speech in our case, into multiple constituent components that are labeled as ordinal survey...
Preprint
Full-text available
We assessed machine learning methods and electronic health record covariate collection for prediction of major adverse cardiac events in emergency department (ED) patients. Our study consisted of 116,764 adults presenting with chest pain in the ED between 2013 and 2015 and evaluated for acute coronary syndrome. We compared lasso, splines, random fo...
Article
Full-text available
Background Post-discharge opioid consumption is a crucial patient-reported outcome informing opioid prescribing guidelines, but its collection is resource-intensive and vulnerable to inaccuracy due to nonresponse bias. Methods We developed a post-discharge text message-to-web survey system for efficient collection of patient-reported pain outcomes...
Article
Background: Since 2017, states, insurers, and pharmacies have placed blanket limits on the duration and quantity of opioid prescriptions. In many states, overlapping duration and daily dose limits yield maximum prescription limits of 150-350 morphine milligram equivalents (MMEs). There is limited knowledge of how these restrictions compare with act...
Article
Background Many U.S. institutions have adopted postsurgical opioid-prescribing guidelines to standardize prescribing practices, and yet there is inherent variability in patients’ opioid consumption after surgery. The utility of these guidelines is limited by the fact that some patients’ needs will inevitably exceed them, and yet there are no eviden...
Article
Background: Admissions are generally classified as COVID-19 hospitalizations if the patient has a positive SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. However, because 35% of SARS-CoV-2 infections are asymptomatic, patients admitted for unrelated indications with an incidentally positive test could be misclassified as a COVID-19 hospitalizati...
Article
Introduction The ability to predict and prevent homelessness has been an elusive goal. The purpose of this study was to develop a prediction model that identified U.S. Army soldiers at high risk of becoming homeless after transitioning to civilian life based on information available before the time of this transition. Methods The prospective cohor...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Admissions are generally classified as COVID-19 hospitalizations if the patient has a positive SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. However, because 35% of SARS-CoV-2 infections are asymptomatic, patients admitted for unrelated indications with an incidentally positive test could be misclassified as a COVID-19 hospitalization...
Article
Full-text available
Suicide risk is elevated among military service members who recently transitioned to civilian life. Identifying high-risk service members before this transition could facilitate provision of targeted preventive interventions. We investigated the feasibility of doing this by attempting to develop a prediction model for self-reported suicide attempts...
Preprint
Admissions are generally classified as COVID-19 hospitalizations if the patient has a positive SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. However, because 35% of SARS-CoV-2 infections are asymptomatic, patients admitted for unrelated indications with an incidentally positive test could be misclassified as a COVID-19 hospitalization. EHR-based...
Article
Background Fewer than half of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) respond to psychotherapy. Pre-emptively informing patients of their likelihood of responding could be useful as part of a patient-centered treatment decision-support plan. Methods This prospective observational study examined a national sample of 807 patients beginning psy...
Article
Importance: Half of the people who die by suicide make a health care visit within 1 month of their death. However, clinicians lack the tools to identify these patients. Objective: To predict suicide attempts within 1 and 6 months of presentation at an emergency department (ED) for psychiatric problems. Design, setting, and participants: This p...
Article
Full-text available
Background Increasing influenza vaccination coverage in school-aged children may substantially reduce community transmission. School-located influenza vaccinations (SLIV) aim to promote vaccinations by increasing accessibility, which may be especially beneficial to race/ethnicity groups that face high barriers to preventative care. Here, we evaluat...
Preprint
Full-text available
Open procedures represent the dominant form of surgery worldwide. Artificial intelligence (AI) has the potential to optimize surgical practice and improve patient outcomes, but efforts have focused primarily on minimally invasive techniques. Our work overcomes existing data limitations for training AI models by curating, from YouTube, the largest d...
Article
Background A recently developed obstetric comorbidity scoring system enables comparisons of severe maternal morbidity rates independent of health status at the time of birth hospitalization. However, the scoring system has not been evaluated in racial-ethnic and socioeconomic groups or used to assess disparities in severe maternal morbidity. Objec...
Data
Supplemental materials (eMethods, eTables, eFigures) for Kennedy et al. (2021). Development of an ensemble machine learning prognostic model to predict 60-day risk of major adverse cardiac events in adults with chest pain.
Article
Importance A substantial proportion of the 40 million people in the US who present to emergency departments (EDs) each year after traumatic events develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or major depressive episode (MDE). Accurately identifying patients at high risk in the ED would facilitate the targeting of preventive interventions. Objecti...
Article
Full-text available
Background We measured the effectiveness of a city-wide school-located influenza vaccination (SLIV) program implemented in over 102 elementary schools in Oakland, California. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study among Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) members of all ages residing in either the intervention or a multivariate...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of city-wide school-located influenza vaccination by race/ethnicity from 2014-2018. Methods: We used multivariate matching to pair schools in the intervention district in Oakland, CA with schools in West Contra Costa County, CA, a comparison district. We estimated difference-in-differences (DIDs) in caregiv...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Post-discharge opioid consumption is an important source of data in guiding appropriate opioid prescribing guidelines, but its collection is tedious and requires significant resources. Furthermore, the reliability of post-discharge opioid consumption surveys is unclear. Our group developed an automated short messaging service (SMS)-to-we...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background We measured the effectiveness of a city-wide school-located influenza vaccination (SLIV) program implemented in over 102 elementary schools in Oakland, California. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study among Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) members of all ages residing in either the intervention or a multivariate...
Article
This issue contains a thoughtful report by Gradus et al. on a machine learning (ML) analysis of administrative variables to predict suicide attempts over two decades throughout Denmark. This is one of numerous recent studies that document strong concentration of risk of suicide-related behaviors (SRBs) among patients with high scores on ML models....
Preprint
Full-text available
The U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA) requires that e-cigarette advertisements include a prominent warning label that reminds consumers that nicotine is addictive. However, the high volume of vaping-related posts on social media makes compliance auditing expensive and time-consuming, suggesting that an automated, scalable method is needed. We s...
Article
Full-text available
Importance: Medically complex patients are a heterogeneous group that contribute to a substantial proportion of health care costs. Coordinated efforts to improve care and reduce costs for this patient population have had limited success to date. Objective: To define distinct patient clinical profiles among the most medically complex patients throu...
Article
Objective: To develop and validate an expanded obstetric comorbidity score for predicting severe maternal morbidity that can be applied consistently across contemporary U.S. patient discharge data sets. Methods: Discharge data from birth hospitalizations in California during 2016-2017 were used to develop the score. The outcomes were severe mate...
Article
Full-text available
Background It is estimated that vaccinating 50%–70% of school-aged children for influenza can produce population-wide indirect effects. We evaluated a city-wide school-located influenza vaccination (SLIV) intervention that aimed to increase influenza vaccination coverage. The intervention was implemented in ≥95 preschools and elementary schools in...
Article
Full-text available
Importance Video or telephone telemedicine can offer patients access to a clinician without arranging for transportation or spending time in a waiting room, but little is known about patient characteristics associated with choosing between telemedicine or office visits. Objective To examine patient characteristics associated with choosing a teleme...
Article
Background A low (0–3) History, Electrocardiogram, Age, Risk factors and Troponin (HEART) score reliably identifies ED chest pain patients who are low risk for near-term major adverse cardiac events (MACE). To optimize sensitivity, many clinicians employ a modified HEART score by repeating troponin measurements and excluding patients with abnormal...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: It is estimated that vaccinating 50-70% of school-aged children for influenza can produce population-wide indirect effects. We evaluated a city-wide, school-located influenza vaccination (SLIV) intervention that aimed to increase influenza vaccination coverage. The intervention was implemented in over 95 pre-schools and elementary schoo...
Article
Background: Although epidemiologic studies suggest that early immune stimulation is protective against childhood leukemia, evidence for this relationship is equivocal for Hispanic children, who are disproportionately affected by this disease. The complex biological processes underlying immune stimulation and leukemogenesis may benefit from novel s...
Preprint
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There are many recommendations of "best practices" for those doing data science, data-intensive research, and research in general. These documents usually present a particular vision of how people should work with data and computing, recommending specific tools, activities, mechanisms, and sensibilities. However, implementation of best (or better)...
Article
Full-text available
Vietnamese Americans have high rates of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection but low rates of knowledge and screening. A population-based survey conducted in 2011 of Vietnamese Americans in two geographic areas (n = 1666) was analyzed. The outcome variables were having heard of HBV and a score summarizing knowledge of HBV transmission. Most respondent...

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